Voyages to the East Indies, Volume II
VOYAGES TO THE EAST INDIES CHRISTOPHER FRYKE AND CHRISTOPHER SCHWEITZER
With Introduction and Notes by C. Ernest Fayle With 8 Half-Tone Plates CASSELL AND COMPANY LTD. LONDON, TORONTO, MELBOURNE & SYDNEY
1. A Relation of a Voyage made to the East-Indies by Christopher Fryke, one of the Surgeons to the E. India Company, from the year 1680. to the year 1686. CHAPTER I
[...]EVer since I came to years, that I could tell my own inclinations, I found the chiefest of my desires was to travel and to see strange Countries. And whilst, by reason of my youth, and my more absolute dependance and subjection to my Parents, I could not think of moving in person; yet, in my thoughts, I was often transported from one Country to another: [...][Page 2] In order therefore to put my resolution into practise, I set out from home in the year 1677. on the 28th of February, and took my shortest way to Vienna, the chief City of the Empire; from whence I went and took a view of most part of Hungary; after that I went into Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Saxony, and other Countries adjacent; thence I went into Swisserland, where I spent about six months at Zurich [...] [Page 3] the only thing I proposed to my self was, to find an occasion to go to the East-Indies; and begg'd his assistance and advice the better to go about my design and to compass it. The honest Man did not seem a little surprized at my design, and endeavoured by all means he could to dissuade me from it, by setting before me all the dangers I was to run,viz. of hardships, excesses of heat, hunger and thirst, and oftentimes of losing life it self. But the more lively he presented all these and other kind of dangers to me, the more eager it made me to go thro' 'em, and the more it established me in my resolutions, as if the dangers had been the only charm that drew me. Which my honest Landlord observing, he found it was in vain to attempt to turn me from my design; and upon that turn'd all his persuasions into a friendly promise, that he would assist me to the utmost of his power; and he accordingly recommended me to some of the Chief Men of the East-India Company, and did me very considerable service [...][Page 5] a review being first made of all the Ships Crew, we were all put on board three long flat Boats (which are for that purpose, and tho' small, yet so close Deckt, that in a rough Sea they will go quite under the waves and retain no water) they carried us from Amsterdam toTexel, where the two Ships, bound for the East-Indies, lay. Texel is a Sea-Port lying on the open Sea, about 16 miles from Amsterdam; we had a very fresh gale of Wind (I call it so now, tho' then I reckon'd it a hard Storm) but it was not fair for us; so that we made something more than four days, before we could reach Texel. Before they go off from Holland, they take a general review of every person that belongs to the Ship, and each Man hath two months pay advanced him: But the full and regular pay begins only after they are passed the Tonnen, which is a place so called, about a League out at Sea; from that time the full pay is to continue whether the Fleet go forward, or is forced back again by contrary Winds, as they frequently are; and sometimes kept there a great while, insomuch that in the Winter they are laid up for several weeks, the Water being frozen all about them, so that they cannot stir; and when that happens, they do sometimes discharge their Ships Crew to lessen the charges which would otherwise be very great. [Page 6] But when the Wind is fair, and the Fleet hath been two or three days under Sail, then there is distributed to each person, little and great, 5 Dutch Cheeses as a Present from the Company: Then must all and every Officer, Soldier and Mariner, make his appearance upon Deck, to be divided into their several Quarters, which are two: The one of them is called the Prince's Quarter, the other Count Maurice's [...] There is likewise one Man or two always to stand on the Main Top-Mast head; but the Soldiers that go to the East-Indies Yet (if they can afford it) they may buy it off with a matter of 25 Ricksdollers, tho' the Voyage should be a year in compleating. When there are a great many sick in the Ship, then those that are in health are again divided, that they may have the duty as equally shared between them as may be: And when a Storm threatens them so as to be forced to hand [Page 7] their Sails, all hands must be at work and help; and so likewise when the Ship is forc'd to clap upon a Wind, so that she must tack every two hours. When any one neglects his turn, or is negligent in his duty, his punishment is to have a 100 or 200 (or sometimes more) blows on the breech with a Rope's end. Every one that doth not come every morning and night to the Prayers that are constantly made twice every day, loseth for that day his portion of Wine and Brandy: There is a Psalm also sung every night, and for that purpose a Psalm book is presented by the Company to every person in the Ship. Smoaking of Tobacco is strictly forbidden at night below Decks, to prevent any mischief that might be caused by it, the Beds being all stuft with very. very good Cotton; but every where else it is allowed: And there is a great square Chest with a Pin in the middle, about which there is 10 or 12 fathom of Match, where any one may light his Pipe. At the third Watch it's the business of one of them to take care to call up the Cook, who, as soon as Prayers are over, goes about the Dinner. Three Meals a day are allowed to all, and immediately after Prayers they ring the Bell, then every one comes for his Quantum of Brandy, which is about a quartern of our measure. Every Saturday each Man receives five pound of Biscuit, about a quartern of Oil, and double that quantity of Vinegar, and half a pound of Butter, which a man must husband as he thinks best; it is to serve for the whole week. Three times a week are Flesh-days, viz.Tuesdays, Saturdays and Sundays, on which days each Man hath three quarters of a pound of Beef or Pork, but most of it is so salt, having lain in the Salt it may be five or six years, that when it is drest it hardly weighs half a pound. As for the Drink: At the setting out the Beer is in common as long as it lasts, which is not very long; when it is out, then every one is reduced to his measure of Water, which is about a large quart to a Man, and very well too; but when they come into the Indies, if they chance to be commanded away to any other parts, they are often forced to be satisfied with half that quantity, and then you may imagine what a value a Man sets upon his Liquor; and a Man may as well steal all ones money, as a drop of Water from any one. [Page 8] If any one wounds another with a Knife, or other Weapon, he is forced to hold up his hand against the Mast; and the Barber takes a Knife, and strikes it thro' his hand a little below the fingers; and sometimes as the fault is greater or less, thro' the middle of his hand, and there he leaves it sticking in the Mast; so that the Offender must pull his hand thro' if he designs to have it to himself again. He that strikes an Officer, or Master of the Ship, is without hopes of pardon to be thrown into the Sea fasten'd by a Rope, with which he is thrown in on one side of the Ship, and drawn up again on the other, and so three times together he is drawn round the Keel of the Ship, in the doing of which, if they should chance not to allow Rope enough to let him sink below the Keel, the Malefactor might have his brains knockt out. This Punishment is call'd Keel-halen, which may be call'd in English Keel-drawing. But the Provost hath this Priviledge more than the other, that if any one strikes him on Shoar, he forfeits his hand, if on Board, then he is certainly Keel-draw'd. Part of the Provost's Office is diligently to observe the behaviour of the Soldiers, &c. and to see that they be exercised every day by some disciplined Soldiers that have been the Voyage already. Punishment also is inflicted by his orders on the Soldiers that are catch'd at Cards or Dice, which are strictly forbid; but Tables and Draughts are allowed, yet must they not play at them for Money. [Page 9] For when the Company take men into their service, they take 3 or 4 times as many Men as they have Employments for, and out of them they employ those only that have good recommendations. Some men indeed by their Industry and good Fortune, or rather I should say, good Providence, have advanced themselves considerably from nothing, or very mean beginnings; but there are abundance who want neither parts, nor industry, who notwithstanding do not move a step towards Preferment all the while they stay there: Which hath made several of them to despair, and betake themselves to very ill courses. The condition of life wherein a Man meets with least disappointments under them, is that of a Soldier; where he hath four Ricksdollers a month and his meat; tho' the latter is very mean and sparingly allowed, both in the Ships and in the Garrisons, insomuch that it is a very hard [Page 10] and uncomfortable employ for any one that hath any thing of Education. The Soldiers receive their Pay as follows; one half of it is paid at two payments in one year; and that not in full, but one part in Cloths, which are reckon'd to him at a sufficient high rate, and the other half is paid him when he is come home again. He receives for his Subsistence (besides his pay) 40 pounds of Rice (instead of Ammunition bread) per month, and ¾ of a Ricksdoller. Besides, all the Countries where the Company hath any footing are very unhealthful, except Cormandel, Batavia, and some few others, and most very ill provided with necessaries, much less with conveniences, for life. The Soldiers that remain on Ship-board, are yet worse used than those that are at Land, and by reason of the Foggs they are often in, are more subject to sickness; and besides, both there and on Shore, there is more severe Justice exercised on Offenders than in Europe, and a small matter brings a Man to open and shameful punishment. All this being well considered, I presume no Man can be very fond of going to the East-Indies on those terms, unless he is reduc'd to Poverty, or driven to it by some other necessitous occasion.
2. CHAPTER II
[...]A Review of all our Ships Crew being made, which was three hundred and fifty persons, on the last of May 1680. We weighed Anchor, and set out with a good Wind, and the other Ship with us. And the next day about Sun-rising we passed between Dover and Calice, which are seven Leagues distant from each other.The same day five Fly-boats from the Maes joyned us, they were bound for Portugal, by which we were to pass. The third and fourth day we still had France on the left of us, and kept England in sight on the right, and sailed successfully, save that one of the Master's Boys going to ease Nature at the Ships Stern (whereas the Bowgh is the usual place) dropt into the Sea; and tho' we hall'd out our long Boat immediately, yet the Ship sailing so very fast, they could not come at him; so the Boat was hoysted in again. The Wind continued good for us till we came within sight of the Island Salvagues, where we lost our Companion the Ship Europa, which had steered another course. In the mean time the common Articles which are to be observed at Sea, were read; to inform every one of his duty upon all accidents and occasions; and also what allowances every Man was to have. We passed by the said Islands, tho' with a contrary Wind, which obliged us to tack three or four times a day, till we at last at three weeks end got in sight of the Canary Islands, [Page 12] and with a side Wind at N. N. E. sailed thro' between the two Islands. There we saw that vast high Hill call'd Pico de Canaria, or the Peak of Teneriff, which is of such an incredible height, that none in the World is to compare to it. 'Tis admirable to see, how far it stretches it self above the Clouds. It was at that time so excessive hot about us in our Ship, that we were forced to have a sail stretched, and that continually kept wetting, to keep us a little cool; and defend us from the Sun's piercing Beams: And yet you might see through the Clouds, the top of that mountain covered with Snow. Here our Master died, being upwards of fourscore Years of Age, and having made three Voyages to the East-Indies: Upon which, a Council being called, one Peter Peters was chosen in his Place. This old Gentleman was the first I saw buried after the Sea-fashion, which is in this manner: They take the dead Body and tye it on a Board, and fasten two Cannon-Balls to their Feet, and so throw them over-board, just as Morning-Prayers are over. In this manner they served the Master. But my Comrade had not all this pother made about him; for without a Salute or a Cannon-Ball he was barely ty'd to a Board, and thrown over; so that he floated a great while. This Solemnity gave occasion to a Dispute among some of our Seamen, concerning the dead Bodies that were thus thrown over-board; some affirming, That when they were loose, floating upon the Water, you might turn them how you would, and they would still turn again, with their Face or Head towards the East: Upon which, one of those who could not give Credit to that Opinion, went down (the Water being pretty still) and with a Pole turned the Corps about, which immediately turn'd again, by what Cause I know not, but it convinced him, That the other's Assertion had somewhat of Truth in it. Such dead Bodies float till some Shark, or such like great Fish, devours them: But I do suppose they spit out the Plank again. These Sharks we as often call Men-Eaters in Dutch, because they are very greedy of Mens Flesh. They have a large Mouth, which they open very wide, and Teeth of great length, and exceeding sharp, which shut into one another; so that whatever they get between them, they bite clear through. They are about 20 or 24 Foot in length; and they keep about the Ships in hopes of Prey; but are much more frequent in the Indies, than in the Way [Page 13] We had now been above eight Weeks at Sea, and had had very favourable Winds; in which time most of our Provisions of Brandy, Cheese and Tobacco, being consumed; and the Heat daily increasing; to which we must add, That many were not used to such sort of Sea-Diet (and that at last we could hardly get neither)viz. Bacon as salt as Brine, Gray-Pease half boyl'd, Grout and stinking Water: Our Ship became a meer Hospital, so many fell sick. The chief Distempers were, the Dropsie, the Bloody-Flux and Scurvey. Upon this the sick were divided from the rest, and had the Larboard side allotted them, which is the side on the left hand. The Starboard was for the others. Thus we continued our Course, till we reached the Island call'd, The Island of St. Paul, which we left about 30 Miles off on the left-hand, and steered our Course for the Cape of Good Hope. After about seven days sail from the said Island of St.Paul with very little Wind, the number of our sick increased daily, and the distempers that now reigned most, were the Scurvy, and the Small-Pox; which carried off almost all the oldest of our Men, but the younger sort quickly recover'd. Many were light-headed, and ailed nothing more; which [Page 14] was occasioned, as I presume, only from the excessive heat we suffer'd, as we passed under the Line, and came to the other side of the Globe. In this dismal condition we went on; our only hope being that we should not be long ere we should reach the Cape Bonne Esperance, or the Cape of Good Hope. But our hopes were strangely frustrated: for we quite lost our course: For the Snow fell so mighty thick (as it is usual about Africa) that our Men could not see one another the length of the Ship. Then our Master gave Orders that one should go up the Main Top-Mast head, and keep strict watch; because we were continually in expectation of coming to Land. Early the next morning I got me above Deck, and went to take my allowance of Brandy at the usual place: After which my Comrade, and I, who had been old acquaintance before we went to Sea, and between whom an inviolable friendship was contracted, we agreed to go and smoak our Pipes, and fell into a chearful conference about our approaching Joy of setting our feet on dry ground. While we were thus talking, we heard of a sudden cry of Land, Land, which mightily increased our Joy; little knowing after what manner we were drawing nigh to the Shore. But we quickly saw our mistake, when the Master upon this out-cry, comes out, and with death in his looks crys out,Oh my poor Ship! we are all undone! At which we stood in amaze, not knowing what to say, or to take in hand to help our selves. All this while the Ship was running violently to shore, the Wind being very high, and having no time to hand our Sails, we were forced to cut the Gears, upon which the Wind carried off our Sails over-board, with such a violent noise, that one would have thought Heaven and Earth were coming together. While we were all running hither and thither, in a miserable confusion, the Ship begun to crack; which made us all cry out with a loud voice, to Almighty God, to receive our poor Souls. It is easie to imagine what a dismal condition we were in, with the noise the Ship made, and the crying and sighing that so many of us made; for we were still 343 persons on Board, and the Ship kept still cracking more and more, till at last the After-part broke, and the Sea beating in violently, sunk our Stern in an instant. None now expected to escape, and we saw nothing but death round about us, by reason of the depth of the Sea [Page 15] on one side, and on the other the Shore so high, that it was inaccessible. Yet every body was willing to try what they could do; and to prolong their lives as long as they possibly could. We resolved therefore to leap into the Sea; and, if possible, to make to Shore, which was near enough to us, if haply we might reach it: But we foresaw it almost impossible to come to it, by reason of its steepness, and the violent beating of the Waves. Thus recommending my self to Almighty God, and having implored his pardon and assistance, I committed my self to the Sea, and strove with the utmost of my power to get to the Rocks. I toucht them twice or thrice, but the Waves carried me off again; by this time some of our Company were got out safe, and they could not help us any otherwise, than by calling to us, and advising us what was best to do; which was no small help to those that swom: for the directions they gave from the Shore, was a great guide to those poor people who were still in the Sea, and whom fear made so insensible, and so hasty, that they could not of themselves think to take the advantages they might have done, had they been less terrified. After I had been carried off again from the Rock, so far, that I had little or no hopes of ever recovering it again, it pleased God that I was thrown on again, and I luckily struck my hand into a claiy part of it, and thus got safe to shore. Seven more got out after me, and 35 before, so that 43 of us only escaped; viz. the Master, the Steers-man, two Surgeons besides me, three Carpenters, the Cook's men, the Swabber, the Gunner, 22 Sea-men, and eight Soldiers. The rest, 300 in number, miserably lost their lives. Here we all fell on our knees, and returned our hearty praise to the merciful God who had so bountifully deliver'd us from so great a danger; after which we went to look a little about us; but none of us knew where we were; which added much to our sorrow; besides that three of our men were almost dead with the cold caused by the Sea-water. The Ship sunk down-right, so that we could not see the least part of her, nor had we saved the least thing about us. Her Cargo was worth above 328,000 Ricksdollers in ready Cash, and many thousand Gilders in goods besides, which were all lost. [Page 16] Finding out at last that it was the false Cape of Good Hope we were got upon, and that we were at 40 Miles distance from the right one, where the Duth Garrison lay; we were forced to go further into the Country, which was the more tedious, by reason of the sick men we had with us. We knew that the Country had good store of admirable fruits, which we wished to come at; and at last we got some excellent good Water-Melons, which served us for Meat and Drink. In this poor condition we saw some Hottentots at a distance, whom we could not come to speak to; for they run away from us. But it was to fetch some of them that could speak Dutch; and when we had made our case known to them, they immediately went and acquainted the Governour with it, who streight sent another parcel of these Hottentots (who are the wild Inhabitants of that Country) together with several Files of Soldiers to fetch us. They took up our sick men, and carried them on their shoulders upon Beds made of Reeds; and we were comfortably entertained with good Canary, good Rice, Bisket, and all sorts of excellent fruits; all which were extreamly welcome to us. When we came to the Cape, our Master and the Streers-man went immediately before the Governour, to clear themselves from whatever might be laid to their charge, for the loss of the Ship, and of so many mens lives; and there alledg'd, that it could not be imputed to their negligence, or want of due care; but that it was the good pleasure of Providence to afflict them in that manner. After which we were all lodged within the Castle, and furnish'd with the usual allowance, and there waited for the Europa's coming; which was no less than three weeks: So that we gave that over for lost too, fearing it had undergone like fate with ours. What observations I made in this Country, during that time of our stay, I will now give you an account of. In the year 1650 a Fort was built by the Dutch in this Cape, and ever since all the shipping that comes thither, whether French, English, or any other Nation, must pay Tribute at their first Landing. This Land, for its situation and fruitfulness, is very commodious for all that go from any part of Europe to the East-Indies, for refreshing of themselves, and recruiting of Provisions, and taking in of [Page 17] fresh Water, which comes out of the Rocks and Mountains of the Country. Within the Land, it is richly adorn'd with abundance of Fruit-trees; but near the Shore, there are few, or none, by reason of the terrible Winds and Hurricanes, that beat upon it in a fearful manner, which come generally down from the Mountain called by the Dutch Tafel-bergh: And by reason of these stormy Winds, this Cape goes frequently with us by the name of the Storm Cape. The Dutch, that are there in Garrison, have planted good Orchards and Gardens, which afford all sorts of Sallads, Cabages, Turnips, Cowcumbers, and all sorts of Kitchen Herbs: All which are great refreshments to those that come from Sea. And likewise the free Inhabitants, of which there were already some hundreds when I was there, have Land which produces good Corn, Wheat, and Oats, &c. and Vineyards: So that one finds there plenty of good Beer, Wine, excellent Bread, and such sort of things as well as in Europe. I dieted at one of these Free-men's houses, and I had a very good Dinner of Meat, rost and boil'd, and Fish, with excellent Sallad, and Butter, and Cheese, and delicate Beer, all for one Skelling, (which is but six pence English) but Wine I was forced to pay for, after the rate of half a Ricks-doller the quart. Besides the great store of Fruits which are common in Europe. There is great plenty of admirable Lemon and Orange Trees, which afford a very beautiful prospect. The Haven is called Tafel-Baey, which is to say, Table-Bay, so called from a vast Mountain just by the Shore which is called Tafel-bergh, in English Table-bill, from its figure, which is seemingly square and flat at top: It is seen a vast way off at Sea; and it lies about five Miles from the utmost point of the Cape; between which, lieth the Hill Lewenbergh, or Lion's-bill, so call'd, by reason of its resembling a Lion in shape; the head comes quite up to the Table-hill, and the tail comes down into the Sea. I had a great desire to go up to the top of that Hill e're I went from the Cape: So having got some others who desired it too, we got leave, and set out the next morning early. It is about a Mile distance from the Castle; we went up it a good pace for a matter of four hours, and yet we were not near to the top: We were pretty well tired, and more afraid of being too long about it, and of being belated; for in the evening it is extraordinary dangerous [Page 18] being there, by reason of the wild Beasts that then come abroad; so we e'en resolved to go back again to get in by day-light: For we thought if we had fallen under their clutches, we should not have been much the better for our experience: And besides, a Cloud came over us which wetted us to the Skin, whereupon we returned back streight, and came into the Castle about half an hour before night; so that we could not compass our desire, nor could ever yet hear of any one that had been up to the top of it. Provision is here so plenty, that the Dutch have it mighty cheap, for a little Copper-wire, for Bracelets, for Tobacco, and for any such trifle; so that a large Beast doth not stand a man in more than a conple of Shillings. There are a great many Lions and wild Boars. In the Governours Hall are two Lions Skins. The one was of a Lion, that one of the Hottentots shot with his Arrow: The other was kill'd by a Boar. This last Creature, I mean the Boar, hath on its back a sharp sort of Prickle; near a spang long, and so hard, that they serve many Trades-men for Bodkins. And the Lion falling furiously upon this Boar, the Boar struck him with his prickly Bristles into the belly, and made him bleed to death, tho' the Boar perished likewise in the fight; and they were found dead by one another, and both their Skins were hung up for a memorandum. Besides these, there are many Elephants in that Country, and a sort of Beast they call Bavians, the same we call Baboons; which very much resemble aged Men. Some of our Men had orders once to go into the Wood to cut down part of it. Amongst them was one Comical fellow, who had beaten one to death in a quarrel atTirol; and being forc'd to fly, had listed himself a Soldier in the East-India Company, and so made his escape. He staid a little after the rest to ease Nature; and laid his Satchel down at some distance from him; we saw one of those Baboons coming towards him, which made us stand still to see what he would do; and laying hold on his Satchel, away he went with it, and robb'd the fellow of all his provision of Bread, and Cheese, and Tobacco; which made very good sport for the rest. Ostridges are here also very common; the Eggs whereof are very good to eat. And among many other sorts of Birds, which they have, that are uncommon with us, there are a sort called Sea-Ravens; but of these there hath been account enough given by several Writers. In the Sea, all round this place, one may see abundance of [Page 19] great Fish called North-Capers, but none of them are catched about the Cape; they have a snout like that of an Hog, thro' which they throw up Water as high as an house, and in such a quantity, as to fill almost a small Vessel, and it comes down like a violent shower of Rain: They are always to be seen about the Cape, but they do no manner of harm. There is a prodigious quantity of other sorts of Fish, both in the Sea, and in the Rivers too. We went one night with a Net to have some sport, and at two pulls we had so many, we could not carry the tenth part of 'em. The Fish we caught were made very much like our Carps; and here are also abundance of Tortoises. The natural Inhabitants of this place, are called Hottentots, meer Heathens; of no extraordinary size; for the most part very lean, and meagre; their Language very unpleasant, rattling like Turkies when they speak. They go stark naked, only having a Sheeps Skin about them, the Tail whereof comes before their Privities. When a Ship is new come in, assoon as the Boat lands any of the Men, they get in as it comes back, to beg Bisket of the Sea-men, which they love exceedingly; when they ask for it, they cry Broqua, which signifies Bread. It is their custom to cut out one of their Testicles when they are young. Their chief Ornaments (if such may be so called) is on their Legs; they take an Ox, or Sheep's guts, and thrusting out the excrements a little, just to let them lye close and flat; and while they are moist, they wrap them about their Legs, and there let them stick. These very guts is part of their food too; for just in this same pickle, they broil them a little over the fire, and eat them. So that it may properly be said, that they are meat and cloth to 'em: But to see them use-it either way, might very probably give any man besides them, a vomit. They use to besmear their body with all manner of dirt and nastiness, which makes them stink worse than a Goat. Upon their heads they stick all sorts of little Sea-shells, and small Copper Rings, that come fromNeurenbergh, which the Sea-men bring with them, to give them: And for one of them they will shew you some of their Tricks; among which one is, to throw a Dart or long Stick, with which [Page 20] they'll hit within the compass of a farthing a mighty distance off. As for their Religion, little can be said of it, their Language, it not being understood by any, that ever I heard of. They use commonly to get together near to the Sea-shore in the morning by Sun-rising, and there they get in a Ring, holding each other fast by their hands, and dance about upon the Sand, looking up towards Heaven, saying something in their Language; and then write some strange unintelligible characters and figures in the Sand, and so depart; all which undoubtedly is intended in honour to some Deity. [...]They are very good Footmen, and run very swiftly, which make the Dutch keep always a Troop of Horse there, to catch them in case of any Insurrection: For they dare not trust them in the least. In mischief they are cunning enough, tho' wonderfully stupid in any thing else. If they are not hungry, they'll not work, tho' you would beat them to death; but when their belly incites them to it, they'll work like Horses. It is not safe to break ones word with them; and if one should not give them what was promised, when their work is done, a man would go in danger of his life. Their Habitations are most on green Meadows, and grounds that bear sweet Herbs for Pasture for their Cattle. Their Houses are made of Sea-Reeds joyn'd together, and fastned at top; just like our Hop-poles, when they are laid up for the Winter; and when their Cattle hath eaten up the Pasture all about them, then they remove their Houses, to some fresh place, and settle there again for some time. As to what belongs to those we call Free-men, of which I made some mention before, they are such of our Men, as have served the Company in the station of a Soldier, or any other way during the space of ten or twelve years, and then desired to settle there, to trade or plant, which they may then do, paying a certain sum of Money, and all Imposts and Customs to the Company. These have dwelling-houses built after a manner like as in Holland, but not so high nor so fine. [Page 21] The chief Commodities which the Company trades in, to quit the Costs of their Garrison there, is Sea-Dogs, which are catched here in vast quantities. They boil the fat out of them, and the Skins are hung up to dry, which they send afterwards to Holland. When any Ship comes there, an Order is read to all the People that are on Board, forbidding them all to buy any thing of the Hottentots, except Ostridges Eggs, and other like trifles. All Commodities of any use or value, as Rhinoceros Horns, Elephants Teeth, and Sea-Dog Skins, are wholly ingrossed by the Company. Justice here is very severe, in respect to any of these Heathens especially; one instance whereof I was an eye-witness of, while I was there; Three of them having ravish'd a Christian Maid-servant, were hung up by the heels on a Gibbet, and so ended their lives, after they had hang'd there about thirteen or fourteen hours. There are four Seasons of the year here, tho' in a quite different time from ours: For our Summer is their Winter; and in September, which was the time I was there, it was their Spring-season. Their Winters are cold, and always foggy and misty, but there is never any Frost or Snow. Thus far will suffice to inform the Reader of the nature and customs of the Cape de Bona Speranza
3. CHAPTER III
[...]AFter we had spent a pretty while here, and were very well recovered from our late Affliction, we prepared our selves to be gone in theEuropa, which by this time was come, and ready to sail off again for Batavia; and with the first fair Wind we set Sail, and in the name of God we ran out of Tasel-Bay, leaving only one English Fly-Boat behind us at the Cape, which was come thither, since we. All that day, and the next, the same fair Gale continued, which blew us along so briskly, that on the next day we were got out of sight of Africa, and came into the Main. We had this brisk and fair Gale for eight days together, which carried us merrily along beyond the Island called St. Maurice, about which place men seldom fail of a Storm and bad Weather; so that it was no small joy to us, to have so fairly escaped it: But alas! our joy was soon palled; and our security proved very deceitful, while we foolishly took the measures of our safety, more from the Climes and Latitudes we were in, than from His Providence, to whom the Winds, and Seas are every where subject; for when we least thought on't, the Sky darkned all of a sudden, and such a Hurrican rose upon us, as made us all tremble. No sooner had it given us the first toss, but our Ship out-did almost the noise of it, with the dreadful cracks it gave, [Page 23] in somuch that we expected nothing but to sink in the instant. All the while the Clouds grew darker and darker, and the Wind increased to that degree, that we could not hear one another speak. The Sea gaped so hideously, that it could not be thought we should ever escape being swallowed up; our Ship sometimes mounted on the top of a Wave, plunged down with such a terrible force, as it had been down a Precipice, that we expected every moment to be overwhelmed with it. And no sooner had we escaped one Gulph, but we were raised up again to fall into another. All this while, what with the Sea dashing in upon us, and what with the great Gaps that were in the Ship, we were so full of Water, that we were all forced to pump like Slaves, for three days together; all which yet was little enough. I for my part, who little thought to have been in any such employment, yet was forced to fall to, and stick to it for four hours together, which would have been intolerable to me at any other time: But on such occasions a Man doth not much stand upon Niceties: And I do not remember that I was so much as tired with it, for the hopes we had that God would still cast an Eye of pity upon us,and relieve us out of our misery, was now all the comfort we had left. But the Weather still continued, or, rather indeed, grew worse, so that mounting our Ship up an end, one of our Carpenters was toss'd out of his Cabin, and had tumbled directly into the Sea, had not one of the Sea-men luckily caught hold of him. I tryed several places to get a little rest in, and, amongst others, I got in by some Sheep that we had brought from the Cape with us, which I found almost dead, never a one of them being able to stand on its Leggs. Not finding my self safe there, without holding fast by the Boards, which was very tiresome work, I went to the Gunner's Room, where the Surgeons Chests always lye, to try to get into a Hammock: But all the Chests there were turned topsie turvy, and in such a confusion, that I could not get to the place I designed for 'em; so I sate me down: But I had not been there three minutes, but I heard a low broken voice just breathing out the Name of God; at which, being mightily surprised, I looked and found our Provost, an old Man, lying under those Chests that were jumbled together, and crusht to pieces with the vast weight of 'em. I ran up to acquaint our Master, who in the hurry took little notice of it, only order'd some of the Men to throw him over-board, which was immediately [Page 24] done, without any formalities, or so much as a Plank; for we had no time to tye him to one, as it is usual; but over they threw him, cloaths and all on [...]on the fourth day in the morning the Winds fell, the Air became serene, and the Sea calm, which restored us all, as it were, to life again. We then, as in duty bound, first fell to praising of God, whence our help came; and with Hymns and Psalms to rejoyce in him for his goodness, and our miraculous deliverance. This Wind held us six days, during which we passed the Latitude of St. Maurice, and got in sight of St. Paul de Amsterdam; which we left about [Page 25] sixteen Miles on the right off us, and steer'd right upon Great Java, whereofBatavia is the chief Town. In all this time we had a great many of our Men sick, and seven of them died, and were cast overboard. The Wind being so fair for us, the allowance was large, and there was no stint of any thing almost: Yet we wish'd heartily to be ashore, and the more, for the sake of our Sick: But we wanted more than a hundred Miles sail to the place we were to go to. But by God's assistance we reach'd it, beyond our expectation; for, by Sun-setting, a Sailor cryed out, Land; which caused a sudden joy amongst us all; and the Master straight presented him a Ducat, or two Ricksdollers, two Cheeses, and a Bottle of Canary, according to custom. Upon this we fell to tricking up our selves, painting our Long-Boat and Shalloop, and making our Ship very fine: We fastned our Anchors, and made all preparations to go to Shore, which was not now above forty Miles from us. By the next morning we got within two hours sail of it; but we over-shot it by above thirty Miles on the Westward of it; so that we were forced to tack about to the East; and after some days sail we came up to some small Islands that lye within five Miles of GreatJava; there we cast Anchor immediately, hawl'd out our Boat, and went on Shore, to fetch some Coco's, which we divided among the rest on Ship-board. Three days after this, we came into the Road ofSunda, wherein a great many little Vessels came to us (which they call Prawen, which sail prodigious swiftly) and brought with them several sorts of fruits, as Coco's, Pisang Figgs, which are a long kind of Figg, Eggs, and such like. Lastly, On the last day of November we arrived safely at Batavia, where we cast Anchor before the Castle, having lost thirteen of our Men, and about 20 sick still aboard [...][Page 26] As for Batavia, the City and Castle are as well worth a description, as they are a Man's sight: And truly mine was ravisht with it; for I must confess, that I think them yet finer even than Amsterdam it self. It is five or six Miles in compass. The River Jacatra runs thro' most Streets of the Town, and almost encompasses it. Upon these Canals the Inhabitants have the conveniency of going in [Page 27] Boats to their Gardens and Pleasure-houses: The sides of them is wall'd up with good square Stone, and all along each side of it, there goes a Row or two of fine Cedar, Coco, or Figg trees, where the Free-men use to walk at night under a most pleasant Shade. The Castle stands toward the Sea. It hath four Bastions, two of them to the Sea, called the Ruby and the Pearl; the other two to the City, which go by the name of the Saphir and the Diamon. It is in the whole exact square, and from top to bottom built up with excellent good square Stone. On each of these Bastions are sixteen half Culverins planted: Besides this, they are full of fine Trees, such as Lemons, and Mango's, which makes them look most sweetly. While I was there, there was a third Gate built to the Castle, which before had but two. One of the Gates looks toward the Sea, thro' which the Goods come in from the Ships into the Ware houses, and it's call'd the Water-Gate. The other goeth into into the City, which therefore they call the City-Gate. In the middle of the Castle is the Generals Apartment, and over against it are the Houses of two of the Council-men. The rest, (which are four more) live in the City [...] There are in the Castle many other Inhabitants, some of the chief Merchants; some Assistants, and Book-keepers; also several Handycrafts men, as Gun-Smiths, Lock-Smiths, Joyners, and such like, that are to be employed in any Military business. The Soldiers have their standings under the Gates, and on the Bastions: Sometimes more, sometimes less, as they have occasion to send them abroad, or call them home again. Every day about four in the afternoon, they must come to the Parade, and pass by the General's house three times; sometimes he comes out, and takes a view of them, to observe their carriage, and behaviour, and to see whether their Arms are kept in good order [...] [Page 28] The Castle is encompassed with very wide Grafts or Canals; over one of which there is a fine Stone-Bridge of one and twenty Arches, that goes into a large Field, which is called the Galgveld, that is, the Gibbet-field; where Malefactors are executed. There is a Gibbet, a Wheel, and a Whipping-Post; all which are frequently made use of. Cross this Field is another smaller Bridge, (where a Centry always stands) which leads to the chief Street of the City, which is called the Heere-straet. Within the City are Shops for all kind of Merchandize, and very good and reasonable Victualling-houses: The Inhabitants are of all Nations, as Amboineses, Malabarians, Mardigarians, &c. bur the Chineses, being the chief and greater part, I shall pass by the others, and give you some account of them only. They exceed all the others by far, in cunning and policy; and are very good Mechanicks; and there are of them of all Trades, excepting Clockwork, or Watch-work, and they dive into all manner of Commerce whatever. They wear most commonly White or Blew. Their Coats are very large, and the Sleeves so long, and wide, that they fall over their hands. Their Breeches likewise of the same colour, are very wide, and come down to their feet. They wear a sort of broad Slippers, like Hungarian Shoes: But they are only made of Past-board; so that when they are to go thro' any wet or dirt, they take their Slippers in their hands; then wash their feet at the next Canal, and wipe 'em; so put their Slippers on again: But in bad Weather, if they are to go thro' a great deal of dirt, they wear woodden Shoes, such as the Country People do in France [...]They are the greatest [Page 29] Gamesters that ever were known; insomuch that they'll play away their Wives and Children, when they have lost all their Wealth: And when their Houses and Family are lost, then goes the very Hair off of their heads: But if one loses that, he loses with it all his Credit and Reputation, and is lookt upon as a Slave, and is forced all his life long to work and sell for other People. Their Beards are very extraordinary, both for their length, and thinness. I have seen them with only five or six Hairs on their chin, and those hang down to their feet. Their Women are most of them Slaves, bought out of the Island Baly and Macassar; not very black, but of a deep tawny; short and very well sett [...] [Page 30] But to return to their Feasts; the Men and the Women eat always apart. They take up their Meat with an Instrument made of two pieces of Wood, which go cross one another, something like that which the Gold-beaters use with us to take up their Leaves of Gold or Silver, which they use very dextrously to take up their Meat with; This serves them instead of Forks, and they keep them very neat and clean. They sit on the ground cross-legg'd: And if at any time they do sit on a Chair or Stool, they still sit down with their Leggs cross-wise under them, and by that means they have them so pliant, that they can lay them on their Polls, with as great nimbleness and ease as we can our hands [...] [Page 32] The River Jacatra is no small Ornament as well as Advantage to Batavia; besides which, it is beautified with abundance of very fine Orchards, Fruit-gardens, and Pleasure-houses, which are very neatly contrived and kept. There is but very little Rice all about it; tho' it is their staff of life. And, as in all the other parts of the Indies, the only thing that serves instead of Bread; but yet there is never any want of it, it being always brought in great quantities, and the City sufficiently furnish'd with it from Bantam, Japara, &c. The Rivers thereabouts are much pestered with Crocodiles. While I was there, as we used to go a walking in the Evenings, we observed one of them for several nights that used to run out of the hedge into the River, as soon as it spied or heard us coming towards him: Upon which a desire took us to try to catch him if we could; which we did in this manner. We took a long Rope, to which we fastened a strong double Hook, full of beards: And instead of arming it with Wires, we did it with Packthread; which being loose about it, gets in between its Teeth, and hinders him from snapping the Hook off: This done, we tyed a Dog to this, with the Hook under his belly: And setting him upon a Board, thrust him out into the River, and fasten'd the Cord to a Tree: Quickly after, the Dog fell a barking and howling, and the Crocodil did not fail to come to him; and very greedily swallowed him in: Upon which the Hook struck into his Throat, and had him fast. We had so good success with this, that we afterwards caught a great many of them. The biggest we caught was twenty seven foot long; and when we opened it, we found two Steen-Bockiens, and the head of a black Boy in his belly. We were forced to knock him on the head with great Iron Bars, after we had fired several Muskets upon him to little purpose. When the Soldiers kill one of these Creatures, they get some Blacks to carry it for 'em to the General; who immediately gives them six Ducatoons, for their pains. The only advantage I sought for, was to have some of their Fat, it being very good for several operations in Physick and Surgery. The Inhabitants use to catch them with Nets; which is very dangerous, as I my self have seen; at Bantam, on such an occasion, a Crocodil bit off both the Leggs of a Javan; yet do they continue that way still, and go often to catch them in that manner [...] [Page 33] We had two Hunts-men that were made free by the General, and had the liberty to go abroad for that purpose, to catch what they could. These being gone one day to get some game for the General; which was commonly Wild Pigeons, and other sorts of Wild Fowl, and Wild Boars, and a sort of Creature they call Steen-Bockiens, which is made much like a Hare, and differs only in that it hath small Horns, and the Meat of 'em is far more delicate; while they were only prepared for the pursuit of things of this kind, and sat down to rest under a Tree, a Tyger fell in a most furious manner upon them. They were pretty much used to be followed by them; but they used to be in such readiness to receive them, that they were the death of them whenever they did but offer to come near them. But being now surprised by this more than ordinary fierce Creature, coming of a sudden upon them: It was as much as the one could do to lay hold of his Fowling-piece, while the other had nothing to defend himself with, but his lighted Match in his hand; which he shook about, but to no purpose: The other had no sooner got his Gun, but in a hurry he fires upon him; but not taking good aim, did not do any execution, but whatserved to enrage him the more; him the Tyger throws down under him; and seizing the other by the hand, bit off three of his Fingers; notwithstanding which, he luckily seizing his Gun, fired it, and by good providence laid the Tyger flat on the ground. Upon this he bethought himself of what he might do for his best security, for the night coming upon him, the danger increased; besides that he was now alone, for his Companion was by this time expired, being miserably torn. He took up the Corps, lest it should become a prey to the rest of them; and climbing into a Tree, drew him up with him: There he remained in great fear and excessive pain caused by his wound. When he had been there a while, there came a couple of Wild Boars, which he could not see: But he heard them scratch and tear at the [Page 34] bottom of the Tree, which they did the more furiously, because the blood of his dead Companion was spilt about the place; so he shot upon them at random, and hit one of them, so that he fell dead some few paces from thence. The day being come, and the Coast clear, he gets down, and leaving his dead Companion upon the Tree, the Tyger and the Wild Boar on the ground, comes forthwith to our Fort to me, to have his hand drest: Which being done, he gave us the account of this Adventure [...] On the other side of the Fort, is almost all Woods, which are cut down every other Year by the Soldiers. These Woods harbour vast numbers of Monkeys, which make there such a strange noise, that one would be amazed to hear it. We made it almost our daily diversion to go a Hunting after them; and we used to catch such abundance of them, that a Man might have one of them for a Pipe of Tobacco. They are a very docile sort of Monkeys, and not in the least inferiour to those that are brought out of Africa and America for playing of Tricks; but they come but seldom over hither, being very tender, and not able to bear the change of Climates, nor the hardship of so long a Voyage: For at my return I took a couple of them with me, but as soon as ever we came on this side the Tropick, where we begun to feel a change of Air, they were seized with the Bloody-Flux, fell lame, and died [...] [Page 35] My chief Recreation was to take a walk to the City, which was a most delicious walk indeed, all along shaded with fine large Coco-trees. Sometimes I took a Boat, and went to the Fort Jacatra; where lay a whole Company of Soldiers, of the number of which our Men was a sort of a Detatchment: It lies about two Miles more to the South, and is the chief Pass into the whole Country of Java, in the direct way to Japara and Kartiri. Near this Fort flows the famous River Jacatra (from which the Fort had its name) which thence running thro' Batavia, empties it self into the Sea about half a Mile below it. There are by the Fort three Powder-Mills upon that River, which I used to walk to frequently, being very well worth ones sight for their largeness and ingenious contrivance. The outward parts of this Country, and that for a considerable way within too, are very well cultivated, and richly set out with abundance of fine noble Gardens, which produce all manner of fruits, for refreshment and for sustenance. There are of all sorts of Figg-Trees; some of which are the most delicious fruit that ever was tasted: So that with its lofty Cedars, which over-top the fruit-bearing Trees, and look so sweet and green, and what with their more useful Coco-Trees, and other fruit-trees, which are always verdant, and afford a cool retreat, and pleasant shade; besides that [Page 36] their fruits are all of them most delicious, I think truly, it may be called an Earthly Paradice, and that no Country in the World can out-do it for gratifying the Eye and taste.But of all the fruits that the East-Indies produce (now I am about 'em) I think it will not be amiss to give you a description of three of the chiefest of them. That which deserves the first place amongst them, is the fruit which they call the Manges Tanges; of the bigness of a common Apple; the shell is of a dark brown colour, in which are contained four Kernels, of a flesh colour, sticking to each other, which melt like Butter upon the Tongue, and of so fine and refreshing a taste, that I never met with any fruit comparable to it, in any other part of the World. It is generally served up at the greatest Tables, as the most delicious Dish that can be made; drest with Sugar, Spice and Sack, and put into fine China Dishes. It is also a most pleasant and infallible Remedy against the Bloody-Flux, when boiled in Water. The Tree that bears this, is about the bigness of a Mulberry-Tree, and very flow of propagation: For when you have planted it, you must never expect to see it bear; and if it doth chance to bear any fruit within the life of him that planted it, it comes to nothing; but withers away: But then there shoots out a little shoot, which you take and plant very carefully, and that becomes your Stock. The next to this is the Coco-Nut. The Tree is all smooth and even from the bottom to the very top; where the Leaves spread themselves all in a fuff, and the Nutts under them, twenty or thirty on a Tree. The Country people have a pretty Art of Tapping these Trees, with long Bamboe Canes, that will hold two or three quarts, or more, which they very artfully stick into the Tree, and let them fill themselves with the Juice: When they are fill'd, they put it into Vessels to keep, or else they go away with it to Batavia, and sell it fresh there, as it comes from the Tree. This they call Suri, which is to be sold at the Suri-houses, and is a very pretty refreshing Liquor, and extream pleasant; especially when the Weather is very hot. With this Liquor they make the best Vinegar, and their Arack or Brandy, which goes far beyond our best Rhenish Wine for strength, taste and colour: And mixing it with Water and Wine, with Sugar and Lemon- [Page 37] Juice, it makes an excellent sort of Limonade, which they call Massack and Burabols, but sufficiently known in English by the name of Punch [...] The third fruit I was to mention, is the Bissang-Figgs, which is mighty common amongst them; and so cheap, that when a Ship comes out of Europe, it is the first fruit that is brought to 'em, and you buy it for a trifle; notwithstanding it is excellent; it is in shape pretty much like our Pine-Apples. The Tree is somewhat like our Elder-Tree; and bears all the year in abundance. The Leaves are so large, that one of them will shelter a Man from the Sun and Rain, being about two Cubits in length, and one or more in breadth: Which makes some people apt to believe they were the Leaves which Adam and Eve made their Aprons of, after the Fall. They are likewise made use of instead of Paper to pack up goods. These I have only taken notice of, as being the most considerable fruits of the Indies, and must pass by several others, which might be worth a description, both for their excellency and variety, that I may not be too tedious.
4. CHAPTER IV
The Author is removed from the Fort to the Hospital of Batavia. The Hollanders War with Bantam.An account of that Country, which hath been very mischievous to the East-India Company, occasioned by the English and Danes, who made it their business to incense the King of that Country against the Dutch. Bantamheretofore under the Government of the King of Japara. The Dutchspoil Jacatra and Japara, and wanted an opportunity to do the like to Bantam, which offered it self by a falling out between the old King and the young one, which broke out into a bloody War. The Son sends to the Dutch for help. An exact account of that Expedition from the beginning of it to the end of it, which proves very advantageous to the Dutch.
[...]this large Kingdom of Bantam, being in it self of great strength, hath of late much improved it self, by the numbers of Foreigners that are come thither from all Nations; and among them considerable numbers too of English, Danes, Spaniards, Portugueses and Dutch, which hath made it a very troublesome and dangerous Neighbour to the Dutch East-India Company; insomuch that their Ships that came from Europe, or any other places thither, did not dare to come by the Road of Bantam; but were forced to take a vast compass of three or four hundred Miles; keeping to the Northward. Moreover, the King of Bantam had made several Attempts upon Batavia, both by Sea and Land. Tho' he was always forced to retire with great loss, and without doing us any great damage [...] For the King of Bantam, besides that he was very fickle and [Page 40] unconstant in his Nature, having so many Foreigners about him, who were no Friends to the Dutch Interest, he was easily perswaded by them, to break Friendship with the Dutch upon the least occasion. And this the English and Danes were the chief Instruments of, who made there a considerable Body, were rich, and enjoyed great freedom, and a most flourishing Trade; so that they with ease set the King upon us, in hopes of rooting the Dutch out of their holds .The Dutch therefore were always forced to be upon their Guard; even while there was the greatest appearance of a settled Friendship; for they were sufficiently informed, that he was always contriving how he might at once fall foul on them, and drive them out of Batavia [...] [Page 44] In this six weeks time that we had besieged this place, we had lost a great many Men, and a great many were fallen sick by reason of the bad Water, which had much of the tast ofSalt-peter in it; which made CaptainHartzing at a stand, whether we should go on or not. At last he thought it best for us to stay there, till we could hear of the safe Arrival and Landing of our Fleet before Bantam, which we did in a few days after [...] [Page 49] Here I received Orders to repair to the Hospital, where I had five Surgeons under me. But there being so many sick and wounded, that we could not well look after them; the best part of them we sent to Batavia.
5. CHAPTER V
The Fleet comes together again, and falls upon the Javians at Sea.The Author is order'd to Bantam,to take care of the wounded, that were sent thither. The Council resolves to pursue the Javians. Their Malice and inveterate Hatred against the Dutch. Several Skirmishes with them. The Expedition of the Dutch from Bantam against Dorjasse, which was the old King's residence. A Bloody Fight mantain'd by the Dutch against the Javians, with a great loss of the former. Some Javian Nobles sent to desire a Peace, which was refused. The Garrison of Dorjasse set fire on Dorjasse and fly. The Dutch plunder what was left of it. The Author discovers a very considerable Treasure buried under ground, but receives little advantage from it. The Admirals Expedition in pursuit of the Enemy, where he meets with an unlucky accident.
HAving put our selves into a pretty good posture again, our Men had all the Refreshment that could be, with great plenty of Brandy, Sack, Biscuit, and such like. The next thing we did, was to dispatch a Ship toBatavia, to carry the news of our Victory to the General [...]Being come toBantam, under the Command of Captain Jochem, the Men were put on Shore, and Quarter'd amongst [Page 53] the others that were in the Fort. It fell to my share to be of the number too. So I took my Lodging in the Chineesen Straet, where I was very commodiously seated for my business. There were also two Assistants with me, and three Under-Surgeons, who were Lodged in their several Quarters, for the better looking after their Patients. Those were obliged to come to me ever and anon to give me an account of those they had under their hands, and to fetch the Remedies, which were all in my custody, and to take my directions. Only those other necessaries, as Linnen for Plaisters, Arack, Sack, Salad Oyl, and such like, were to be fetched from the Steward, who had them in keeping; but they were never delivered without I sent an especial Order under my hand. The number of our Sick and Wounded was great, and that of the former increased, by reason of the Flux, which was very rief among them: And some were seized with a Lameness in all their Limbs; so that we had enough to keep us in employment. All this while we were making all preparations for carrying on the War with utmost vigour, both by Sea, and Land: But we wanted Men; wherefore we were forced to stay till our Recruits came from Batavia. We had an especial Eye upon the Royal Fort Dorjasse; for we saw very well that we laboured in vain, while that stood; and we had reason to think, that if we did but once ferret them out of their strong hold, we should not find it difficult to give them a total Overthrow [...]When our Ship was just arrived from Europe, some of these Javians came to meet us, as it is their usual manner to come and meet all Ships, that are newly come in, to welcome them, and to sell them fruits, fresh meat, and other refreshments. I, who was very much fatigued with my long Voyage, [Page 54] and quite tired with our S[...] Provisions, was not long a fixing upon some of their things; and amongst others, I was so set upon some fine fresh Fish, that they h[...]d brought with them, that I was resolved I would have it at any rate. Their way is to Truck for some of our Commodities; so I agreed to what they ask'd me for the Fish, which was some Nails, Thread and Tobacco-Pipes; which I immediately fetch'd for 'em, and gave to the Javian, who was then busie about something that others had bought likewise. I was so pleased with the thoughts of the rare Feast I was to have, and withal in such haste to be at it, that I could not stay any longer; but bidding the Fellow leave my Fish, with any of our Men, I ran down in the mean while into the Cook's Room, to get me some Water hung on ready, and I think never went so chearfully about any business in my life. But no sooner had I turned my back, but the Dog push'd off his Boat, and went off with my Dish of Fish, and left me to Dine on my Water; and I must confess, that from that time I could never have a hearty love for one of the Nation. It was a sort of a satisfaction to me, that in three or four days after we were Landed, I had an opportunity to be revenged on a Javian, which I never let slip, for his sake, when ever it offer'd it self. They are generally very great lovers of Shooting, tho' they are so stupid, as never to understand it as they should do: And as I was one day Shooting at a Mark, one of them comes up to me, and wanted mightily to have a Shoot. I told him he should: So I shot, and loaded again with a double Charge of Powder, and a vast deal of Paper, which I took care to ram down as hard as ever I was able, and then offer'd it him: He very joyfully received it, and went to fire it: But the Piece recoiled so furiously, and gave him such a knock on the shoulder, that down fell my Booby, and could hardly stir his Arm for a fortnight, or three weeks after it. [...] [Page 55] As soon as we came to cast Anchor before Dorjasse, the Javians got together in prodigious numbers to the Sea Shore, and covered the ground for several Miles, which was all level from the Sea to the Fort, and all Fields of Rice. Just by the Shore were several Sconces at some distance from each other: Some big, some little, but all vastly strong, being all made with a double Row of Trunks of Coco-Trees, that were set very deep into the ground, and the space fill'd up with Earth ram'd down very hard. The space between each of these Sconces, was all Ditches and Rampiers, with Pallisado's. The Sconces were so broad, that two or three Waggons might drive abreast upon them. In the middle of them within, were the dwellings for the Soldiers: Some of them were built up square, and flat at top; for the Soldiers to stand there and fight. [...] In the mean time we made all ready to Land. Admiral Tack going all the while from one Ship to another, to give [Page 56] Orders to the several Captains. Which done, we went to Prayers, and then the usual portions of Brandy, Sack, &c. were distributed with strict Injunctions to be all ready [...] The next day after, about two of the Clock in the Morning, the Signal being given, we all in general left the Ships; upon which I went down into the Boat with the other Surgeons, which were above seventy in number, upon our Vessel, which was attended always by two or three small Boats, that were ready in case of any wounded, that they might carry them off to any place, and upon ever so shallow a Water. [...]When we came to have no more than knee-deep of Water, we got out; and then our Gunners played the more freely from their Schappons, upon the Enemy, and the Sea-men could then make the better use of their Hand-shells. In this manner we Charged for above two hours, and lost a great many of our Men: Their Sconces lying so high, that they had a great command of us; and we on the other side could hardly reach them. Seeing that we could make but slow progress this way, the Council of War met and resolved to fall upon their Works altogether. Upon this the Front marched forward directly towards the Enemy, and the Sea-men succeeded in our place, landing, and taking possession of the ground, which the Army occupied before. We carried some of their Forts by Storm in a few hours time, tho' with the loss of a great many of our Men [...][Page 57] All this while, tho' thousands of their Men dropt, they would not give ground an Inch, nor did we. And the day was now so far spent, that we were both forced to give over; yet were we wholly set upon pursuing the Stroke, and hoped that the night should prove rather more commodious and successful, than the day had done. As soon as the night drew on, we begun to play upon them with our Mortars, and sent such a quantity of Bombs among them, and at the same time fell on one of their Wings so furiously, that we gain'd ground; and pouring our Shot so thick upon them, we put them into such a consternation, that they were not able to defend themselves, so that we thought of nothing more, but to prepare to pursue them; but they did not design to put us to that trouble; for we could hear some of them in the front of their Army cry, Dida mou boggel ada orang Hollando; which is as much as to say, I will fight no longer against the Hollanders. This was made known to Admiral Tack, and further confirmed by some of the chief Officers of the Enemies Army, which the Admiral had permitted to come to him, and were sent to parley, and to beg him to grant a Truce, or rather make a Peace. The Admiral durst not do any thing in this matter of his own accord; but was obliged to send to the General at Batavia, who sent him word again that he should be sure not to hearken to any Proposals of Peace [...] [Page 58] our Men found Dorjasse quite empty, and the Coasts all clear. As soon as the Admiral had Advice of it, he march'd thither with the greatest part of the Army. We [Page 59] found nothing there, but Houses ruinated; most of them still smoaking, and no Inhabitants, but a vast parcel of Ducks and Hens, flying about the Streets to seek a habitation; which our Soldiers were very glad to see, and regaled themselves bravely with. I went to take my Rounds in the City, and as I came near to a parcel of Ducks, I fired amongst 'em, and shot a good many of 'em, and the rest ran into a House there hard by: So I followed them with my Fusil in my hand, designing to knock them down with the Butt end of it; But as soon as I came within the doors, I saw an old Woman sitting on a Bedstead with a naked Kriz in her hand. But she seeing me come with a Gun in my hand, fell down dead for fear [...] The chief of my care was, to see if I could not get some Plunder, which, while I was looking for, about the Old Palace, I discovered a place in a dark Entry, which was not Paved firm, but the Stones only laid loose; and knowing it to be their custom to bury their Treasures in time of danger, I went to examine the place more narrowly, and made shift to dig down a matter of two foot; but finding nothing but a few Staefiens or Stiftiens, which were about a quarter of a Yard long, I grew weary of my work, not knowing the value of 'em. Those I got I gave away to a Free-man, who went privately among the Free-men, and sold them for a Crown. As soon as ever I knew the worth of 'em, I went in all haste to the place again, and got a pretty good parcel of them: But as ill luck would have it, 'ere I could carry them off, the Admiral, who was come to take a view of the Ruines of the Palace, came just that way, and finding what it was, engrossed it to himself, and sent for Men immediately to dig there; and there they found as many of them as filled eight Waggons, which were sold for 700000 Gilders: All which went into the Admiral's Pocket. However he presented me with a hundred Gilders for being the discoverer. [Page 60] In the mean while, others got several good Booties, as Persian Quilts, and Persian & China Silks, with many other rich Furniture and costly Garments, that were left in the Palace. And I who had found the greatest Booty, came off with the least share. By what I could see of the strength of this place, it is certain the Javians wanted nothing but Courage to keep us out; for if that had not been wanting, they might have defied double our number: For tho' the Town was four or five Miles in compass, yet there was but two Avenues into it, which was hardly wide enough for two Carts to go abreast, the rest being all Moorish grounds, where Rice grew, but where no Army could have come: And instead of a Wall, the Town was fenced with a Line of Coco-Trees set close to one another, and filled up with Earth; so that our Cannon would never have been able to batter it down, or so much as to make a breach in any part of it. The Buildings within were all built with Bamboo-Canes, except the Palace, and the Noble-Mens Houses, which were of Stone [...] The Fortification of this place, was so strong, that all the Canonading in the World could never make a breach in it; for the outside of it was all of Coco-Trees, set as close together as might be, and behind them was all Earth thrown up: And it is impossible for a Bullet to batter any of those Trunks of Coco-Trees, being of so spungy a nature, that a Bullet will stick in them, and go no further [...]Two Rivers run thro' the Town, the little, and great, Dorjasse; which unite their Streams a little below the Town, and make up a fine River. It runs thence thro' the pleasant Vales of the Blawen Peper Bergh into the Sea, and divides the Kingdom of Bantam, from that of Batavia, or Jacatra, all along in its course. [Page 61] When we had laid still here some few days, our Admiral went out with some Companies to visit some of their Negeryen, or Villages. We plunder'd all as far as the Plain ofBanta, which is just by the River Bantam, and leads towards Tangburang, a Province belonging to the Kingdom of Bantam. Here we saw some Naekens or small Boats lying on the other side of the River; but neither saw or heard any body therebouts. The Admiral had a mighty fancy to go over, and so had some others of the chief Officers: Wherefore he offer'd six Rixdollers to any that would venture to swim over and fetch some of those Naekens over [...]When they were all come, the Admiral went into one of 'em, and all the Boats were filled with Men. When we were got over, we found nothing but whole flocks of Hens, and Ducks; so that our Men divided themselves, some one way, and some another, to see if they could find any Body. One of these Parties met, by misfortune, with a parcel of Amboineeses, who were come out to get some Coco-nuts; and these going drest like Javians, our Men took them for such, and falling upon them, kill'd some of 'em, and would certainly have kill'd more, had not another party of ours come in of a sudden upon the back of these poor Amboineeses, who hearing them cry out for quarter, and discovering them to be Amboineeses, put a stop to the slaughter, and prevented further mischief being done. We were all well provided with Powder and Ball, and kept on to the end of the Plain; where we found some little Works, Redoubts, &c. but all abandoned. In one of them were four or five pieces of Cannon, which we took, and carried over the River, and from thence drew them to Dorjasse. [Page 62] The main Body of our Army continued along the Sea Coast, very well entrenched, under the Command of CaptainHarzing; while the Admiral went, with some small Ships, and some Men, down the River Dorjasse, and so to Bantam by Sea.
6. CHAPTER VI
[...]In our march we saw very pleasant Negeryen on both sides the River, tho' all without Inhabitants. But one Night as we were very silent in our march, we were surprized with a sudden alarm, and outcry in one of the neighbouring Villages. We were not very much corncerned at it, because we were 400 of us; however we stood all to our Arms, and moved, according to our Captains Orders, towards the [Page 64] Village, and there we met with 'em upon the march, but it was not intended against us. Some of our Front only could fire upon them, yet that served to bring down several of the Javians; but the Blacks or Amboineeses, of which we had a Company with us, pursued them so long, that they brought us seventy Heads of 'em, when they came back to us the next Morning; according to the Custom of all those Nations, whether they fight for us, or against us; which is always to cut off the Heads of as many of their Enemies, as they kill, and to bring them to their Commanders, as tokens of their Valour. Having had good success thus far, our Captain was for moving forwards, and pursuing our good Fortune; which we did, till we came to a small River that runs into Tangburang: There we found some Forts, and some Negeryen, well provided with Men. We were about going over to them, and we could have done it, the River not being very deep; but our Captain did not think it safe; because we did not know what Numbers there might be of the Enemy, or whether they might not lie there in ambuscade. He immediately dispatch'd some of our Men to Bantam, to Admiral Tack for Recruits; and according to his desire he had the very next day three Companies of Dutch sent him, and two of Blacks, that were Bandaneeses. With this Reinforcement we crossed the River briskly, and marched directly towards their Villages and Forts: But we had not marcht long, before our Front, (which was hardly got in rightorder, after passing through the River,) but a parcel of about a hundred and fifty of our Men fell in with a Party of near four hundred of the Enemy; they would at first have been glad to have been a little farther off, but there being no retreat, they engaged them so vigorously, that they killed above an hundred and seventy of 'em, and wounded several, and made the rest retire to Tangburang. As we pursued them, we took some of them, who had deserted the others, and hid themselves in the Woods; who all told us, that all the Enemies Force was within three or four miles of us, and more than eight thousand strong. That it was the same Army which had continually been commanded by the Old King, and that they lay there in order to hinder our coming over that River. [...][Page 66] In the mean while our wounded Men were carried to a place about a mile distant from us, where there were ten Surgeons to look after them; and those that were not dangerously ill, were sent to the Hospital at Bantam, and with them Captain Ruyter sent a Letter to the Admiral, to desire him to send him a recruit of about a thousand Men; telling him, that with that he did not doubt but he should get master of the Town in a short time [...] [Page 68] We marched about for a matter of an hour or or two, thro' nothing but Woods and Coco-Trees, and then we came to a River, but we could not pass it; so we continued moving along the side of it till night; and then not meeting with a conveniency of passing the River, we took up our lodging there that night; but for fear of the Enemy, we hardly durst speak or stir all that night [...]They, on the other side, did not fail to make good use of their English Firelocks, and to give fire upon us; so that four of our Men fell. Two of them that were only wounded, I brought away, and appli'd what was requisite to their wounds; and having done that, I went forward to overtake the rest of our Men; but I was no sooner come up to them, but I my self received a wound in my Thigh, from a Black, that was upon a Coco-Tree, and the Ball lodged within me. The small Skirmish being over, some of our Men took me up, and carried me to Anier, where the Army was; and from thence I was carried to the Hospital at Bantam. There I was the daily care of the chief Surgeon of that place, who was a very able Man, named John Hanss a Leydener. He used his utmost endeavours to get the Bullet out of the wound, but all in vain: And after I had undergone a long and grievous pain, and had all the Splinters clear'd out, we were forced to leave the Bullet in, and to let the wound heal over it [...] [Page 69] I was now got again to my Employment, in the Hospital that was committed to my care, where we enjoy'd our selves with great security: Only for fear of the worst, we took care to man our outward Garrisons, and to fortifie our Frontier Places. But e're three Months were at an end, we were sufficiently satisfied that there was no great need of fortifying our selves any more; for the Javians came over to us in mighty numbers: And to convince us of their sincerity, and entire submission to us, they sent us some hundreds of Carts full of Musquets, Lances, Pikes, Bows and Arrows, and other Warlike Instruments [...] The Country being now again pretty well Peopled with [Page 70] Neighbours and Forreigners, and by the coming in of the Javians; I thought it high time to look about me, and to try to recruit my Pockets, which were now very low, all Provisions being exceeding dear; and I had had no opportunity in a great while to get a Farthing by my Profession, any other than what my Salary brought me in. So I applied my self to the Javians, among whom I thought there might be a great many wounded, and accordingly I found pretty much practice amongst 'em. With all this help I made shift to live handsomly enough, but truly it was as much as I could do: For considering the scarcity there was, and the great fatigues I had born, as well as the rest, I thought it the prudentest way to look after my Health, and to afford my self what my Constitution required, rather than pinch my self, and contract a fit of Sickness, as several, and indeed most People do, who go over to the Indies with no other design but to enrich themselves at any rate. Tho', by the by, after all the pinching, saving and scraping together, that is not so easily done, as People imagine: For nothing is more common than the vulgar opinion, that there's no more to be done to get an Estate, than just to go to the Indies; from whence they reckon they may come home with a burden of Gold, Pearls and Diamonds, as if it was but picking them up and come away. But it may be worth the while, seeing we are speaking of this Vulgar Error, to shew that these pretious things are so far from being thus easie to come at, that it is even a very dangerous thing to attempt to carry off any of those things, if a Man hath got any of them in his possession [...] [Page 71] Some of our Men went one day a little way up into the Country, rather out of necessity than for pleasure, designing to shoot some Birds, &c. notwithstanding they might know well enough, that it was not very safe, being we were not altogether reconciled with the Javians. They were expected back at night, but three days past, and no news of 'em, which occasioned many conjectures; but most were of opinion, that some Javians had fain upon them, and murdered them. Upon which Minheer Tack commanded a Lieutenant, with some Men, to go in search after 'em. Having wander'd a matter of two hours, they came to a lonesome place, where [Page 72] as they were thinking to go back, and take some other Road. They heard a piteous out-cry, which made them go forward to see what it was, and there they found 'em all six, and discovered the most dismal Spectacle that ever was. One of them was stretch'd out between two Trees, with his Arms tied to the one, and his Legs to the other, about three or four yards high from the ground, with a great Fire still burning under him; but he was quite roasted when we came. Another hung by his Privities upon another Tree, with his Arms and Legs tied together under his Back; this was dead also. The third was spitted upon a Bamboo-cane, in at his Fundament and out at his Mouth; he was dead too. The fourth was buried up to the Neck, his Eyes put out, and his Nose and Ears cut off; this was not quite dead. The fifth and sixth were tied fast Back to Back, each of them had their Right Eyes put out, and their Privities thrust into the holes; both these were still alive.
7. CHAPTER VII
[...]The chief Traffick of Bantam consists in Pepper, Salt-Peter, Salt, Ginger, Cotten-Cloth plain, and wrought with Silver and Gold; also Fine Linnen, and Flowerd Stuffs, which are the common wear of the Inhabitants. The Country about it is exceeding pleasant, and produces all manner of necessary Provisions. There are all manner of tame Fowls, Hens, &c. and their Eggs very cheap. All sorts of Fish. Great store of Cows and Buffels, but the Fat of these last is not much eaten, because it tasts so much like Tallow. Many Wild Boars there are also, but the Tamest of that kind that ever was, because that the Javians never hunted them, by reason that their Law doth not permit them to eat the Flesh of 'em; so that they used to come so close up to our Works, that I have shot three or four of 'em in one day, and sold them for little or nothing. But the worst Cattle thereabouts is the Tygers, which are in great numbers near Bantam, which the Javians used to be frequently sent out to catch or kill: And they did it after this manner. Thousands of Javians go together to the place where the Tygers lie; and there they spread themselves round the place in about three miles compass, and so march gradually to center and meet upon the Tyger, keeping still their Nassingayen before them; so that if the Tygers come out towards the circumference they make, they are so frighted, that they run back again; and so they keep them running to and fro, and retiring, till at last they are so closely encompassed, that they must of necessity be forced to throw themselves into some of their Traps, which are something after the manner of our Wheel-nets, but incomparably stronger and bigger; for they are of strong Wood, made less and less, and several Partitions; and in each Partition a Trap-door that shuts upon 'em, till at last they come into the narrowest of all. There they let him alone a good while without Meat, then they get a Rope about his Neck, and put him into a small Coop, upon a Cart drawn by Buffels; and these are always brought to [Page 77] the King, who keeps always some of 'em in his Palace, and looks upon that as a piece of great State. And when one of them brings forth a young one, it is so much taken notice of, that all the Cannon round the Castle are discharged, and great Rejoycings and Pastimes are made upon the occasion [...] In Ceylon, Pegu and Aracan they use to catch Elephants much after the same manner. It is worth while, upon this occasion, to undeceive those simple and credulous People, who believe that the way to catch them is, to saw some Trees almost thro', against which the Elephants come to lean to take their rest; and so the Tree falling, they likewise fall, and are not able to get up again, being very clumsie, and without Joynts in their Legs [...] This Elephant once was brought out upon a Bridge, which was over a very deep River, and a great Loaf was given him in his Mouth. The keeper gave him a sign, and [Page 78] fell a beating upon a Copper Instrument; upon which the Elephant went back, as in a fright, and tumbled down backwards into the River, with a most hidious plunge, and kept so long under water, that he eat up his Loaf there, and he staid so very long under the water, that no body expected ever to have seen him come up again, except those that were used to this trick; at last up he came and swam to Shore, and having paid his respects to his Master, he threw up the Bread he had eaten, and near a Barrel full of water. Many other Tricks he shewed, but this is the only one that I thought worth relating, as being somewhat strange and uncommon [...] Another sort of Sport they have is Cockfighting, which being so common here, needs no further description. These Sports and Pastimes are frequently seen amongst 'em, [Page 79] but especially at their Weddings, which are never held without them, together with several other Recreations, and strange Ceremonies, of which I will give you some account. In the time that I was there, a young Gentleman, Son to one of the Principal amongst 'em, was married; and being intimately acquainted with him, I was invited to that Wedding. His Wife's Portion was considerable, and proportioned to the Young Gentleman's Fortune. The Father gave with his Daughter, thirty Men, forty Women, and twenty Young Maids, all Slaves, besides two hundred thousand Cujax, which amounteth to about sixteen Rixdollers, for twelve thousand Cujax are only the value of a piece of eight. All these Women-slaves, the Man may lie with if he pleaseth, but the Children that are thus born, are not at his disposal, but at his Wives, who may sell them, or dispose of them as she thinks fit. But those Slaves Children, which are given in Dowry to the Wife, are in the power of the Husband to order as he will. When a Marriage is on foot among them, both the Young People confine themselves within, for about six Weeks or two Months: The Parents in that time set out their Servants and Slaves, and make 'em as fine as they can against the Wedding. The Bridegrooms Apartment is all strewed with Flowers. Then on the Wedding day he mounts on a Fine Horse, which is set out in the finest manner, and thus goes to his Bride, where all her Friends meet him, attended with the Slaves, Presents and Houshold-stuff, &c. Then a great Dinner is prepared, where each of the Young Peoples Parents are to be present, and to make merry. In the mean while the Young Couple are lead to a Room with a fine Bed in it; where they are shut in, and left to their liberty, after which the Bridegroom comes out to the Guests, but the Bride is not seen of any Man after that time. These Rejoycings usually last four days, during which there are some Comedies acted after the Chineese manner [...][Page 81] About this time the Muck Speelers were very troublesom about the City, and daily committing great disorders. Their way is to make themselves mad by eating of the Herb they call Avion, i. e. Opium: Then ye shall see 'em run about the Streets, like Men distracted, and kill all they meet [...][Page 82] I parted very chearfully from Bantam, the only thing that I was loath to part with was, a little Summer-House I had order'd to be made in the Garden of the Hospital, which was very delightful. It was made of Bamboos, and so contrived, that I might have removed it very well; but being I could not move that with it, which made it so extream pleasant, I left the whole standing for my Successor to enjoy, but not without grudging it him heartily. The Top of it was cover'd very neatly with Fig-leaves, and the Sides were sweetly shaded with Pepper-planks, which hung like a Vine over the Windows, and made it extreamly agreeable. But now that I am speaking of this Pepper, it will not be amiss [Page 83] to give you a description of its growth, &c. This part of Java is the most famous for it, and the great Blauwe Peper Bergh, which I have so often mentioned, hath its denomination from it, and signifiesBlew-Pepper-Mountain, it being full of it; there the best of all grows. Indeed Malabar, Malacca and Sumatra do produce vast quantities of it too, but it is all white and long, like the Canary Pepper, and is not to compare with the Javian Pepper for goodness; and for that reason hardly any but the latter is transported into Europe. They plant it at the bottom of other Trees, to which it clings in the nature of our Hops, and winds round as that does, but higher. Its Leaf is like that of the Orange-Trees, but less, and of a more pleasant Green, and tasts pretty sharp if one bites 'em. The Fruit grows much like Grapes, tho' (every one knows) much smaller, and closer to one another.They are ever green till they dry, which is in November, December and January, at which time they gather 'em, and spread them upon Mats in the Sun to dry; then they run 'em thro' a Sieve, and pack 'em up ready for the Merchants to take away. Now, tho' Pepper is as plenty in India as Stones in the Streets, and only serves for Ballast very often, and to pack up other Goods tire; and altho' sometimes several whole Shiploads of it be thrown into the Sea, and many hundred thousand pound weight of it burnt; yet dares no Man in the service of the Company take one single Corn of it, but every one is obliged to buy it of the Indians, who deal with the Company for it: And the same rule is observable in respect to other Spices. But now the Enckhuysen lay still but one day, so that the next morning after I had boarded her, we weighed Anchor and sailed to Batavia, with a half wind. It lies but six Leagues from Bantam, yet were we seven days before we could reach it, for we were ever and anon forced to cast Anchor and weigh it again, which fatigued our Men mightily [...] [Page 84] I was surpriz'd to find a Deputation to go and Board the Phoenix for Banda and Amboina, for besides that it crossed my design, which was to go to Japan; I knew that those two Countries were the most unhealthful of all India. However, after a little pause I resolved to go thither or any where, rather than to stay there [...] The next day we weighed Anchor, and sailed from Batavia, the wind N. E. passed the Streights of Sunday, and in three Weeks time we arrived before Banda, which is reckon'd to [Page 85] be three hundred Miles from Batavia. There fell nothing out worth any notice in our passage thither, but that a poor Seaman was blown down by a sudden puff of Wind from the Fore-Mast upon the Anchor, which tore his very Guts out of his Belly.
8. CHAPTER VIII
[...]AS soon as we were come into the Road of Banda, our Master went ashore; my Legs which had been swell'd for three or four days, were now so sore, that I could not stir, else I would have gone with him with all my heart; but my Indisposition augmenting, I was forced to be carried ashore. There my Swelling increased, all upward, and my Belly was now swell'd to the highest degree that could be, ready to break: And in this condition I continued the space of three weeks, (so that I was left here very comfortless, for the Phoenix was obliged to be gone) and after that the Distemper seized me so in all my Limbs, that I wholly lost the use of them; and during a quarter of a Year I could not bring my Finger to my Mouth; so that truly I despair'd of ever recovering the use of my Limbs, (altho' I was not sick inwardly) and therefore I often prayed [Page 87] to God to take me to himself. I was carried every day to the Bagnio, where several other Patients with me were set upon Seats, all in a ring, with Blankets wrapt round about us so close, that nothing but our Heads stuck out; there was a great Fire of each side of us, which made the heat intolerable, and then we were held over the steem of some medicinal Herbs, which were boyl'd for the purpose; into which infusion they threw thirty or forty red hot Cannon Bullets, which raised such a steem, and made such a smother, that not one in a hundred was able to bear it, but they were forced to be taken out, and carried away upon Quilts made for that purpose. I was taken out thus in the beginning, but when I came to be used to it a little more, I bore it out bravely, and found it very helpful. So keeping to this for some weeks, I recover'd apace, and then they begun to anoint my Feet with Oleum Terrae, and prescribed me to drink frequently a small Glass of Bitter Brandy, or Arac infused in Bitter Herbs; by which method, with the help of God, I perfectly recover'd [...] Only I wil give you a short account of the Noble Fruit which this Island is famous for, viz. the Nutmeg and Mace, which the Inhabitants, whether Dutch, or Freemen, or Slaves, are obliged to deliver yearly to the Governour, and is sent afterwards toHolland, and other parts of Europe, and to Persia, and other places of India. The Tree on which the Nutmeg grows, is almost like the Pear-tree, but doth not spread so much, and its Leaf is somewhat rounder. The Fruit is much like a Peach in bigness and looks, of an extraordinary fine taste, and delicate smell, when it is ripe: On the out-side is a thick hard Shell, like the Bark of a Tree, over which the Flower grows. When the Nut begins to be ripe, it swells so much, that the first Shell bursts open. The Flower is of fine Red, and very agreeable to look on, especially when the Tree is pretty full of Fruit. Sometimes the Mace comes off of it self, and when it sticks to the Fruit, they gather all together; [Page 88] and in the drying of the Nutmeg, the Mace drys and falls off, and changes its lively Red into that brown Yellow, which we find it hath here in Europe. The whole Fruit is very proper to preserve, and is an excellent Confite [...]After I had spent three Months here, in pretty good health, the Ship called the America came to Banda; so that having now the opportunity of compleating my Voyage, which my sickness prevented me to do with the Phoenix, I embraced it readily, and went in her for Amboina. I was glad to leave that unhealthy Country; and tho' I had, and shall ever carry with me severe tokens of the Plague of that Country, I was glad to come off so well as I did [...]The Clove-Tree is much like the Laurel-Tree, the Blossom is White at first, then it turns Green, and after that Red. While it is green it smells so fine and sweet, that nothing can be compared to it. These grow mighty close to one another, and many of 'em together, all within the Blossom; when they are ripe they gather 'em, and dry them; then they are of a brown Yellow. Those Cloves which they do not gather, as not being ripe, hang on till the year following; and those they call then Moeder Nagelen, i. e. Mother Cloves. Where these Trees grow, there grows no kind of Grass, or any green thing nigh; their nature being such, that they draw all the moisture about them to themselves, and so do the Cloves likewise, as I have often seen my self, that a Tub of Water being set in a Ware-house that had store of Cloves laid up in it, after they were pickt and cleans'd, in three or four days time the Water would be all gone out of the Tub. The smell of 'em is so strong, that some People have been suffocated with it when they [Page 89] have been busie with too great quantities of 'em, and in too close a place [...] There were two Master Surgeons besides me belonging to the same Ship, and we had all our Patients ashore: The only pastime we could have, was catching of Tortoises, of which there are vast numbers there. When it is fair, and the Sun shines bright, they come out of the Water, and lie in the hot Sand. So when they were all very quiet and settled, we came upon them of a sudden with Sticks and Iron Bars, and turned them upon their Backs, as fast as we could, for then they cannot stir. When we had done catching 'em so, we took them out of their shells, and put them in Pickle, and kept them in Barrels or Pots, with Salt and Vineger. This was our daily Food, and very good, but some of 'em are far better than other some. The biggest we caught was more than three Men could compass, and a loaded Wagon might safely have gone over it without breaking it. Besides these, there are also a great many Sharks, which do much mischief; of which I gave you an instance before in the poor Chineese, that was diving for Iron, and was devoured by 'em. There is much fishing for 'em. And the manner of catching them is, by baiting several very [Page 90] large strong Hooks, with the whole Liver of some other Fish, which the Sharks will not fail to swallow Hook and all, being extream greedy, and so they are taken. The Tail is all that is eaten of this Fish, and that is not very palatable neither; but the whole is eaten sometimes by Seamen, in case of necessity, for want of other meat: But its Liver is very useful for many things in Surgery [...][Page 91] While our Ship was lading with Cinnamon, and several other Rich Commodities, I went on Shore most of the time; where I took my diet at a Freemans House, where I had it extream good, and well ordered, and for a very small price. The great Commodity of this Island is Cinnamon, which is the Bark of a Tree, much of the bigness of an Olive Tree; the Leaves are much like the Laurel, but somewhat smaller; the Flower it bears is white, and the Fruit is like the Black Olives of Portugal. The Tree hath two Barks, the Cinnamon is the inner one of them, which is peeled off the Tree, and cut in square pieces; then laid in the Sun to dry, which makes it rowl up together, as we see it in Europe, and changes its colour, which is at first near upon Ash-colour, into what we find it of here. When the Trees are peeled in this manner, they are let alone for three years, in which time they have regained their Coats as before. The Trees grow wild, without planting and cultivating, and make a sort of Coppice of themselves; and require no other hand than that of Nature to make them beneficial to Man. There is besides this, a sort of Cinnamon, that grows in Malabar, and is called Canella de Matte, but it is a bastard kind, and nothing near so good. None of the Spices, neither the Cinnamon I have been speaking of, nor the Cloves, Mace, Nutmegs, Saffron, &c. may be carried away by any private Person upon pain of death: And it hath cost some Men their Lives for attempting to bring them over; as I saw an instance of one who had got a small parcel of Borrobone, in order to take with him home, and was executed for the fact. This Borrobone is a Root growing in great plenty in Java, and is made use of instead of Saffron by all the Inhabitants; and it hath all the Vertues of the best Oriental Saffron; it is cut and dried, and looks like Ginger. The other Great and Rich Commodity of this Place is [Page 92] Pearls, which they fish for after this manner, The Company hath some thousands of Divers for that purpose, which are divided into so many Companies, and to each of them there is an Overseer [...][Page 93] There is likewise another manner of fishing, which is more tedious, and therefore less used. Yet I have seen it practised in a River that was thirty or forty Fathoms deep. Two Ships were laid aside of one another, at about eight or ten yards distance; and a Beam being laid across them, whereon there is a large Pully fix'd; they hang a large Bell thereon, in which the Man sits, (upon a cross Seat fix'd within the Bell) and so the Bell is let down; there is a little ringing Bell fixt upon the top of the Beam, and the Man hath a Cord with him fasten'd to that, and to his Body; as soon as he finds the Air begins to fail him, he pulls that little Bell, which is a token to the rest to pull him up; and when he hath clear'd that place, they move a little further, and fix there again till they have got all they can [...]In a matter of five Weeks time, all our business being done in Ceylon, we all got aboard, and set sail for Batavia again, where under the Almighty's Protection we arrived safe, after a kind Voyage of three Weeks [...][Page 95] The next day we saw the famous Coast of the Island Borneo, and leaving that on the right and Temabo, Tumbolan and Ananibo on the left, we steerd our Course between them, till we came into the open Sea of Paragoa; where leaving China on the left of us, we sailed directly upon Formosa. But e're we could reach it, we had very bad weather for some days, and were in extream danger; for besides that, the Sea it self is one of the most dangerous by reason of the many Rocks there; we went thro' one of the dreadfullests Storms that was almost ever known; in somuch that we lost both Bolt-Sprit, and Sprit-sail, and [Page 96] one other Sail [...] Here we resitted our Ship as well as we could expect, and got a new Mast, and in Eight days time we set Sail again with a fair wind Early in the morning, so that by next day we left China on the left, and the next Morning were in sight of Formosa, whither we came on safe, and cast our Anchors before the Fort, called the Zealand [...]
9. CHAPTER IX
[...]When I came on Shore, the first place I entred into, was a publick house, where they drunk Tea, and that very plentifully; having rested there a while with my Companions, we went to take a view of the Town; where we saw abundance of Joyners, and Japanners Shops, set out with Wonderful variety of rich and Exquisite work, as Scrutores Cabinets &c. inlay'd with silver and gold, and most admirably lackerd, all which made as fine a Show, as ever I saw. Some of these pieces of Work were valued at some Thousands of Gilders. In that kind of Work they out-do all Indians whatever, and indeed in all manner of Ingenuity and Cunning, insomuch that it was a Proverb among the Dutch, that tho' a Dutch Man was Cunning, he might go to School to a Japoneese. They do not trouble themselves with Linnen or Silk Manufactures; by reason that they are brought over to them in such abundance from other Countreys, that they have 'em as Cheap, as in the places where they are made. Our Ship theAsia, was laden with such kind of things, and took in Exchange, what Japan affords, as Copper Stafetiens, Silver, Gold &c. Their Manner of Saluting us seemed very strange to me at first; for whereas the Chineeses, and other East-Indians used to shew their respect by clapping their hands together against their Breast or Fore-head, these People pull'd off their Shoes, and set themselves down on the Ground, for they look upon it as the greatest piece of Incivility to receive any Person Standing. Whereas other Nations think fair Hair, and white Teeth great Ornaments; these are of a quite different Opinion, and think none agreable, but those who have the Blackest Hair and Teeth: and they use all the Art they can to make them so; their Notion in this being directly opposite to ours, takeing Black to be the Livery of Mirth and Pleasantness, and white of Grief and Mourning. They have but very little Hair on their Heads, being always carefull to pluck it out by the Roots from their Youth. In short, all their [Page 100] Customs, Language, Dress &c. is as different as can be from all other People. There is a certain Antipathy between them and the Chineeses, they cannot bear with one another; when they go to War against the Tartars or the Chineeses, they never give Ground, and will sooner be Cut into a Thousand pieces than Fly: and if Thousands, 10 or 100,000 are Cut down, they are immediately Recruited: For their Law forbids them to yield to, or Flee from, any Enemy. Their Countrey is so Populous, that one who hath not seen it cannot hardly believe it The Sea Port of Nangato, was at our first coming so full of Birds, that it was almost covered with 'em, and all the Ships that lay there as it were Blockt up with them; they were very Tame, in so much that as our Boats went to and fro to Land, they would but just give us way: the Reason of that vast Quantity is, because they never kill any of 'em to Eat, for their Law forbids them strictly to Eat any thing that is Tame, as Oxen, Cows, Hens, &c. But any thing that is Wild, they may and do Eat. So that these Fowls being harmless, as well as Tame, they do not so much as disturb them; which makes 'em Increase to that prodigious number. They are in Shape and Colour much like our wild Pigeons, and have the same feet with Ducks [...]" [Page 103] Our Ship being now full laden with Copper, Lacker'd work, Jappan-money, and other Commoditys, the Japponeeses came again to us, first to visit the Ship, and then restored us all our Cannon, Powder and Bullets, and our Sails; all which they brought us on Board again, and the next day, we set sail out of the Port, tho' it snowed hard, and the Wind was somewhat Rough. The next Morning we saw three Suns in the Heavens; but the Brightness of the two unusual Phoenomenas the two seeming Suns was not comparable to that of the real Sun; all three of them were seen within a large Rainbow. The 2d. 3d. and 4th day we failed by the Island Ximo, and coming to a small Island of about 6 miles compass, we cast Anchor, to wait there for a Wind. Some our Men went on Shore, and brought back some Eggs with 'em, which Water-fowls lay usually about the Shore. They were as large as Geese eggs, and we found 'em extraordinary good. The next day we went off with a good Wind; 2 or 3 days after, we were all of us Surprized to see something Floating, and hundreds of Fowl upon it; but coming nearer to it, we found it was a vast big Fish, cover'd with those Birds [...][Page 104] It Snowed very hard: so that we lay still here 2 days, and on the 3d. day, we set sail directing our Course towards Formosa. In our way thither we came by a large Rock almost cover'd o're with Fowl, we went up to it with our long Boat, and caught above a hundred of 'em: if we would have stayed a while, we might have caught thousands, for they hardly fled away from us: But most of 'em crept into their nests, which were nothing, but the natural Cavitys of the Rock, without any straw or any kind of Lining in them; they being so easy to come at, made us conclude, that they had hardly ever been disturbed by any Man [...] [Page 105] The next day we Steer'd between two high Rocks, that were about half a League asunder: The Wind from that time continued fair for us during the space of 8 days, in which we passed by the Island Manilha, then we came into a Wind, which was very troublesome to us; for it filled the Air with nasty stuff as thick as Snow, this Wind came over some small Islands that lay 2 Miles on the South of us, which are called the Stof Elyanden. When the Wind is pretty high, and sits in that corner, if a Ship goes too near them, it is almost enough to Smother Men. But God be thanked we came safe thro' it, and with a favourable Wind came into the Sea of Paragua; we kept on our Course to Borneo, and from thence to Great Java, whence we quickly reach'd Batavia; which happily compleated our Voyage in 5 Months. Being Arrived, our Ship was unladen: Our sick Men carried to the Hospital, and I at the same time went on Shore, and took all my Medicaments with me, but we had not been here above a fortnight, but an opportunity offerd it self to me, either to go along with a small Fleet to the Straight of Sunda, or else with another which was to cruise between Malacca and Sumatra. I had my choice, and having declared my desire rather to go with the latter, I received my Commission. The reason why these two small Squadrons were sent thither was, because we were informed, that the French and English being disguised at the disturbance we had given them in Bantam, were coming out against us. After we had been some Weeks a Cruising there, now toward Sumatra, then towards Mallaca, sometime to the Island St. Maurice and Madagascar, without Meeting with any either French or English, Captain Vander Bors, who was our Commadore orAdmiral, resolved to go with the Fleet to Achem, and to lye still there, only he orderd that one Ship should be Cruising about, and bring Intelligence, and the whole Squadron which consisted of 11 Ships should take it by turns. While we lay here we had a most dreadful Storm for the space of 6 whole days. The Sciam was cast away, Men and all, except a few of 'em. The Zealand having lost all her Anchors, was drove upon a Shelf, where she stuck. We [Page 106] went in haste to help her Men, and we did save some of 'em: But at last the two long Boats which we had sent to their Relief being Tossed violently against each other, Split in pieces, and all the Men in them were drowned, which were about 130 [...]While we lay still before Achem, I went often to Shore to refresh my self with the excellent Fruits of that Country. The Religion, Manners Customs,&c. of that People are much the same with the Javians. In a Village not far from thence, where none but Fisher-men live, I saw Men that had one of their Leggs as big as most Mens middles; when they used to hold them up, it would Shade their whole Body from the Sun, and yet would these Men run as fast as Horses. I sometimes layd my [Page 107] hand on those Leggs of theirs, and they felt just like a Spunge. By that Village runs a very fair and pleasant River, which empties it self into the Sea, near the place where we lay at Anchor, along the sides of which are a great many strange Tree, which bear a Fruit they call Wild Ananas 3 times a year, when the Fruit is ripe it is extream pleasant [...]
10. CHAPTER X
[...]IN two days time we set Sail with a fair Wind: And the same day before Sun-set we passed by the Island Onrust, then came between the Island Toppers-hoedie, and Bantam along Great Java into open Sea: And in 18 days time we reached the IslandBali, and cast our Anchors before the Capital Town of the same name [...] Here we unladed our Ship, and exchanged the Commodities for those of the Countrey: Which were chiefly, Silk and Cotton wrought, most of the People here being employed in Spinning and Weaving. They are a very Strong sort of People, somewhat Blacker than the generality of other Indians are. They use no other Weapon when they fight but Arrows, which they carry always about them in a kind of quiver. These Arrows are so contrived, that when the Man who is Wounded with 'em goes to draw them out, they break; besides that, they are so Artificially Poyson'd, that it is present death without any Remedy. They permit themselves to be sold, to any Nation over all the Indies, for Slaves; while I was there I bought a young [Page 109] Girl of a Merchant, for 18 Rixdollers, and took her with me to Batavia, where I could make her earn me two Shillings or 18 Pence a day [...] [Page 110] Here grows some of the finest Fruits in the World, and in great plenty, so that I eat my fill of 'em. These Fruits are a Refreshment of no small value to an European, and it makes him have a much greater esteem for those remote and Barbarous Isles, and it is very often the only thing for which one would value them; it is as observable, that the more Barbarous the Country is, the more it excels in choice and delicate Fruits, as this place may well serve for an example, and all the Isles thereabouts, which are Inhabited by the most Brutish sort of Men. And some of 'em by Men who devour one another, and make a feast of their Victory; as at Susu, which lyes here hard by, and likewise in the Country of the Hottentots near the Cape of Good Hope. I have often wisht for some of them since I parted with them, and that they had agreed more with our Climate, so that we could have them in Europe [...][Page 111] While I was thus settled here, I got very considerable practice among the Free-men, besides my fixt employment; and especially among the Chineeses, whom I found by much the most generous sort of People and best to deal with. It was common for them to give me three or four Rixdollars [Page 112] for letting of 'em Blood, and forty or fifty Gilders for curing the least Wound [...]There was all this while a fine Ship preparing for a Voyage to Surat, and I having a great desire to go that Voyage, because it is lookt upon as very safe, and hardly ever attended with bad Accidents, I ordered my affairs so as to get leave to go: Upon which I sent my things on Board the Gelderland, for that was the name of the new Ship which I was to go in [...][Page 114] Surat lyes about 800 Leagues from Batavia, and belongs to the Emperour of Indostan, otherwise called the Great Mogul, who calls himself Lord of all the Indies. It is remarkable and strange to observe how the Seasons of the Year are here divided, their Winter only shows it self by its constant Rains, for half a year in one part of the Country; during which time it Rains almost daily more or less; and while this sort of Winter lasts in one part, it is Summer and fair in the other parts of the Countrey, so that they have it by turns. The days and nights are always near equal, of twelve hours each, what difference there is, is not perceptible [...][Page 115] While we were in open Sea about 100 Leagues off Malacca, we had during three Weeks time such a Calm, that we thought we should never have had a breath of Wind more. So that in all that time we did not get a League forwards, only the Sea Wind moved us a little to and fro, but did us no good. For, tho' it may seem strange to those that are Ignorant of it, it oftentimes happens that the Main Sea, especially that part of it, where no Bottom is to be found, is in a very great agitation, tho' there be no Wind at all to be perceived: And I my self have often seen in the stillest weather, the Waves heap'd up on Hills, and so furiously high, that no Storm can raise them higher, and often times there is as great Danger, and as many Ships are there cast away; especially those that are not well laden. During this Calm, we suffer'd more than ever we could have done in the most Terrible Tempest, for we were under the Line, and the excessive heat caused several to fall Sick, and what was worse still was, that we had made no great provision of Water by reason it was lookt upon to be but a short Voyage; So that with heat and thirst, we were all in danger of being suffocated. Our Water was now so far spent, that a draught of it cold not be had under a couple of Rixdollars. At least it came to that pass, that there was a necessity of setting two Centinells to guard the Water-Cask; out of which they used to distribute every man his portion, and to set four Locks upon it. And when the Portions were given out in the Morning, it was not above one quarter of the measure that it used to be. In this miserable Condition I have been forced to to give two dozen of my Silver Buttons off my Wastcoat, for one draught of Water, and to gnaw bits of Wood, hoping I might suck some moisture out of it. In short, it put us all upon trying all the ways we could imagine to allay our excessive drought; we had now but six Barrels of Water left, and we saw no prospect of Relief, so that many of us often wish'd that our Ship would sink down right with us, we neglected not to call upon God, and to send up our Prayers to him constantly thrice a day, that he would have Compassion on us; and as this was more becoming Christians than the rash wishes which our desolate Condition forced from some, if not the greater part of us: So it was that undoubtedly which was most Effectual, for our merciful God sent us a seasonable relief, and surely because we cried unto him in our trouble, he delivered us out of our Distress. [Page 116] The Moon, which shined very bright, was all of a sudden a little over cast, and at length a Black Cloud came, which deprived us wholly of the sight of it, and gave us mighty hopes that we were going to have some Rain. This gave us all new life, and set us all at work to spread out our Sails ready, sastening them by the four corners, with a Bullet in the Middle, to receive the Water; thus we stayed between hope and fear for about three hours; at last the weather grew very cool, and the Clouds gathering together, the Sky was all darkned, and suddenly the rain came pouring down upon us: But never were Men more heartily glad tobe wet to the skin. The first Water that came thro' the Sails was very bitter; so we threw that away: and then we fell to filling of our Vessels, which done, we hoysted up our wet Sails, and run briskly before the Wind. One may Imagine what Joy it was to every one of us to have our miserable Condition brought to such an happy End; nor did we fail to give due thanks to the great Author of it, who had so mercifully, heard us. with this Wind we were not long 'ere we reach'd the Island of Engano, so that we after three Months Sailing passed the Streight of Sunda, and arrived happily on the Road before Batavia. The Master and the Steward, who had been so imprudent as not to provide the Ship with more Water, was called to an Account for it, and punished for their carelesness, and had a good round fine laid upon them, which was to be deducted out of their wages, by little and little till the whole was payd. This same Ship being design'd for Bengal, Pegu and Aracan in a very little while, and some of the goods being ready to load, I left all my things on Board, designing to go that Voyage too. And having provided my self with what Medicaments I wanted, in about a Months time we left Batavia, and came in nine days before Pegu, where we cast Anchor. We had but very little business there, so that we stayed there but three days, and set Sail again, and came to Aracan; and thence went to Bengal, which is but eight Leagues further. There we cast Anchor just at the mouth of the River Chaor, which mixes with the Ganges, about a mile before it throws it self into the Sea of Bengal. About eight Leagues up that River, lyes Verma, a Town of considerable Trade: Some of our Merchants sailed up to it; But I went not with 'em. About forty Miles from Bengal, between the River Ganges [Page 117] and Perselis lyes a place, called Lohanack; where there are whole Fields of those Flowers called Roses of Jericho, or the Rose of Jerusalem, and the Lady's Rose. They are quite green; when you gather them, they close together straight and keep so, while they are dry, and when you put them into Water, they open as at first. They are good for many uses; but excellent for Women in Labour, and facilitate the Birth, by being only put under the Woman. I could have had abundance of 'em for little value, of the Inhabitants. They say the seed of these was brought over by a King out of Syria, where they grow in abundance about Jericho. I do not find they grow any where, but in these places I have mention'd; they have endeavoured to Transport them into several places, especially in Great Java: But they die and come to nothing, the ground ought to be very full of nitre [...]
11. CHAPTER XI
[...]AFter our Ship had got in her Complement of Sugar, Salt-peter, and Opium, we set Sail and went from Bengal to Masulipatam, belonging to the King of Galconda, whose Son keeps his residence at Pentipoli, lying not far from thence. The Inhabitants are most of the Mahometan Religion. The Air is very healthy one half of the year, when the Northern winds blow constant: But the Southern winds, which blow the other half of the year, fill the Country with distempers. We were theré during this latter Season, and felt the dismal Effects of it. We had already lost nine of our Men, and the rest were most of'em ill of Agues or Dropsies. But blessed be God, I was not at all indispofed. The ill State we were in, made us make all the haste we could to be gone, and hoysting Sail, we departed, and came in four days time before the Island Nicoparas, here we sailed in very great danger; for all the Sea there abouts is full of Rocks that lyc three or four fathoms under Water, and little small Islands, some of which are almost cover'd with Water. A little before we came by there, the Lion, a Ship of 470 Tun, run upon one of them, and was Split in pieces: But we past them all safe, and Steerd between Sumatra and Malacca, and thus got to Batavia; where I return'd to my former post. I used to go and visit the other Surgeons that had the care of some small Forts about us, and when they had any Patients that [Page 119] were dangerously ill, and their case desperate; they were sent to the Hospital at Batavia by vertue of a warrant from the Governour, which they used to get for that Purpose [...][Page 123] It was not without Wonder, as well as Pleasure, that I beheld the great Restauration and Improvement of this Famous City, which once lay in so ruinous a condition; and to see such plenty and abundance there, where some time before there was such a scarcity of necessaries, that many Men were ee'n famish'd. And certainly of all the hardships of that War, none was to be compared to that which we underwent for want of Water. I was once forced to give as much Mony for one single draught of it, as would have bought a Butt of Wine in some places. And such was our lamentable condition, that a Man would have given his Life the next hour for a draught of Cold Water to prolong it till then. So that when Water could be got at any rate, those who had the greatest share of Plunder, would give all they had for one single Cup of it; and thought themselves happy they could purchase it upon such easie terms: And thus after all their labour, they were but little the better for all that Booty they had gotten. But what was the most dismal of all was, that it was not to be gotten sometimes, tho' one had had the World to give for it: And in those extremities, many of our Men drinking out of some Pools that were not wholesom, some being Nitrous or Saltpeterish, and others being poisonous Water, it threw them into such Distempers, and put 'em into such Tortures, that it would have grieved any one to have seen the miserable condition they were in. In the Wars with Kartiri, which were a little before my coming to the Indies, the poor Soldiers were in as bad a condition to the full. So that a Man would wonder, that the same Persons should willingly expose themselves to such difficulties a second time; as most of our Men did, who were in both Expeditions. But what will not necessity put a Man upon, especially when it is a little enliven'd by the hopes of some fortunate Success? And I believe, that the good Fortune of a certain Drummer in those late Wars, served in a great measure to animate the whole Body of [Page 124] our Army. For this Drummer lighted fortunately of the King of Kartiri's Crown, for which the General at Batavia gave him thirty thousand Gilders of Dutch Mony; and gave him his Freedom, and a Pass to go into Holland, where he was to have his Mony paid, tho' the Poor Man ne're liv'd to enjoy it, for he died in the Voyages; but the Mony was duly paid to his Sisters, who lived at Middleburgh, according to the agreement made with the Deceased. And I make no doubt but every one of our Men, that knew this, were in hopes of getting at least a Crown for their share too. I was one of four who had almost got as considerable a Booty, but we lost all by our want of curiosity; for three of the Admiral's chief Attendants, and I, being just come into Bantam, after a little fatigue, we went to take a Nap in a Warehouse that stood open, we laid us down upon a great Chest that stood there, and never dreamt that there was any thing of value within it; but we had not been there above half an hour, when an Officer was sent from the Admiral to demand our Bed from under us, which we readily yielded. We were strangely surprised when we saw a Party of Men ready to convoy it to the Admiral, before whom it was open'd; and out of it came seven hundred Leathern Bags full of Cubangs, which (as I told you before) are pieces of Gold, worth ten Rixdollers apiece. You may imagine then how silly we lookt upon one another, when we heard this; and how angry we were with our selves, that we could complain of the hardness of our Bed, and were not so wise as to shake up the Feathers. But to be short, we lost very simply a Treasure which we might have had very fairly, and without opposition, if we had but been so prudent as to search into it at first. But it is time to return to the Sumatra, which was now ready to go off; so that with the first fair Wind we set sail, and got safe to Batavia again, where we found a Fleet of seven Ships in a readiness to go home, i. e. to Holland. (as the custom is to send some such number of Ships home every Year, sometimes more, sometimes less at a time.) I was glad to have the opportunity to send some Letters by 'em, and I did so; but charging only one Friend with 'em, my Friends in Holland never received any of 'em. But what made me the more negligent was, that I was near the time of my freedom, and in full design of going over my self in a very little while. As soon as that Fleet had hoisted sail, I went to Church to join with the Prayers of [Page 125] the Congregation for the Fleets Prosperity and good Voyage, as there is always on those occasions [...]Thus I continued upon the Bali, and as soon as she had taken in her lading of Linnen and Striped Stuffs, together with some Chests of Mony; we fell down the River and set sail for Bantam; whither she was bound. We were above two hours sail; but we were forced back by a contrary Wind, which blew so excessive hard for the space of two days, that we were very happy, that we ridded our selves out of it so luckily. As soon as it was over, we set sail again, and in forty eight hours we reached the Road of Bantam, where we immediately unladed. [Page 126] When we went to Shore there, we saw some thousands of Javians got together at the Mouth of the River: We were a little surprized at first, not knowing what the meaning of it should be; but coming nearer, and seeing several Hollanders amongst 'em, and then discovering their Nets, Hooks and other Instruments, we found they were only catching of Crocodiles [...][Page 127] Our Ship was once again order'd to go to Onrust to carry Rice, and other Provisions; which we did, and returned in four or five days. As we were come back, it was my fortune to fall once more into the Sea; for as I went to ease Nature on the outside of the Ship, according to the usual way, I held fast by the Rope, which broke, so in I dropt [...]
12. CHAPTER XII
[...]Our Master was not for going further, so we went back to Batavia; and being there refitted, we set Sail out again; [Page 131] and in three days came before Japara, which lies likewise in great Java, seventy Leagues eastward of Batavia [...] Here we provided our selves with Water, and Wood for Fuel; which being done, we wound up our Anchors, and set sail: The next day we passed by the six Islands of Luboce, leaving them on our left, and Java on the right; and arrived to the Island of Madura, which is about ten Leagues from Java. There we staid a while, and then we set forward again with the first Gale of Wind, and passed by some hundreds of little Islands and Rocks, which are called Pater noster, some of which we went over, whilst the Sea beat most terribly against those Rocks which stood a little above the Water, and made us very much affraid, we having no other way, but thro' them: So that we were continually sounding with the Plummet. We fell foul of the Rocks four times notwithstanding all our care; but God be thanked, without any damage. The best of that course is, that there is scarcely ever any stormy Winds there, by reason of the great heat the Sun gives. A few days after we got before Macassar. Macassar is a considerable Kingdom, and well govern'd. TheDutch, English and Danes have all freedom of Traffick there, as well as the Indians of all parts. It lies on the Island Cebebes to the South, and reaches about an hundred Leagues; under the Line, it hath Borneo on the one side, and the Molucca Islands on the other [...][Page 132] The People, Natives of this Island, are scatter'd thro' all parts of the Indies; and all Nations are desirous of 'em for their Slaves, becuase they are exceeding faithful, diligent, and good natur'd, and make the bravest Soldiers, as I have seen it my self in the whole time of the War of Bantam, where they daily signaliz'd themselves, both by their Courage and Conduct. They are likewise the most profitable sort of Servants. I have had two of them, who have got me half a Ducate on a day; so that these are lookt upon as the most valuable of all the Indians; and therefore are used with the greatest care and humanity that may be. The hardest and most slavish part of their Work, is generally put upon the Malabarians, who are an ill-lookt sort of People, like the Caffers. They are so black too, that they are often taken for Moors: Whereas it is a Nation of Asia, but dispersed here and there over all the Indies, as theJews are in Europe [...] [Page 133] But I return now to my Ship, which was ready to set sail again for Batavia, and waiting only for a Wind. Therefore with the first Easterly Wind, we set out of the Port of Macassar, and running happily thro' the Pater-noster Islands, we came to Anchor before Japara, where we found three Ships come from Batavia, three days before us; and had brought some Soldiers from thence, to quel an uproar that had been made at Japara, in which above twenty Dutch had been killed by the Inhabitants, who attempted to throw themselves into the Fort Sambura. But by the means of the Governor, and this Auxiliary Force, all was quieted, and the Ringleaders sent away to Batavia, where they receiv'd their due reward. Some of them were broken upon the Wheel, some had their Ears and Noses cut off; and were sent chained altogether to some Islands to spend all their Life in burning of Lime, and there to remain perpetual Slaves. [Page 134] I Landed before these Wretches were sent away, so that I saw 'em go along Chain'd together: But that which was the most dismal to see, was the Lamentation and sad Out-cries of these poor Fellow's Wives and Children, who conducted them to the Water-side [...]We departed from Japara, and came the next day into the Road before Batavia, and an hour or two after us, came in the Ship that had those Rebels on board: so that there we saw them Executed, and disposed of as I have said already [...][Page 135] Here I spent my time with a great deal of variety of Diversions, as Fishing, Walking, Shooting, going by Water, and chiefly seeing my Friends: Most days I took a Praw, and went to some small Islands that lie hard by there, where the chief Fishing is to be seen [...][Page 138] The City of Odia is very large; but most of the Houses are very low: So that all the Towers of their Temples (which are computed to be above Five thousand) being rais'd much higher, and being all easily seen by reason of the other Buildings being so low, seem altogether like a Forest in Winter. It is impossible for any one to conceive what vast numbers of People is continually moving about in that City, insomuch, that a Man who is newly come, would be apt to ask what's the matter, and take that for a gathering of the Mob, or an unusual Croud, which is but the usual Concourse of the Town. It is seated upon the River Menan, which is likewise fill'd with Ships, Praws, &c. This River is of the same Nature with the Nile, the Niger, and the Ganges, and like them, overflows all the Fields about Odia, and makes them very fruitful; spreading it self over great part of the Country, by means of several Arms or Creeks which Providence hath ordered for that purpose. And besides this Advantage which this Inundation affords to the Country, it is a mighty Fence to the City Odia; because the River over-flowing at certain Seasons, no Enemy can Besiege it but for some Months, during which the City is always able to defend it self, being extraordinary well Situated and Fortified. Through most of the Streets run fine Channels, as at Rotterdam, so that one may go with a Boat from one part of the Town to the other, which renders it mighty Commodious for Trade; I may say, that considering all things, there is not a finer City in allIndia. [Page 139] Our Ships having now in little more than a Fortnights time unladen, and taken in their full Lading, which consisted of several Commodities, as Buck and Roe-Skins, Jappan-Wood, &c. we fell down the River, and with a fair Northerly Wind set Sail homewards again. The next day it Snowed so hard, and the Wind was so high, that we were drove almost upon Land 'ere we could be aware of it; but by good Providence we came off without any hurt, and in 11 days came up with the Island Puloaura; where we lay still three days refreshing our selves, and then continued our Course [...]
13. CHAPTER XIII
[...]We went there into a publick House that stood not far from the Water-side upon an Eminence, which afforded us a very agreeable Prospect, and sat us down in a very pleasant Arbour, with Cedar-Trees, Limon-Trees, and other Green-Trees of that kind all about us. We caused a Dinner to be got ready for us of what the Country afforded; which was Fish and Fowl, Eggs, Herbs, &c. Our Liquor was Suri, which is a Juice drawn from the Coco-Trees; with that, we made very good Massack and Lemonade, by [Page 143] the help of some Sugar, Spices, Limons, and Oranges, which we had in good plenty [...][Page 145] The next morning we saw them by break of day sailing by a small Island. They having found out our Design, were endeavouring to make their escape, for the two Boats we had sent after 'em were farther from 'em than we were [Page 146] with the whole Fleet: So we joyned together again, and our eight Boats sailing much faster than the Men of War could, pursued them so tightly, that not withstanding these Rovers had several Oars with them, (which they use to make use of in a Calm or in case of pursuit) yet by Noon our Boats were all got within a quarter of a League of 'em; so that the last of 'em were forced to yield or fight. We with our great Ships were within a League of 'em all, and turn'd round a small Island, during which we lost sight of them: But our Boats all this while having got ground, they begun to thunder amongst 'em; so that in a little time, two of the Pyrates Boats were seized. Then we came in sight again, and took these two Boats into our Charge, and brought the Men on Board of us. Our Boats having made some stay, while they engaged these two, the other three were got away again pretty far. However, ours were not long 'ere they came within shot of 'em, and so pursued them that they came to a close Engagement, and after a sharp resistance, at length became Masters of them. We lost in all 28 Men, and had 30 wounded; but we kill'd 200, and wounded above 50 of theirs. The rest we carried to Batavia. There was at first near 900 of 'em; of which nine were Dutchmen, and two Danes; one of whom had been a Captain of a Man of War. We caught both the Danes, but we had but three Dutchmen, the six others were killed in the sight. Being come to Batavia, they were all put into Prison, and Examin'd [...] About this time came into the Road of Batavia a Ship [Page 147] from Madagascar, which brought with her two and twenty Savages from the Island St. Galle. They were much uglier and much more brutish than the Hottentots at the Cape of Good Hope; their Speech was hardly articulate, but confused like that of Children, and as if they Sung. They had no Hair on their Heads, only a rough scabby Skin. They were strong, tho' excessive Lean, and had scarce any thing but Skin and Bones. Before their Privy-Parts they had a Wild-Cat's Skin, which reach'd down to their Knees; for in St. Galle there are multitudes of Wild-Cats. They were shut up all together, like Beasts in a Stable, and were fed with nothing but raw Rice and Water, which it seems was too good for 'em; for in a little while they all died. A nastier sort of Men I never saw; for as I said, except their Head, they were Hairy all over to their very Hands and Feet. Their Face was very red; but their Teeth were very fine and white: Their Eyes were very large; and their large Ears slit in five or six places. About their Neck and Feet they had some Twists of Sea-Rushes; which their Women made use of likewise to bear up their long swagging Breasts. I believe the World doth not afford a more Savage Wild sort of Men. St. Galle, from which they came, lies about 1300 miles from Batavia, and about 300 from the Cape, on the side of the Island Madagascar [...]. [Page 148] Two days after this, my Companion and I, and two more, went a shooting, about two or three Leagues into the [Page 149] Country, along by the Powder-Mills, upon the River Jacatra: And as we had pretty good sport, and kill'd a good quantity of Pigeons, Rabbets, &c. we were going to a Negery to refresh our selves, and make Merry with our Provisions, we spying a Rabbet making towards a little Wood; two of us went after him, while the others went forward to get that Dress'd which we had kill'd. As we were in pursuit of our Game, my Friend one way, and I the other, I came to a narrow River's side, where I saw a Man sitting in a Melancholly posture, with his Eyes on the Ground. Hearing him groan and sigh, put me to a stand, and ask him what he was; to which he answer'd me with a deep sigh, that he was a poor Hollander. I askt him what he did there, and whither he design'd to go. Ah! Sir, says he, I know not where I am, nor which way I am to take, but surely Providence hath sent you to my Relief; and seeing I have the Happiness once more to meet with a Christian, I beseech you to direct me, (if there's any way for't) how I may come to you: Saying this, he fell upon his Knees; so I told him, I would get him over, and bid him stay there. My Companion had made his shoot, and was gone to the rest: So I went up to the Village, and got a Praw, which I sent to bring him over to me; and as soon as he came over, he gusht out in Tears, and Embracing me, thank'd me most passionately for my seasonable Assistance. I desired him to go along with me to some Company I had, which he did; and gave me a short account of himself by the way. My Company wondred who I had got with me, but when they were informed what he was, we all help'd to Comfort him, and treated him as we did our selves. In that while he inform'd us of the particulars of his Misfortunes: The sum of which was, That being come over from Delst, in the Company's Service, as Carpenter, he had been employed in the Kartirian Wars; and as he, with three more, were sent out to take a View of some part of the chief City of that Kingdom, they had the ill Fortune to fall into the Hands of the Enemy, who carried them away Prisoners to Tuban, and there Sold them to a rich Chinese, who was just come thither in a Ship of his own: That Chinese carried them all four to China, to the Sea-Port Town call'd Quancheu; where after seven years of hard Slavery, they found an opportunity, and made their escape from thence in a small Boat to the Island of Manilha; where they luckily met with a Ship that was coming to [Page 150] Batavia, but as they were got almost within reach of it, and within four miles of Land, their Ship struck upon a Shelf, and there sunk; and he knew of none that had saved themselves but he alone. The Relation of this dismal Story did affect us so, that we were as Melancholly as himself [...]
14. CHAPTER XIV
The Author's Departure from Batavia for Holland. Orders observed among the Ships: They come and lie before Bantam; where the Author going on Shore, is left behind, but by good luck over-takes the Ship again. They come to the Cape de Bon Esperance. Observations on the Place, and on the Hottentot's there. They leave the Cape. Come into the Sea which they call the Graz-zee;They meet with a fearful Storm, which lasted four days. They come to the Briel;thence to Amsterdam, where the Author is forced to lie, in great Pain, and at great Expence;and at last, with much ado, gets home to Ulm.
I Had made Provisions of all things necessary for my Voyage, but especially of preserved Pepper, Arack, and Tobacco, which are the chief Things for such a long Voyage as that is. I took with me a good quantity of China-Ware, some pounds of Tea, and some Murus and Parcallen, (which are a sort of very sine Linnen) off the Company, upon my own Account, which amounted to a great deal of Money [...] [Page 156] The next day we came and Anchor'd before Bantam, about a League from Shore near the place where we lay when we went in pursuit of the Pyrates. Our Boat went on Shore, and I went with it, to see some of my Acquaintance there, and to take my leave of them. Notwithstanding that the Steward had given me very strict charge not to stay, and told me two or three times he was just going, I could not part from my Friends readily, and when I came to go, I found my Spark gone; and was told he was gone off half an Hour before, with eight Cows, and other Provisions that he was come for. When I heard this, I was ready to die with Fear and Grief; and had no other Remedy, but immediately to Hire a light Praw with 16 Oars; When we came out of the River of Bantam into Sea, we saw our Ships just ready to Sail; for the Wind was very good, and then they loose no time: However, I pluckt up a good Heart when I saw [Page 157] 'em, and encouraged the Javians to pull stoutly, and promised them six Rixdollers amongst 'em over and above the Bargain, in case they overtook our Ship. This made them Row like Tygers, and by that time it was Night, as the Ship was got up to the Island Dwars in the Zee, we came in reach of her, at which the Javians set up a full Huzza, and I was so transported with Joy, that I could not but joyn with them very heartily. As soon as we could come to fasten by her side, I went to get up; but unfortunately made a false step, and tumbled down again into the Boat, and so Sprain'd my Leg, that I was forced to be drawn up into the Ship, and lie still for some days. The next day, three of the Cows were kill'd and distributed among the Ship's Crew. Some days after we passed the Streights of Sunda, and came to the Prince's Island, where we parted with our Convoy Ships, and sent them back to Batavia [...] [Page 161] In my return I met with some Wild Hottentots, who come down thither from the Cafre's Country, about 100 Leagues from thence. They, as I observed, are almost Blind in the day time, at least extream Dim-sighted; so that they do most of their Business by Night. In the time that I staid in the Cape, I saw once one of these Wild Prople executed for Theft: He had some time before stolen some Cows and Sheep from some of the Freemen, without the Approbation of their King, (which is a Dignity they confer upon some one amongst 'em; and whereever they are, tho' but to the number of five or six together, they always make them a King or Captain to Rule over them, without whose Consent no kind of thing is to be done; and in this the Company doth not at all interpose, but leaves them to their own Customs). The Criminal was tied Hand and Foot, and stretched out betwixt two Posts, about half a Man's height from the Ground; after which some Men came with great Sticks, and beat him to Death. If they hit him on the Head or Breast he is soon dispatcht; but they never give over as long as they find any Breath in him. When he is expired, they carry him to the Wood, and there fasten him to a Bough, and leave him for a Prey to Wild Beasts [...] [Page 166] Being come to Rotterdam, and having within 3 days time received my Chest back again, as all the rest likewise had. I was forced to go from thence to Amsterdam, that being the Chamber where I had engaged my self; and from which I was to receive my Money. Thither I went partly by Land, and partly by Water; but either way with so much [Page 167] pain and uneasiness, that all the Hardships I had undergone in all my Voyages were not to be compared to that: Yet was I full of Acknowledgement to Almighty God, who had deliver'd me out of so many Extream Dangers to which I had been exposed, from the merciless Sea, fierce and cruel Serpents and Beasts; and from several Heathens of many Nations more Barbarous than them all, and had brought me again into a Christian Country. And though I was not in Health of Body, yet it was an exceeding Comfort to me, to have so good Opportunities again of making better Provision for my Soul, and to participate of that Holy Sacrament from which I had been absent during seven years. Wherefore being in this weak Condition, the chief thing I desired was to have a Minister, and to receive the Communion. My Landlady help'd me to one who was the Minister of the German Lutheran Church at Amsterdam, from whose Pious Discourse, and Absolution, together with the Blessed Sacrament, I received an exceeding great Comfort, and then very chearfully resign'd my self up to the Almighty's Pleasure. I thank'd my Ghostly Father for his Kindness, and made him a Present of six Ducatoons, some Roses of Jericho, and some China Ware. My Pain encreasing rather than diminishing, and I growing daily worse and worse, I sent for a Doctor and two Chirurgions, not willing to trust to my own Skill only. And being I was not able to go and receive my Money my self, I was obliged to send a Person to the East-India Chamber to receive my Money and Goods, by Virtue of a Letter of Attorney which I gave him. The Money that was Due to me from the Company did not amount to more than 4 or 500 Ducatoons, which was all the Fruit of my Labours; except some considerable East-India Goods I had brought over on my own Account, which I had to Sell: But by that time I had satisfied my Attorney, my Doctor, and the two Chirurgions, and defray'd the rest of my Charges, I found my Bag very light. My Doctor did not cost me above Forty Dutch Gilders: The two Chirurgions, who were two of the most famous Artists in the whole City of Amsterdam, had Eighty Rixdollars; They had taken out my two Bullets, and cleared the Bone of above Twenty Splinters, great and small: For my Lodging, I paid Two Rixdollars a Week, and had but a very poor Accommodation neither. The Apothecary too came in with a hideous Bill. In short, I should have been but in a miserable Condition if I had not had Money: And that [Page 168] went after such a Rate, that in less than Three Months time I had spent above 300 Ducatoons. However, I began to recover a little, and my pain was not sharp as before; tho' I could not go or stand as yet: But as soon as I was able to stir, I was resolved to continue my Journey, and set out of this place, and endeavour to get home, whatever befel me. And in order thereunto I took a Coach to carry me to the Utrecht-Poort, where I took Boat for Utrecht, and from thence went to Nimeguen, and so passed through Cleveland to Cologne. By that time I was got hither, I was so fatigued, that I was not in a capacity of moving any further; and therefore I was forced to lie still here for near three Weeks; during which time, I spent a great deal of Money again, and was so weak that I had hardly any hopes of ever reaching so far as home; nor did any Body think I should ever have recover'd. But it pleased God to Bless human Endeavours, so that I recovered a little again; upon which I immediately got my self carried to the Rhine, and there went on Board a Ship which carried me to Mentz, and thence to Franckfort. Some Relations and Gentlemen of my Acquaintance were so kind as to come to meet me before I got Embark'd on the Rhine; but I was not in a Condition to take notice of them. However, they were so Civil, as to Convoy me along the Shore. When I was come to Franckfort,I was forced to stay without the City two days before they would permit me to enter, and the Weather being very Cold, I made but a poor shift in the Ship all that while: till at length, the Chirurgions came to me, and went themselves to the Burgher-Master; upon which I was let in to the City that very night, tho' late. It being hard to get a Lodging in an Inn at that time of night, some good Friends of mine carried me to a private House, where some of my Acquaintance came to Visit me. One of them got me a Coach, which in seven days time brought me to the place whereI so earnestly desired to be, the City where I was Born. There I found all my Dear Sisters alive and well, who received me with all the Demonstrations of that sincere Love and Affection they had for me, and were extreamly Serviceable to me [...]