The Thre Bokes of Cronicles
About this text
Johannes Carion (1499-1558) was Professor of Mathematics at Frankfurt. He published works on astronomy and astrology but is best known for the Chronicles which bear his name. The Chronicles were first printed in German in Wittenburg (1532), and was subsequently translated into Latin (first published in 1543) and English in 1550. The English translation by (or promoted by) the Flemish bookseller and scholar Walter Lynne also bears the name of John Funcke of Nuremberg, who is credited with having "gathered" the material. Carion's Chronicles were widely used by Protestant historians and annalists, including John Foxe. A note in A General Dictionary: Historical and Critical of Pierre Bayle (Dictionnaire Historique et Critique 1697; English translation, 1736) points out that the work is not actually by Carion, but was put together and printed at Wittenberg in Carion's name by Philip Melanchthon. The selected passages describe episodes of dearth in Biblical as well as in modern history.
The thre bokes of
Cronicles, whyche John Carion (a man
syngularly well sene in the Mathema
tycall sciences) Gathered wyth great
diligence of the beste Authours
that have written in He
brue, Greke or
Wherunto is added an Appendix, contey-
nyng all such notable thynges as be mentyoned
in Cronicles to have chaunced in sundry par
tes of the worlde from the yeare of
Christ. 1532. To thys present
yeare of. 1550.
Gathered by John Funcke of Nurenborough.
Whyche was never afore prynted in Englysh.
Cum Privilegio ad Imprimendum solum.
PUBLISHED BY S. Mierdman
PUBLISHED FOR Gwalter Lynne
1. Of the destruction of Sodome.
THE foure score and nyntenth yeare of Abrahams age hath GOD for thee abhominable evyll dedes, horrible and uncomly lecheryes, destroied fyve cities: Sodome and Gomorre, and the other cities lyeng therby, burnyng them with fyre from heaven. The place where the cityes were is become a great marasse, whose length and bredth conteyneth the space of certain miles: even yet at this time as though it were ful of pitche doth burne with continual smoke and vapor for a token of Gods indignacion & vengeaunce for so greate synnes. This happened the thre hundreth and fourscore & eleventh yere after the floude, after that Noe was deade the fourtieth and one. Of thys wyse hath God other whyles wytnessed to the worlde, that he wyll bee avenged and judge synners.
2. Of Isaac.
Isaac a fygure of st.AFter this was a sonne borne to Abraham, of his wyfe Sa [...]a, called Isaac, of whose sede is Christ. For he dyd beare hys fygure, whan God commaunded that he should be offered of hys father: wherby is signifyed, that Christ should bee a sacrifice, with the whiche should synne and death be disamilled. And by this example it is signifyed agayne, that God wyl forgeve synnes, rayse the dead, and geve everlastyng lyfe to the belevyng.
Jacob Esau. The Edom was called IsraelIsaac had two sonnes Jacob and Esau. Of Esauhave the Edomites in Arabia their begynnyng: for Esau was called Edom, that is, reddish, because he solde his brother y [...]ryght of y [...]fyrst borne, the which God hath blessed, for a messe of potage y [...] was somwhat reed, despysynge the blessyng of God and his benefyte for love of hys belly. But Jacob was surnamed Israel, that is, prince of God, of whom the people Israel have their of sprynge. But for al theese thynges must the Bible be loked.
3. Of Joseph Jacobs sonne.
BEcause Joseph is rehersed among the chiefe and moost wysest governours, we do worthely here make mencion of hym. For he taught the Egyptians both the religion and civyll maners: and above all is it worthy to bee marked, that the man whiche was endued with holynesseJoseph a man sage and holy. & the holy ghost, had set up a very hard and rigorous maner of rulyng, and that where the whole kyngdome of[Page xi] Egypte was large and wyde, he joyned them together as members of one body: so that we may learne thereby, that rygour is most nedeful to entertayn the people in there office or duety, & alowed of God. For the common people is commonly destroied by lybertie. But for because he came into Egypte by the conspiration of his brethren, that he was solde of them, and also what chaunce he had in Egypte, of all this is there fully wrytten in the Bible. For by thys wonderfull occasion God wylled hym to come into Egypt, that in the same kyngdom also myght be taught the true worshyp of God and that the promyse of Christes commyng myght bee made manifest. For God would ever have his word preached even in the greatest kyngdomes: also that by this occasion God might fede Jacob and his posterite in the tyme of derth.
4. Of Moses, and of the punyshment of the tyraunt Pharao.
The cause of affliction.ALthough God had promysed to the posterite of Abraham the possession of the lande of Canaan, yet hath he differred the promyse a long season, that through the word they myght have in the meane while wherewith to exercyse their faith: ye he suffred them before to be sore punished in Egypte. For as saith the booke of Genesis, Jacob and his chyldren fled into Egypte in the tyme of derth, where they dwelled a longe season, the which we shal note hereafter. But when Pharao overcharged the people without measure and remission, and used tyranny, insom uche that he comaunded also to sley in contynently all the mankynde An example of grace and goodnes. An example of vengeaunce When y [...] law was geven. The time frm the promyse made to Abraham, untill y goyng out of Egipt.[Page]that were borne: God sent Moses, to leade the people of Israel out of Egypte, the whiche after many wonders, brought the people to the redd see. Pharao folowed them wyth great force, trustynge to optayne hys mynde that he myght s [...]aye them: for ther was no place to escape, seynge of the one syde they were closed in wyth hylles, of the other syde wyth the see, and Pharao the tyraunte laye upon them behynde. But here declared God, that whan extreme necessite lieth upon them that be hys, he is nere by them, and heareth them. For the water went back, and gave the people waye a great space, that they myght passe wythout any daunger: but the tyraunt folowed into the sea unhappely, which was drowned wyth the water that returned into hys fyrst course, and wyth hym the choyse of the people of Egipt. Here then hath God sett forth again a new example to the worlde, that he wil judge and be revenged of wycked tyrauntes, and all that despyse godlynesse.
[...]a Gotthian lykewyse, by whose valiauntnesse Attila.Attila was slayne, but he dyed in the same felde. He was so great a man, that besyde him, noman coulde lyghtely have enterprysed oughte against Attila. The same Dietrichus was not surnamed of Berna, but he was his cosyn. He was fyve and forty yeare before the tyme of Dietrichus of Berna [...]
- Dietrichus of Berna
Himelsuita. Adelrichus.H Imelsuitha the doughter of Dietrichus of Berna had a sonne called Adelrichus: the same raygned eight yeres at Rome in Italy after the death of Dietrichus of Berna, and the mother ruled with great praise. Whan her sonne was deade, she delyvered the governaunce to her nephew Theodatus: but the same not remembrynge the benefyte that he had optayned, caused by a trayne her to be slayn, in the tyme of Justinian the Emperoure.An example of distoyalty. Dietrichus of Berna had mo doughters besydes this: he had also geven hys systers doughter in mariage to the kynge of Thuringen: whyche thynge I would not passeover here, without the syngular prayse and commendacyon of the princes of Thuringen.
Theodatus.THeodatus raigned ii. yeres, & was worthely punished. For whan the moost honeste quene[Page cxiii] Himelsuith a had commended herselfe and her sonne to. Justinian the Emperoure, Justinian toke an occasion to revenge the murther, and sent Bellisarius into Italy against the Gotthies. Now was Theodatus suspected, because he withstode not Bellisarius, as though he would betray the Gotthies: the whiche Gotthies made Wittichus kyng, by whose commaundement was Theodatus slayne.
An example of vengeaunce Witichus.Witichus reigned thre yeares. Against hym warred Bellisarius with greate policy: For Wittichus had an appoynted army of more then two hundreth thousand men. Bellisarius kept hymselfe within the walles of Rome, whome Wittichus besyeged a whole yeare, and there was a great derth, not onely at Rome, but also in al Italy. But as the Gotthies fled and strayed here and there without order, by reason of the great derth. Bellisarius folowed upon them and overthrue them and enclosyng in Wittichus by an intrap, toke him. But in y [...] meane season could not the Gotthies be utterly weded out, but Justinianus making peace wt them, graunted them to dwell in the contreis from the Alpes, untyll the ryver Padus, nether shoulde passe these bondes. He called Bellisarius back agayne: for he feared, lest he being made Emperour, he should take to hym the empyre of Italy: though Bellisarius trustyd in his affayres, went not about suche thynges. Wherfore beyng returned to Constantinople, he brought Wittichus and other of the greatest nobilitie prysoners with hym in a greate triumphe.
. After twelve yeares was Otho called into Italy agayne, to defende or clayme the Italians wyth the clergye and byshop of Rome, from the tyranny of Berengarius, which thynge he also dyd valyauntly.Berengarius wyth hys sonne are a for their disloyaltye. For whan he came agayne into Italy, he toke Berengarius and hys sonne Alberte, and bannished them for theyr disloyaltye: the father wyth hys wyfe to Bamberge in Germany, wher they spent theyr lives also as outlawes: but the sonne sent he to Constantinople.
Otho first made the othe to the bishop of Rome.Otho entrynge into Rome in thys settynge forth,was crow [...]ed of Joannes the .xii. This Otho was the fyrste Emperour that made an othe to ye bishop of Rome, wherof the maner and tenor is in ye canon lawes, begynnynge: Tibidomino Joanni .iii. & ce. After that is Otho come the second tyme to Rome to rebuke Joannes bish. of Rome, because he was accused of many fautes. Wherfore the bishop knowynge himselfe gyltye, fled for feare of otho. And therfore was Leo the .viij. made bishop in his stead But before that Otho went from Rome, joannes commynge to Rome, thrust Leo out agayne: Leo fled to the Emperoure. But the moost wyse Emperoure used greate policy, lest he shoulde geve an occasion of debate: He suffred Joannes to use the bishopryck, so longe as he lyved. Quedelnburg. Who fande fyrst the sylver Mines in [...]But so sone as he was deade, to take Leo as lawfully chosen bishop: but the Romanes wolde not alowe it, whych refusyage Leo, chose another called Benedictus in spete of the Emperoure. Otho than returnynge, invaded the possessyons of the Romyshe byshops,[Page cxliii] and dyd much hurte. He besyeged also the citye of Rome, untyl the cithesins constrayned by famine & necessity, opened the gates frely to Otho. He than puttynge to death manye Romanes, and banny shinge the Consuls, restored Leo: & whan he had apeased al thynges, returned into Germany, leadynge wyth hym Benedictus, who was kept at Hamborowe.
Otho goynge the thyrde tyme to Rome, drove the Saracens and Grekes out of the farther coastes of Italy. Than chosynge Otho hys sonne to be partener in the Empyre, bringyng hym wyth hym, commaunded to crowne hym, and caused the Emperour of Constantinoples doughter to be given hym in mariage. By all these thynges maye it easely be gathered, that this otho was one also of these princes, which God hath now and than geven to repayre the decayed state of the worlde. For he set up agayne the decayed empyre of Rome, and set all Europa in quiet: by hys succour hath he defended whole Italy and Germany. He subdued the Hungarians and Frenchmen. To be shorte, he hath restored the majestye of the empyre to hys former bryghtnesse, and set it in order: afterward dyed he at Quedelnburg in great quyetnesse. It is written also, that he found fyrst the sylver mines in Misen. He gave also muche good to the churche, to maynteine religion, and to promote the doctryne of godlynesse, to which intent he made also not a fewe byshops, as at Magdeburg, Misen, Brandenburg, Mersburg, and Ceitz.
Martinus the .iij. was the .cxxxij. byshop after Stephanus.
Thys yeare Henrye the eighte, kynge of Englande. &c. for certayne consyderacyons hym thereunto movynge was dyvorced from hys wyfe whiche had bene fyrste maryed to hys brother prynce Arthur, and maryed another, on wyt sonday.
1534. The Anabaptystes t [...]ke the Cytye of Mynster in Westphale.In the yeare of our Lorde .M. CCCCC. xxxiii. in the moneth of January, The Anabaptistes, whyche had gathered them selves together out of Hollande and Freselande, by prevy subteltyes and conspyracyes whych they had made with certayne burgeouses of the Cytye of Mynster in Westphale, invaded the same Cytye. toke possessyon of it, and expelled from thence al the Burgeoules and inhabytauntes therof, that woulde not take parte wyth them and folowe theyr facultye.The Anabaptystes make them a kyng. They chose them also a kynge, that was a Taylloure, named Jhon of Leyden, whyche ordeyned for hym selfe two specyall Counsayllours,Knypperdullynge &c. kregh tynge. the one called Knypperdullynge, and the other kreghtynge and in conclusyon they made suche a dysorder and confusyon whytin the sayde Cytye, that not wythoute a cause all the people of Westephale dyd ryse agaynste them.
Philip Landgrave of Hessen.But when the ryghte noble Prynce Philyppe Landgrave of Hessen toke in hande to accorde the matter betwene the sayde Anabaptystes and the Byshoppe, whome they had expelled, he coulde nothynge prevayle, so sore hadde the Devyll blynded that Anabaptystycall generatyon. Wherefore the sayde Byshoppe compassed [Page ccii]the sayde Cytye wyth a greate power on everye syede to thyntent he myghte overcome and subdue them ether wyth the sworde or elles by famyne.
The Citie of Minster besieged by y [...]bi hop. Scarcitye of victualles [...]And althoughe there was greate scarcyte and lacke of vyctualles wythyn the saide Cyrye in so muche that at the laste they were sayne to eate lether and coverynges of bookes yet dyd they sustayne, bearcoute, prolonge and holde oute the sayde syege untyll the next yeare folowynge, wherof we shall speake more in place convement [...]
Philip landgrave of Hessen goeth about about to [...]In the meane season dyd Philip Landgrave of Hessen prepare hymselfe after the best maner, to restore hys Uncle Duke Hulderyke of Wyrtenbergh agayne to hys Dukedome, from whence he was expelled fyftene yeares before durynge the whyche tyme kynge Ferdynando had the governaunce and use therof.
In the lowest partes of Ducheland dyd the Secte of the Anabaptistes myghtelye increase, Wherefore the townes by the sea syde feared a great destruction on there behalfe. Among the whych Secte some were so develysh and shameles, that they dyd not onelye wythoute anye conscyence and shame take manye wyves, but also went altogether naked even as they were borne in thys worlde. Suche is the ordre where the Devell is Capytayne, that neyther nurtour, honestye nor yet the feare of God is regarded.
The Anabaptistes within e [...]lled. But they that were wythin the Towne of Mynster, and had ben nowe more then a yeare therein besyeged, were not very well at ease, allthough by the reason of theyr foolyshe Phantasyes and hardened hartes they coulde not nor yet woulde not perceyve it, untyll they were utterlye destroyed.
For notwythstandyng that the sayed syege pressed them, and an horrible and importunate famine (as was mencioned before in the last yeare) reygned among them, Yet were they by the comfortable persuasyons of theyr false Prophetes so hardened, that they mynded nothynge lesse then to yelde by the Towne and save theyr lyves, notwythstandynge that thereunto they were often tymes requyred wyth lyberall and gracyous promyses.
But contrary wyse they defended themselves the longer the fearcer, and shot out of the Towne with[Page ccviii]ordinaunce as though the devell had bene among them, to the great avoyaunce of their adversaries, in so muche that not a fewe valiaunt warriours in the Campe were slayne with their ordinaunce. And to declare the madnes of the said AnabaptistesThe madnes of the Anabaptistes. I have thought it mete not to omitte a folysh acte done by a certayne woman among them. Forasmuche therfore as they within the towne had this opinion of the saied towne of Mynster, that it was that new JerusalemThe Anabaptistes beleved that Minster [...] mencioned in the Apocalipse, thorough the whiche all the heathen should be destroied, so that the christians should reigne in peace a thousand yeres (whiche sayeng although they must be understande spiritually were they expounded by them carnally) the said folysh woman would counterfette the acte of JudithA woman would conterfet Judith. which slewe holofernes, and delivered her Citie. Wherefore she made her boaste that if she myght be costely arayed and decked, she woulde go furth (if she were permitted) into the hooste of her adversaries, and easely overcome the byshop. Whyle nowe the kyng & the other in the town were so foolysh and made not only to beleve her, but also to further her in the said affayres, trustyng that their deliveraunce was at hand, she went out, and behaved her selfe in all pointes as though she had bene escaped and fled out of the citie. But her dissimulacion beyng espied & perceyved, she was taken and brought before the Byshop, and after her confession, rewarded wit death, accordyng to her deservyng.
For asmuche nowe as the saied craft and practise bad no good successe the Anabaptistes within the citie[Page]ought to have consydered that there was no fortune in their doyng, seyng they were yet oppressed to the uttermost. But they dyd herein resemble the Jewes in their last destruction at Jerusalem, for the more God plaged them with famine and dissention among them selves, the more hard harted and stifnecked they were, untill at the last one escaped prively out of the saied citie, and brought in certaine of the byshops souldiours at the gate called the holy crosse gate, which souldiours after they had slain the watchemen opened the gate and so made away into the citie for the other. Thus was the citie of Mynster taken in again and delivered from the powere of the Anabaptistes at the feast of S. John the baptiste in the night. And the next day folowing whatsoever would make any resistaunce being slayn with the sworde, the kyng with his chief counsayllours craftyng and knipperdulling were taken prisoners.The kynge ing and knipperdulling taken. The kyng of the baptistes These three were aftewarders for the space of certayne monethes caryed about in the countrey from place to place for a spectacle and example to all men. And at the last on S. Vincentes day in the yere of our lorde .MDxxxvi. they were put to death with fyry tonges, and their dead bodies hanged up in yron baskettes or grates, out of the steple of S. Lamberts Churche, within the saied citie of Mynster, the kyng in the middes somewhat hyer then his said two counsailers, for a perpetual memoriall and warning to all commocioner raysers of tumulte & rebelles against ye lauful magistrates ordeined of God. Thus toke this kyngdom of the Anaba pristes a shameful ende, according to their desertes.
In Denmarke raged the duke of Oldenborough with the[Page ccix]capitaines of Lubeke (as he had begonne the yere before) but the moste part of the germayne counsayll chose Christiane Duke of HolstonChristian duke of Holston chosen to be kyng in Denmarke. to be kyng in Denmarke desyring hym to assiste them against the saied duke of Oldenborough and them of Lubeke. While nowe the said request was easy to be graunted, and the said duke of Holston had taken Judland in possession all ready (whiche is no small porcion of the kyngdome of Denmarke, abutting upon the lande of Holstone) he passed with his army into the Ile of Funa, otherwyse called Fion, and overcame the citie of Asnites. But when the duke of Oldenborough with them of Lubeke assaulted him with an hoost of men well appointed both on horsebacke and on foote, the said Christian obtayned the victory, so that the duke of Oldenborough lost much people where among other was slayneThe count of Hoya, and the Erle of Teckelborough slayne. John count of Hoya, and an Erle of Teckelburgh in Westphale, and even the same daye (whiche was the .xi. daye of June) they of Holstone toke from them of Lubeke an Armada of shippes, and put the men of Lubeke whiche they founde in the same, in captivitie. In so muche that the said Christiane had the overhande on every syde, whiche was unto him a witnes from God that he should be kyng in Denmarke.
Lovedayes kept in Hungary.In Hungary and Austrich were divers loveda yes kept betwene Ferdinando and John Weyda kinges of Hungary, and the Turkes imbassadour, to wete if Hungary might be brought to apeaceable estate never theles there was nothing concluded that was notable and profitable.
Whyle these thinges passed betwene them perour, the Pope, Fraunce, Venice, and Barbarossa (as is before mencyoned) they of Nurremborough The Castell [...]lord. began theyr strong holde or Castell wyche lyeth in the upper parte of the Toune upon a mighty rocke, and is a lodging for themperour and the king of the Romaynes defenced with a strong Bul warke, and amyghty wyde dyche: which buylding as concerning the walles was finished in the yeare of our Lord .M. D. xlv. nexte folowynge.Th Marquea of Brandenburg. When George Marquys of Brandenburghe perceyned theyr sayde enterpryse and intent, he thought that they dyd hym great injury, for he asscribed unto hymselfe certayne ground and laude wythout the towne of Nurremborough (which is never theles pertayning to the Empyre) and claymed it as hys owne heritage, wherfore he marched somtime by day as farre as the Landmark, and by night unto the towne, even hard by the forsayd buylding. But when they of the towne feared some great malice and mischief, they fenced theyr building with much ordenaunce and artillery, & kept great watch upon the walles and in theyr turrettes.
When thys hyndered the people of the Marquys of theyr purpose, some of them went & toke certayne inhabytauntes of Nurremborough as they went a fowlynge or byrdyng in the woode and stopped certayne of theyr wagens or cartes commyng[Page ccxxv]from Lipswyke and other places, laden with goodes and marchaundyses, and broughte them to the Castell of Bayerthorp: Wherfore they of Nurremburgh, being occasyoned and moved to displeasure and indignatyon by the reason of the sayde cruelves, assembled a certaine nombre of foul dyours, and layde them in the countree rounde about the town, and furnished the smal townes and vyllages about them after the best maver, purposyng, in case the sayd Marquys or hys men would persiste in theyrfrowardenes (as they had begon) to be in a readynes to defend themselves from such injuris, But yet thorough intreataunce of certaine Potentates and Princes of the Empyre the matter was qualified, & put in arbitrement, so ye in conclusion the sayde Marquys suffered them of Nurrenburgh, wythout contradiction and molestation accordynge to the tenoure of theyr lybertyes and privyledges (to buylde on the grounde of the Empyree.
The death of y [...]e duke of Gelders.This yeare dyed Charles Duke of Geldres & in his place succeded William Duke of Cleve, although he did not long enjoye it, as shalbe declared in place convenient.
Avarice punyshed.Thys yeare dyd Godde so punyshe the avaryce of marchauntes whyche occupye by the scasyede, whyle they do so enhaunce the goode creatures of God in pryces that the poore are not able to bye them, that thoroughe oute all the coastes of Denmarcke, in harveste (whyche is the best time of the yeare, no hering could be taken. In the kingdom of Naples ye .xxviii. day of Septemb.
The Sea decreassed and fell away about the space of eight Italyan myles, so that al the grounde was drye, which afterwarde dyd cast certayn holes, out of the which for the space of many dayes continually ascended fyre wyth ashes, which dyd great hurt in many places there about at the falling do wne therof. For the sayde ashes fell downe lyke snowe rounde about Naples for the space of thenne Itali an myles, untyll they lay on the grounde the thickenes of thre fingers. Which is a fearful argument of Goddes wrath towardes us, wherby we ought al to be warned, and specyally Italy, to forsake our sinfull livynge, yf any warning would helpe. But it is not regarded, untill Gods wrath lighteth upon us by heapes, and then men would fayne repente, but it is to late: Wherfore let us repente in time, and lyve according to our professyon.
In Inglande, thys yeare in December was the Lorde Marques of exceter, the Lorde Montacute, and Syr Edwarde Nevell beheaded for high treason duely proved.
A peace betwene Englande and Fraunce.IN the sayd yere of our lorde .MD. xlvi. apeace was concluded betwene England and Fraunce, whiche on Whitsondaye was proclaimed. For conclusion whereof the Viscount Lisse high Admiral of England with the Byshop of Duresine and a goodly company of Gentylmen went out of Englande into Fraunce, after whose retourne Monsure Denball high Admirall of Fraunce, the Byshop of Eureux and two Erles came into Englande with the Sacre of Depe, and .xij. galleyes, and were honorably received.
The saide yere also in lent before, was the Stewes at London put downe and abolysshed by the kynges commaundement.
The stewes put downe in London. &uindx; Anne Askewe John Lassels burned.The .ix. daye of July was burned at London in smithfielde. Anne Askew a gentill woman, John lassels, of the kynges prevy chambre, John Adlam tayler of Suffolke, and Nicolas Belenyam priest, for opinions consonaunt to the trueth, and contrary to the acte of the syx Articles: Shaxton recanted.At whiche tyme al so Doctour Nicolas Schaxton somtime Byshop of Salisbury recanted and denied the trueth whiche before he had professed. Whiche thing also one Doctour Crome (whiche had bene a great and famous preacher) had done at Paules Crosse the xxvij. daye of June before, affirming openly that he had bene seduced by noughty bookes. &c.
Thomas duke of In England, also in November was the duke of Northfolke and his sonne the Erle of Surrey, attaincted of treason, for the which his sonne was put to execution in January after, and hym selfe committed to the Towre, where he doeth yet remayne.
IN the yere of our lord God .MD. xlvij. there were in Germany dyvers and wonderfull innovacions of thinges chaunces of warres chaunges of fortune, yeldynges of Princes, overthrowinges and subversions of townes and castelles, fallinges of great men, & convocations of Synodes, and counsayles, which I do here omitte partely to avoyde prolixite, and partely for that the certaintie of suche thinges taken by heare say onely is oftentimes deceivable. Trusting to have occcasion and oportunitie hereafter to declare and set furth the same matter at large.
The inhabitauntes of the countie of Tiroll and IsebredgeA plague of locustes and grashoppers were this yere sore plaghed with wonderfull locustes and grashoppers both creping and flyeng, whiche were there in suche aboundaunce that the creping sorte covered all their lande, & the flyeng sorte covered that lyght of the Sune, in so muche that thinhabiters of the lande were commaunded to go furth and to take & gather them that crept on the grounde which they did continually during the space of thre wekes, gatheringe every daye about. 2400. quarters, in a quarter of a myle, for in every quarter of a myle were appointed thre hundreth persons, men and women, and every hundreth persons gathered every day 800 quarters. during the space of. 3. wekes. And they came into Isebredge over the brydge with such a power as though they had ben an hoste of warriours that woulde have entred into the towne In so much that the Magestrates commanded the inhabitauntes of the same towne to make resistaunce agaynst them before the gate with besomes and bromes and to swype them into the water as they came whiche they ded in suche sorte as they covered all the water with grasherppers that no water coulde be sene: Thus did they resiste them & kept them also from the brydge by the space of .iii. wekes after this the said locustes or grashoppers turned into. the fieldes and there destroyed and wasted the corne and the grasse, undoynge in a maner all the people of the lande: so that after thys the peopel resysted them no moore, butt onelye trusted to the mercy of god with instaunt & fervent prayer.
The sayde Locustes or grashoppers were littell at the begynnyng and krepyng, but afterwarde they grewe and began to flye, doyng great hurte throughout the sayde lande.
A godly commaundement In the meane season the Emperoures majestie, and the kyng of the Romaynes set furth a commaundement that noman shuld be founde in dronkenes, horedome, aduoutery, usury, and blasphemy but he should be punyshed by death, and forfayte all hys goodes.
A prodigious grape. In a littell towne called Albers lyeng besydes Lyndawe in the Dukedome of Zweyburgh was this yere founde two clusters of grapes growynge upon one braunce havyng a long read bearde, whiche was a wonderfull syght.
A wonderful miracle. The same yere in flaunders and the countrees there about was a great scacitie of corne, so that there was a great dearth in the lande. And there dwelled besydes Beke above Gand a certayne farmer well provided and stored with corne, unto whome his neyghbours came lamentyng and intreatyng hym to sel them some of his corne, who refused so to do, nevertheles he sent none away comfortles that had nede: for he lent and delyvered unto every man accordyng to their necessite on this condicion that they should rendre and repaye hym agayne at the next harvest, on this condicion did he lende corne to dyvers nedy persons. After whiche tyme it chaunced that his corned fyelde beyng sowed was by Gods grace so multiplied and increassed that on every stalke grewe an exceding nombre of eares laden with corne, so that thorough the blessyng of God[Page]he was well rewarded. By this may we see that the sayeng of Salomon is an undoubted verite, namely, he that taketh pitie on the pore lendeth unto the Lorde upon usury, and loke whatsoever he layeth out it shalbe payd hym agayne.
A wonderful vision. There was also this yere a wonderfull vision sene and heard of many within the towne of Wittenbourgh, in the Lande of Saron the .xviii. daye of September early in the mornyng betwene foure & fyve of y [...] clocke. For there appeareth in the ayre a figure and lykenes of a dead corse or beere covered over with blacke cloth, and a read ribband aver the same, and there went before the coarse six men with trompettes, and a greate multitude of people folowed with croked instrumentes and trompettes blowyng, whyche made a greate noyse in the ayre, insomuche that many in the towne whiche laye yet in their beddes were thereby awaked out of theyr slepe, thynkyng that the sayde trimblyng had bene in the towne. After this the black cloth vanyshed awaye from the boere, whiche then was covered over with awhyte cloth, then appeared besydes the beare a man armed in harnas shewyng hym selfe very angry, and pullyng the whyte clothe from the beere, he rent it in twaine, wynding the one half about hys arme and so pressyng it harde to hys body: Wyth this the coarse vanyshed away. The man armed dyd also apeare a lyttell whyle after & so in lyke maner banished away. After this were althynges quiet as before. God graunte every Christen man to remembre thys wonderfull sygne with feare, for it is to be feared that it is a fearefull warnyng[Page cclxxii] sent us of God.
The Erle of Surrey beheaded. In Englande the nyntene day of January was the Erle of Surrey beheaded, as was mencioned the yere before.
The death of kyng Henry the eight of England &c. Edward the syxt byng.. A recantacion of Doctor Smith.The seven and twenty daye of the same moneth Henry the eyght kyng of Englande &c. ended hys lyfe, and was buried at Windsore.
Edwarde the syxt kyng of Englande &c. succeded his father in the governaunce of his royalmes and dominions, and was crowned the nintene day of February, in the nyneth yere of hys age.
Under the sayde kyng in the tyme of his minorite his uncle Edwarde Duke of Somerset was made lorde Protectour of all hys Royaulmes dominions and subjectes, and Governour of his majesties persone, who with the residue of his majesties Counsayll governed the realme with great mercy and gentilnesse, by whome to the surtheraunce of goddes worde and true religion, commissioners were sent into al partes of the Realme, with commaundement to cause all Images and beades put downe & abolysshed in England.Images to be taken out of churches, for avoydyng of Idolatry, and to wyll men & women to leave the use of beades, havyng with them also godly and learned preachers assigned, whiche do exorted them to geve them self to true and unfained worshippyng of God in the hart and minde, with due obedience to their prince.
IN the yere of our Lorde. 1548. in the moneth of July themperour sent an army of Spanyardes prively to invade the citie of Conitaunce while the legates of Constaunce that were sent to August unto themperour to intreate for peace were not yet retourned homewarde. For he intended quite to extinguish the citie because they professed y [...]Gospell. Wherfore the sixt day of August early in y [...]mornyng the said army invaded y [...] citie, & overcame the basse towne which joyneth to y [...]great bredge commonly called Peter housen. When this was obtayned, and overcome at their first assaulte, some fell to spoiling and roving, some to deflouring of virgin [...]s and honest matrones, & some gat then to the bridge, and there made a bartaill with the citesens, whiche were constrained to re [...]ule back into the citie being [Page cclxxiiii]overpressed with the multitude of their enemies unto whom they barred y [...]gates of the bredge. The bridge was ful of Spanish warriours, against whom the citesens could nothing prevayle until many peces of artillery whiche kept the bridge being losed by chaunce, but yet not without the will of God per sed the gate & overthrewe the enemies, & put then in such feare yt they fled everychone, setting the bridge on fyre & also Peterhousen, least the citesens should have folowed & pursued after them. So that Constaunce sawe in one daye y [...]juste punishment of pride, & the singular benefite of God towardes his electe, would to God they had not unthankefully forgotten this great benefite.
The Emperour retourneth out of Germany into [...] Themperour after that he had in Germany set all thinges in ordre, & propounded a certain fourme in religion after the prescripte whereof they should live while a counsaille were decreed, & having committed the Landgrave of Hessen in safe custody, re retourned into Flaunders bringing with hym the Duke of Saxon captive.
Thither came Leonora Themperours sister & late Quene to the Frenche king departed.
This yere Maximiliane the first sonne of Ferdinandus king of the Romaines toke to wife themperours daughter. This yere also y [...]king of Spayne leaving his brother Maximiliane as governour in his absence, departed out of Spayn into Italy, & went from thence to Trident & into Germany, & so at y [...]last came into Flaunders to his father the emperour
The eldest sonne of the Turke keth insurr tion ag ynst his father.The same yere towardes the spring time the first begotten sonne of y [...] Turke, which was gone over to y [...]king of y [...]Persians, because he thought his brother should[Page] be by his father promoted before hym to the Empyre, assembled an army of Persianes, and made insurrection against his father, and invaded the borders of Turkie nere unto the lande of Persia, and had overcome many places, untyll his father beyng armed with fyve hundred thousande souldiours came thither and caused the Persianes, being striken with feare, to recule. But they havyng set on fyre all the townes and villages by the whiche they fled the space of fyve dayes, brought their enemy whiche folowed and pursued after them, too greate pennury, in so muche that an hundred thousande of his men being dead thorough povertie famine and pestilence, he was constrained of necessitie to returne thither agayne from whence he came.
A certayne king in Aphrica toke Argieres and the other places there about, with certayne castels and strong holdes whiche themperoure used for the defence of Spayne: and also certaine strong holdes in the coastes of Portingall towardes the sea occeane.
In Englande at Easter was there a great coniunction of rustikes in Cornuall, by p [...]pysh priestes.
There was also great disputation in the Parliament that yere for putting downe of the masse. And Images were put downe in al churches thorough out Englande to avoyde Idolatry.
This yere the last daye of July Stephen Gardiner byshop of Winchester byshop of Winchester in Englande, was committed to the Towre of London for papisme, and this sedicious opinion, that the kynges majestie in his minoritie or none age coulde not make or ordeine any[Page cclxxv]lawes in his Realme, as did Josias & other godly & vertues princes, and governours in their dominions.
This yere the mariage of priestes was graunted lawfull in England by the Lawes of God, to the utter abolyshement of all Papisticall sodomitry.
This yere in august was a great insurrection of rustikes at Norwiche, one kite (a rustike) beyng their Capitayne and the .xxvij. daye of August it was ended, foure thousand beyng slayne, the victory geven (through goddes grace) by the handes of John the noble Erle of Warwyke.
At the same tyme the Cornysh and Devonshyre men were overcome, and very many of them slayn, besydes many of their gentilmen taken.
This yere also Bonner byshop of London was put from his byshoprike for his stubborne Popyshnes the first day of October, and for certainte obstinate articles committed to the Marshalsee, the people muche rejoysyng at it.
In this moneth the Duke of Somerset was committed to the toure, to the great lamentacion of very many.
In this moneth also died the Pope of Rome called Paule the thyrde.
This yere the weke before Whitsontide, thre honest marchauntes and a younge lad, beinge honest mens sonnes of Brunswyke yourneyed from And warpe to Brunswyke, there to heare at that feast goddes word preached. And as they rode on Whitson even after midnight halfway betwene Celle & Brunswyke on a heath over gainst a certayn farme, they [...]