Delightes for ladies to adorne their persons, tables, closets, and distillatories with beauties, banquets, perfumes and waters
for Ladies, to adorne
their Persons, Tables,
closets, and distil
Beauties, banquets, perfumes
Reade, practise, and censure.
Printed by Peter Short.
PUBLISHED BY Peter Short
1. To all true lovers of Arte and knowledge
2. THE TABLE.
GOod Reader, for the vnderstanding of this Table, know that a, b, c, d, do giue directions vnto the foure seuerall parts or treatises of this Booke, (a) for the first, the rest in their order.
|AENula Campana rootes preserued.||a, 1|
|Almonds in Leach||a, 27.|
|Almond butter to make||a, 57|
|Almonds into gelly||a, 58|
|Alliger distilled||b, 16|
|Apples kept drie all the yeare||a, 47|
|Aqua rubea.||b, 7|
|Aqua composita of D. Steuens||b, 8|
|Artichokes kept long.||a, 69|
|BAgs sweet to lie amo~gst linnen.||d, 35|
|Ball to take out staines||d, 3|
|Ball to wash with||d, 8|
|Balme water.||b, 5|
|Beefe roasted kept long.||c, 18|
|Beefe powdered kept long without charge.||c. 19|
|Beefe fresh at the sea.||c. 20|
|Beautie for the face.||d. 7.14|
|Bisket bread or French bisket.||a. 19|
|Bisket called prince bisket||a. 20|
|Bisket called biskettello.||a. 21|
|Bloud of hearbes.||b. 22|
|Borage candied.||a. 11|
|Botling of beere truly.||c. 27|
|Bottles mustie helped,||c. 28|
|Bottle ale most excellent.||c. 32|
|Brawne to eat tender and delicat.||c. 13|
|Broome capers preserued.||a. 37|
|Broyling without smoake.||c. 26|
|Bruse helped.||d. 24|
|Butter tasting of spice or flowers.||c. 21|
|Cakes sweete without spice or sugar.||a. 60|
|Candying of flowers.||a. 9.53|
|Candying in rocke candie.||a, 33.42|
|Candying of Orenge pilles.||a. 35|
|Candles for Ladies tables.||c. 39|
|Candles hanging in the aire.||c. 40|
|Capers of broome preserued.||a. 37|
|Capon boyled in white broth.||c. 5|
|Casting in sugar plate.||a, 13|
|Casting of sugar in partie moldes.||a, 43|
|Casting and molding of fruit.||a, 44.|
|Cheries preserued.||a, 8|
|Cherie pulpe kept dry all the yeere.||a 45|
|Cheries dried in the sunne.||a, 46|
|Cheese extraordinarie.||c, 22|
|Chesnuts kept long.||a, 73|
|Chilblaines helped.||d, 15|
|Chine of veale or chicken boiled.||c. 10|
|Cinamon water.||b, 10|
|Collis white and like gellie.||a, 55|
|Comfits of all sorts.||a, 54|
|Conserue of Prunes or da~sons.||a. 50, 52|
|Conserue of Strawberies.||a, 51|
|Cowcumbers preserued.||a, 36|
|Cowslep paste.||a, 40|
|Cowslip water or vineger of the colour of the cowslep.||c. 34|
|Crayfish kept long.||c. 31|
|Creame clowted||c. 23|
|DAmaske powder.||d, 1, 9|
|Damsons in marmelade.||a, 31|
|Damson pulpe kept all the yeare.||a, 45|
|Damsons in conserue.||a, 50, 52|
|Dentifrises for the teeth.||d, 26|
|Distillation of hearbes in a new maner.||b, 11|
|Drying of fruits in the sun||a, 46|
|EGlantine water||b, 20|
|Eringo rootes preserued.||a, 1|
|Extract of vegetables.||b, 19|
|FAce spotted or freckled to help.||d, 6 23|
|Face made faire||d, 7.14|
|Face full of heat helped.||d, 11, 16 17, 18, 19, 20, 21|
|Face kept white and cleere||d, 12|
|Fish into paste||c, 14|
|Fish fried kept long||c, 17|
|Flesh kept sweete in summer||c, 24|
|Flies kept from oile peeces||c, 30|
|Flounder boyled on the french fashion||c, 3|
|Flowers preserued||a, 7|
|Flowers candied||a, 9, 11|
|Flowers in rocke candie.||a, 42|
|Flowers dried without wrinkling||a, 63|
|Fruit preserued||a, 8|
|Fruit how to molde and cast||a, 44|
|Fruit kept drie all the yeare.||a, 45, 46.47|
|Fruit kept long fresh.||a, 70|
|GEllie chrystalline||a, 26|
|Gelly of fruits||a, 29|
|Gelly of Almonds||a, 58|
|Gilloflowers kept long||a, 61|
|Gillowflowers preserued||a, 7|
|Gilloflower water||b, 20|
|Gingerbread drie||a, 23|
|Ginger in rocke candie||a, 33.42|
|Ginger greene in sirup||a, 49|
|Ginger candied||a, 53|
|Gloues to persume||d, 34|
|Gooseberies preserued||a, 8|
|Grapes growing all the yeere||a, 62|
|Grapes kept till Easter||a, 64|
|HAndwater excellent||d, 2, 28|
|Hands stained to helpe.||d, 5|
|Hands freckled to helpe.||d, 6|
|Handwater of Scotland||b, 21|
|Hasell nuts kept long||a, 72|
|Haire blacke altered||d, 30, 37|
|Haire made yellow.||d, 36|
|Hearbs distilled in a new maner.||b, 11|
|Hearbs to yeeld salt||b, 12|
|Hearbs to yeeld bloud||b, 22|
|Honey to yeeld spirit||b, 13|
|IRish Aqua vitae||b, 9|
|Isop distilled in a new maner||b, 11|
|Iuice of Orenges or lemmons kept all the yeare.||c, 35|
|Iumbolds to make||a, 16|
|LArkes to boile||c, 4|
|Lauender distilled in a new maner.||b 11|
|Leach of almonds||a 27|
|Leg of mutton boiled after the French fashion||c, 7|
|Lemmons in Marmelade||a, 41|
|Lemmon moulded and cast||a, 44|
|Lemmon iuyce kept all the yeere||c, 35|
|Lettuce in sucket||a, 32|
|Liquerice paste||a, 40|
|Lobsters kept long||c, 31|
|MAce in rocke candie||a, 42|
|Mallard to boile||c, 6|
|Marchpaine paste||a, 12, 18|
|Marigolds preserued||a, 7|
|Marigolds candied||a, 9, 11|
|Marigold paste||a, 40|
|Marmelade of Quinces or Damsons,||a, 3|
|Marmelade of Lemmons of Orenges.||a, 41|
|May deaw clarified||d, 33|
|Morphew helped||d, 21, 22|
|Mulberies in gellie||a, 29|
|Muske sugar||a, 2|
|Mustard meale||c, 25|
|Mustinesse helped or preuented in waters||b, 24|
|NVtmegs in rocke candie.||a, 33, 42|
|Nutmegs candied||a, 53|
|Nuts molded and cast off||a, 44|
|Nuts kept long||a, 72|
|ORenges preserued.||a, 34|
|Orenge pilles candied||a, 35|
|Orenges in marmelade||a, 41|
|Orenge molded and cast off||a, 44|
|Orenge iuice kept all the yeere||c, 35|
|Oisters kept long.||c. 15|
|PAste of flowers||a, 14, 40|
|Paste of Nouie||a, 15|
|Paste to keepe one moist||a, 17|
|Paste called pust paste||a, 24|
|Paste short without butter||a, 25|
|Paste of Genua of Quinces||a, 30|
|Paste of fish||c, 14|
|Peare molded and cast off||a, 44|
|Peares kept drie||a, 47|
|Perfumes delicate, and sodainly made.||d, 31|
|Perfuming of gloues||d, 34|
|Pickerel boiled on ye french fashio~.||c, 3|
|Pigeons of sugar paste||a, 10|
|Pigeons boiled with Rice||c, 9|
|Pig to sowse||c, 1, 2|
|Pigs petitoes boiled after the French fashion||c, 8|
|Plums preserued||a, 8|
|Plums dried in the sunne||a, 46|
|Pomander to make||d, 4|
|Pomander renewed||d, 32|
|Pomatu~ most excelle~t for the face.||d, 13|
|Pomgranats kept long||a, 68|
|Pieseruing of Roots||a, 1|
|Preseruing of cowcumbers||a, 36|
|Prunes in conserue||a, 50, 52|
|Pulpe of fruit kept all the yeare.||a, 45|
|QVidinia of Quinces||a, 28|
|Quinces into paste of Genua.||a, 30|
|Quinces in marmelade,||a, 31|
|Quinces kept drie all the yeare.||a, 47|
|Quinces kept long.||a, 67|
|Rabbets of sugar paste.||a, 10|
|Raspices in gellie.||a, 29|
|Rootes preserued,||a, 1|
|Rootes candied||a, 53|
|Rosa solis to make||b, 6|
|Rosemarie flowers candied.||a, 9|
|Roseleaues to drie.||a, 3, 6|
|Rose sirup,||a, 5|
|Roses preserued.||a, 7|
|Roses and Rose leaues candied.||a, 9, 11|
|Rose paste.||a, 40|
|Roses kept long.||a, 61|
|Rose leaues dried without wrinckles.||a, 63|
|Rosewater distilled at Michaelmas.||b, 14|
|Rosewater distilled in a speedy manur.||b, 15|
|Roses to yeeld a spirit.||b, 17|
|Rosewater most excellent||b, 18|
|Rosewater, and yet the Roseleaues not discoloured.||b, 23|
|Rosewater and oyle drawne together.||b. 25|
|Rosewater of the colour of the Rose.||c, 34|
|Rose vineger of the colour of the Rose.||c, 34|
|Rose vineger made in a newe manner.||c, 41|
|SAlet oile purified and graced in taste and smell.||c, 36|
|Salmon kept long fresh||c, 16|
|Salt of hearbs||b, 12|
|Salt delicate for the Table||c, 38|
|Sawsedges of Polonia||c, 12|
|Sirup of Violets||a, 4|
|Sirup of Roses||a, 5|
|Sparrowes to boile.||c, 4|
|Spirit of wine extraordinarie||b, 1|
|Spirit of wine ordinarie||b, 2|
|Spirits of Spices||b, 3|
|Spirit of wine tasting of any vegetable.||b, 4|
|Spirit of honey||b, 13|
|Spirit of hearbs and flowers||b, 17|
|Skin white and cleare||d, 2|
|Sunburning helped||d, 22|
|Stoue to sweate in,||d, 27|
|Strawberies in gellie||a, 29|
|Strawberies in conserue||a, 51|
|Sucket of Lettuce stalkes||a, 32|
|Sucket of greene walnuts||a, 49|
|Sugar musked||a, 2|
|Sugar paste for foule||a, 10|
|Sugar plate to cast in||a, 13|
|Sugar plate of flowers||a, 14|
|Sugar plate to colour||a, 38|
|Sugar cast in partie molds||a, 43|
|Sugar smelling and tasting of the cloue or cynamon.||a, 71|
|TEale to boile||c, 6|
|Teeth kept white and sound||d, 10 25, 26|
|Time distilled in a new maner||b, 11|
|Trosses for the sea||a, 39|
|VIneger distilled||b, 16|
|Vineger to clarifie||c, 37|
|Violet sirup.||a, 4|
|Violet paste||a, 40, 14|
|Violet water or vineger of the colour of the violet||c, 34|
|WAfers to make||a, 56|
|Walnuts in sucket||a, 49|
|Walnuts kept fresh long||a, 65.66|
|Wardens kept drie all the yeare.||a, 47|
|Washing water sweete.||b, 21, d, 2, 28, 29|
|Whites of egges broken speedily.||c, 29|
|Wigin to boyle||c, 6|
|Wine tasting of wormwood made speedily.||c, 33|
|Ytch helped.||d, 25.21.|
3. The Arte of preserving, conserving, candying, &c.
1. How to preserve Eringo roots, Aenula Campana, and so of others in the same manner
Seth them til they be tender, then take a ay the piths of the, and leave them in a colader til they have dropped as much as they will, the having a thin sirup ready, put the being cold into the sirup being also colde, and let them stand so three dayes, then boyle the sirup (adding some more fresh sirup unto it to supply that which the roots have drunk up) a little higher, and at three dayes end boyle the sirup againe without anie new addition, unto the full height of a preserving sirup, and put in your roots, and so keepe them. Rootes[Page]preserved in this maner will eate verie tender, because they never boiled in the sirup.
4. 2.How to make muske sugar of common sugar.
BRuse 4 or 6. graines of muske, place them in a peece of sarcenet, fine lawne or cambricke doubled, lay this in the bottome of a gallie pot, straining your Sugar thereon, stop your pot close, and all the sugar in a fewe dayes will both sent and taste of muske, and when you have spent that sugar, you may lay more sugar thereon, which will also receive the like impression. Such muske sugar is fold for two shillings the pound.
5. 3.How to drie Roseleaves in a most excellent maner.
WHen you have newly taken out your breade, then put[Page]in your Roses in a sieve first clipping away the whites, that they may be all of one colour, lay them about one inch in thicknesse in the sieve, & when they have stood halfe an houre or therabout they will growe whitish on the top, let them yet remaine without stirring till the uppermost of them be fully dried, then stir the together, and leave them about one other halfe houre, and if you finde them drie in the top, stir them together againe, & so continue this worke untill they bee throughly dried, then put them hote as they are into an earthen pot having a narrow mouth, and being wel leaded within, (the Refiners of gold and silver, call these pottes hookers) stop it with corke, and wet parchment, or with Waxe and Rosen mixed together, and hang your pot in a chimney or neere a continuall fire, & so they will keep exceeding faire in color & most[Page]delicate in sente. And if you feare their relenting, take the Roseleaves about Candlemas, and put them once again into a sieve stirring them up and downe often til they be drie, and then put them up againe hote into your potte. Note that you must set up your oven lidde, but not lute it about when you set in your Roseleaves, either the first or second time.post. numero 6.
6. 4. A most excellent sirup of Violets, both in taste and tincture.
EXpresse the juice of clipt Violets, & to three parts of juice take one fourth parte of conduit water, put the same into an Alablaster morter, with the leaves which you have stamped, and wring the same out through a cloth, as you did at the first into the other juice, put thereto a sufficient proportion of the finest su[Page]ger and brought also into a most fine powder, let the same stand 10. or 12. houres in a cleane glased earthen pan, then draine away the clearest, and put it into a glasse, and put therto a fewe drops of the juice of Lemmons, and it will become cleare, transparent, and of the violet colour. Then you may expresse more juice into the sugar, which will settle in the bottome, with some of the thickest part of the juyce: and heating the same upon a gentle fire, it will also becom a good sirup of violets, but not comparable to the first. By this manner of worke you gaine one quarter of sirup more then divers Apothecaries doe.
7. 5. A singular manner of making the sirup of Roses.
FILL a silver bason three quarters full of raine water, or rosewater, put therein a convenient[Page]proportion of Rose leaves, cover the bason and set it upon a pot of hote water (as wee usually bake a Custard) in three quarters of an houre, or one whole houre at the most, you shall purchase the whole strength and tincture of the Rose, then take out those leaves, wringing out all their liquor gently, and steepe more freshe leaves in the same water, continue this iteration seven times, and then make it up in a sirup, & this sirup worketh more kindely then that which is made meerely of the juyce of the Rose. You may make sundry other sirups in this manner. Quaere of hanging a pewter heade over the bason, if the ascending water will be worth the keeping.
8. 6.Another way for the drying of Roseleaves.
DRie them in the heat of a hot sunnie daye uppon a Leades,[Page] turning them up and downe till they be drie (as they doe haie) the put them up into glasses well stopt and luted, keeping your glasses in warme pleaces, and thus you may keepe all flowers: but hearbs after they are dryed in this manner, are best kept in paper bags, placing the bags in close Cupboards.
9. 7.How to preserve whole Roses, Gilloflowers, Marigolds, &c.
DIp a Rose that is neither in the bud nor overblowne, in a sirrup, consisting of sugar double refined, and Rosewater boiled to his true height, then open the leaves one by one, with a fine smooth bodkin either of bone or wood, and presently if it be a hot sunnie day, and whilest the sunne is in some good height, lay them on papers in the sunne, or else[Page]drie them with some gentle heate in a close roome, heating ye roome before you set them in, or in an Oven upon papers, in pewter dishes, & then put them up in glasses and keepe them in drie cupbords neere the fire. You must take out the seedes if you meane to eate them. You may proove this, preserving with sugar candie, in stead of sugar if you please.
10. 8. The most kindly waye to preserve plums, cherries, goosberies, &c.
YOu must first purchase some reasonable quantitie of their owne juice, with a gentle heate upon imbers between two dishes, dividing the juice still as it commeth in the stewing, then boyle each fruit in his owne juice, with a convenient proportion of the best refined sugar.
11. 25.To make paste short without butter.
TAke a quart of fine flower, and put it into a pipken, and bake it in an oven when you bake manchet, then take the yolkes of 2. or three egs, and a pint of creame, & make paste, put it into two ounces of sugar beeing sinely beaten, and so you shall make your paste short without butter or sewet. In like sort when you make sugar cakes bake your flower first.
12. 36.To preserve Cowcumbers all the yeere.
TAke a gallon of faire water, & a pottle of verivice, and a pint of bay salt, and a handfull of green fennell or Dill: boyle it a little, and when it is cold put it into a barrel, and then put your Cowcumbers into that pickle, and you shal keep them all the yeere.
13. 37.To preserve broome capers all the yeare.
BOyle a quart of Verivice and an handfull of baye salte, and therein you may keepe them all the yeare.
14. 45.How to keepe the drie pulpe of Cheries, Prunes, Damsons &c. all the yeare.
TAke of those kinde of cherries which are sharpin taste (Quaere if the common blacke and redde cherrie will not also serve, having in the ende of the decoction a little oyle of Vitrioll or Sulphur, or some verivice of soure grapes, or juice of Lemmons mixed therewith, to give a sufficient tartnesse) pull off their stalks and boile them by themselves without the addition of any liquour in a caldron or pipken, and when they begin[Page]once to boile in their owne juice, stir them hard at the bottom with a spattle, least they burn to the pans bottom. They have boyled sufficiently, when they have caste off all their skins, and that the pulp and substance of the cheries is grown to a thicke pap: then take it from the fire, and let it coole, then divide the stones and skins, by passing the pulpe onely through the bottome of a strainer reversed as they use incassia fistula, then take this pulpe and spread it thin upon glazed stones or dishes, and so let it drie in the sunne, or else in an oven presently after you have drawne your breade, then loose it from the stone or dish, & keepe it to provoke the appetite, and to coole the stomacke in fevers, and all other hote diseases. Prove the same in all manner of fruit. If you feare adustion in this worke, you may finish it in hote balneo.
15. 46.How to dry all manner of plums or Cheries in the sunne.
IF it be a small fruite, you must dry them whole, by laying the abroad in the hote sunne, in stone or pewter dishes, or Iron or brasse pannes, turning them as you shall see cause. But if the plum be of any largenesse, slit each plum on the one side from the top to the bottome, and then lay them abroad in the Sunne: but if they be of the biggest sort, then give eyther plum a slit on each side: and if the sun doe not shine sufficiently during the practice, then dry them in an oven that is temperately warme.
16. 47. How to keepe apples, peares, quinces, wardens. &c. all the yeare, drie.
PAre them, take out the coares, and slice them in thinne slices laying them to drie in the Sunne in some stone or metalline dishes, or upon high frame covered with course canvas, now and then turning them, and so they will keepe all the yeare.
17. 60.Sweete Cakes without eyther spice or suga.
SCrape or washe your Parsneps cleane, slice them thinne, drie them upon. Canvas or networke frames, beat them to powder mixing one thirde thereof with two[Page]thirds of fine wheat flower, make up your paste into coates, and you shall finde them very sweete and delicate.
18. 61. Roses and Gilloflowres kept long.
COver a Rose that is fresh, and in the bud, and gathered in a faire day after the dewe is ascended, with the whites of egges well beaten, & presently strew theron the fine powder of scarced sugar, and put them up in luted pots, setting the pots in a coole place in sand or gravell. With a fillip at any time you may shake off this inclosure.
19. 62. Grapes growing all the yeare.
PUt a Vine stalke through a Basket of earth in December, which is likely to be are Grapes,[Page]that yeare, and when the Grapes are ripe, cut off the stalk under the basket (for by this time it hath taken roote) keepe the basket in a warme place, and the grapes will continue fresh and faire a long time upon the vine.
69.Preserving of Artichocks.
CUt off the stalkes of your Artichokes within two inches of the Apple, and of all the rest of the stalkes make a strong[Page]decoction slicing them into thinne and small peeces, and keepe them in this decoction: when you spende them you must lay them first in warme water, and then in colde, to take away the bitternes of the. This of M. Parsons, that honest and painefull practicer in his profession.
In a mild & warm winter about a moneth or three weekes before Christmas, I caused great store of Artichokes to bee gathered with their stalkes in their full length as they grewe, and making first a good thicke lay of Artichoke leaves in the bottome of a great and large vessell I placed my Artichokes one uppon another as close as I could touch them, covering the over of a pritty thicknesse with Artichoke leaves: these Artichokes were served in at my table all the Lent after, the apples being red & sound, only the tops of the leaves a little vaded, which[Page]I did cut away.
21. 70. Fruit preserved in pitch.
DWayberries that do somwhat resemble blacke cherries, called in Latine by the name of Solanum laethale, beeing dipped in molten pitch, being almost cold, and before it congeale and harden againe, and so hung up by their stalkes, will last a whole yeare Probatum per M. Parsons, the Apothecarie. Proove what other fruites will also bee preserved in this maner.
22. Secrets in Distillation.
22.1. 1. How to make true spirit of wine.
TAke the finest Paper you can get, or else some Virgine parchment, strayne it verie right and stiffe over the glasse bodie, wherein you put your sacke, malmsie or muskadine, oyle the paper or virgin parchment with a pensil moistned in the oile of Ben, and distill it in the Balneo with a gentle fire, and by this means you shall purchase only the true spirit of wine. You shall not have above two or three ounces at the moste out of a gallon of wine, which ascendeth in the forme of a cloude, without any dewe or veins in the [Page]helme, lute all the joyntes well in this distillation. This spirit will vanish in the ayre, if the glasse stand open.
22.2. 2.How to make the ordinarie spirit of wine that is solde for 5. shillings, & a noble, a pinte.
PUt sacke, malmesie, or muskadine into a glasse bodie, leaving one thirde or more of your glasse empty, set it in balneo, or in a pan of ashes, keeping a softe and gentle fire, drawe no longer then till all or most part wil burne away, which you may prove nowe and then, by setting a spoonefull thereof on fire with a paper as it droppeth from the nose or pipe of the helme, and if your spirit thus drawn have any phlegme therin, the rectify or redistil ye spirit again in a lesser body, or in a bolt receiver in sted of an other body, luting a small head on the top of the steel [Page]thereof, and so you shall have a verie strong spirit, or else for more expedition, distill five or sixe gallons of wine by a Limbecke, and that spirit which ascendeth afterward, redistil in glasse as before.
22.3. 3.Spirits of Spices.
DIstill with a gentle heat either in balneo, or ashes, the strong and sweete water, wherewith you have drawen oile of cloves, mace, nutmegs, Juniper, Rosemarie, &c. after it hath stoode one moneth close stopt, and so you shall purchase a most delicate Spirite of each of the saide aromaticall bodies.
22.4. 4. Spirit of wine tasting of what vegetable you please.
MAcerate Rosemarie, Sage, sweet fennell seedes, Marierom, Lemon or Orenge pils, &c. [Page]in spirit of wine a day or two, and then distill it over againe, unlesse you had rather have it in his proper colour: for so you shall have it upon the first infusion without any farther distillation, and some young Alchimists doe holde these for the true spirits of vegetables.
22.5. 5.How to make the water which is usually called Balmewater.
TO every gallon of claret wine put one pound of green balm Keep that which commeth first &. is clearest, by it selfe: and the second & whiter sort which is weakest, and commeth last, by it selfe, distill in a pewter limbeeke luted with paste to a brasse pot. Drawe this in May or June whe the herb is in his prime.
22.6. 6. Rosasolis.
TAke of the hearbe Rosasolis, gathered in July one gallon, pick [Page]out all the black moats from the leaves, dates halfe a pounde, Cinamon, Ginger, cloves, of each one ounce, graines half an ounce, fine sugar a pound and a halfe, red rose leaves, greene or dryed foure handfuls, steepe all these in a gallon of good Aqua Composita in a glasse close stopped with waxe, during twentie daies, shake it wel together once everie two daies. Your sugar must be powdred, your spices brused onely, or grosselie beaten, your dates cut in long slices the stones taken awaie. If you adde two or three graines of Amber greece, and as much muske in your glasse amongst the rest of the ingredientes, it will have a pleasant smel. Some adde the gum amber with coral and pearl finely poudred, and fine leafe golde. Some use to boyle Ferdinando bucke in Rosewater, till they have purchased a faire deepe crimson colour, and when the same is cold, [Page]they colour their Rosasolis and Aqua Rube a therewith.
22.7. 7.Aqua Rubea.
Take of muske sixe graines, of Cinamon and ginger of each one ounce, white sugar candy one pounde, pouder the sugar, and bruse the spices grossely, binde them up in a cleane linnen cloth, and put them to infuse in a gallon of Aqua coposita in glasse close stopped twentie foure houres, shaking them togither divers times, then put thereto of turnesole one dram, suffer it to stand one houre, and then shake al together, then if the colour like you after it is setled, poure the cleerest forth into an other glasse: but if you wil have it deeper coloured, suffer it to worke longer uppon the turnesole.
22.8. 8. Steevens Aqua composita.
TAke a gallo of Gascoign wine, of ginger, galingale, cinamo, nutmegs & graines, Annis seeds, fennel seeds, and carroway seeds, of each a dram, of Sage, mints, red Roses, Time, Pellitorie, Rosemary, wild thime, camomil, lavender, of each a handfull, braie the spices small, and bruise the herbs, letting them macerate 12. houres, stirring it now and then, then distill by a limbecke of pewter, keeping the first cleare water that cometh by it self, & so likewise the second. You shal draw much about a pinte of the better sort from every gallon of wine.
22.9. 9.Usquebath, or Irish aqua vitae.
TO every gallon of good Aqua composita, put two ounces of chosen liquerice bruised, and cut into small peeces, but first clensed from all his filth, and two ounces of Annis seeds that are cleane & bruised, let them macerate five or sixe daies in a wodden Vessel, stopping the same close, and then draw off as much as will runne cleere, dissolving in that cleare Aqua vitae five or six spoonfuls of the best Malassoes you can get, Spanish cute if you can get it, is thought better then Malassoes, then put this into another vessell; and after three or foure daies (the more the better) when the liquor hath fined it self, you may use the same: some adde Dates & Raisons of the sun to this receipt; those groundes which remaine you may redistill and make more Aqua composita of them, & of that Aqua coposita you may make more Usque bath.
22.10. 10. Cinamon water.
HAving a Copper bodie or brasse pot that will holde 12. gallons, you may well make 2. or 3. gallons of Cinamon water at once. Put into your body overnight 6. gallons of conduit water, and two gallons of spirit of wine, or to save charge two gallons of spirit drawne from wine lees, Ale, or lowe wine, or sixe pound of the best and largest Cinamon you can get, or else eight pound of the second sort wel brused, but not beaten into pouder: lute your Lymbeck, & begin with a good fire of wood & coals, till the vessel begin to distil, then moderate your fire, so as your pipe may drop apace, and run trickling into the receiver, but not blow at anie time: it helpeth much heerein to keep the water in the bucket, not too hot. by often change thereof, it must [Page]never be so hot but that you may well indure your finger therein. Then divide into quart Glasses the spirit which first ascendeth, and wherein you finde either no taste or a very small taste of the Cynamon, then may you boldely after the spirit once beginneth to come strong of the cinamo, draw untill you have gotten at the least a Gallon in the receiver, and then divide often by halfe pintes and quarters of pintes, least you drawe too long: which you shall knowe by the faynte taste and milky coulour which distilleth in the ende: this you must nowe and then taste in a spoone. Now, when you have drawen so much as you finde good, you may adde thereunto so much of your spirit that came before your Cinamon water, as the same will well beare: which you must find by your taste. But if your spirit and your Cinamo be both good, you may of the [Page]afore said proportion wil make up two gallons, or two gallons and a quarte of good Cinamon water. Heere note that it is not amisse to observe which glasse was first filled with the Spirit that ascended, and so of the second, thirde, and fourth: and when you mix, begin with the last glasse first, & so with the next, because those have more taste of the Cinamon then that which came first, and there fore more fit to bee mixed with your Cinamon water. And if you meane to make but 8. or 9 pintes at once, then begin but with the halfe of this proportion. Also that spirit which remaineth unmixed doth serve to make Cinamon water the second time. This way I have often proved & found most excellent: take heede that your Limbecke be cleane and have no maner of sent in it, but of wine or Cinamon, and so likewise of the glasses, sunnelles and pots which[Page]you shall use about this worke.
22.11. 11.How to distill Isop, thime, lavender, Rosemary, &c. after a new and excellent manner.
HAving a large Pot containing 12. or 14 gallons, with a Limbecke to it, or else a copper body with a serpentine of 20 or 24. gallons, and a copper heade, beeing such a vessell as is commonly used in the drawing of Aqua vitae, fill two partes thereof with faire watet, and one other thirde part with such hearbes as you woulde distill, the hearbes being eyther moist or drie it skilleth not greatly whether, let the hearbes macerate all night, and in the morning begin your fire, then distil as before in Cinamon water, beeing carefull to give change of waters to your colour alwaies as it needeth: drawe no longer then you feele a strong and sensible taste of[Page]ye hearb which you distill, alwayes dividing the stronger from the weaker, and by this meanes you shall purchase a water farre excelling any that is drawen by a common pewter still: you may also gather the oyle of each hearb which you shall finde fleeting on the top or summity of your water. This course agreeth best with such herbs as are not in taste, and will yeeld their oile by distillation.
22.12. 12How to make the salt of hearbs.
BUrne whole bundles of dryed Rosemary, Sage, Isop, &c; in a cleane oven, and when you have gathered good store of the ashes of the hearb, infuse warme water upon them, making a strong and sharpe Lee of those ashes, then evaporate that Lee, & the residece or setling which you finde in the botto therof, is the salt which you seek for. Some use to filter this lee[Page]divers times before evaporation, that their salt may be the clearer and more transparet. This salt according to the nature of the hearb hath great effects in physicke.
22.13. 13.Spirit of hony.
PUt one part of honey to 5. parts of water, when the water boileth, dissolve your honey therein, skimme it, and having sodden an houre or two, put it into a wodden vessell, and when it is but bloud warme, set it on worke with yeaste after the usuall manner of Beere and Ale, tun it, and when it hath lyen some time, it will yeelde his spirit by distillation; as wine, beer and ale will do.
22.14. 14. To distil Rosewater at Michaelmas and to have a go [...]d yeeld as at any other time of the yeare.
IN the pulling of your Roses, first divide all the blasted leaves, the take the other fresh leaves, and lay them abroad upon your table or windowes with some cleane linnen under them, let them ly 3. or foure houres, or if they bee dewy until the dewe be fully vanished, put these rose leaves in great stone pottes, having narrowe mouthes, and well leaded within, (such as the Goldfiners call their hookers, & serve to receive their Aqua fortis, bee the best of all others that I know) and when they are well filled, stop their mouthes with good corkes, eyther covered all over with waxe or molten brimstone, and then set your pot in some coole place, and they wil keepe a long time good, and you may distill them at your best leasure. This waie you may distill Rosewater good cheape, if you buy store of Roses, when you find a glutte of them in the market,[Page]wherby, they are solde for 7. pence or 8. pence the bushell, you then engrosse the flower. And some hold opinion, that if in the midst of these leaves you put some broken leaven, and after fill up the pot with Rose leaves to the top, that so in your distillatio of them you shal have a perfect Rose vinegar without the addition of anie common vinegar. I have knowen Refeleaves kept well in Rondlets, that have been first well seasoned with some hote liquor and Roseleaves boiled togither, and the same pitched over on the out side, so as no aire might penetrate or pearce the vessell.
22.15. 15. A speedy distillation of Rosewater.
STampe the leaves, and first distill the juice being expressed, and after distil the leaves, and so you shall dispatch more with one Stil, then others do with three or[Page]foure stils. And this water is everie way as medicinable as the other, serving in all sirrups, decoctions, &c. sufficiently, but not altogether so pleasing in smell.
22.16. 16.How to distill wine vinegar or good Aligar, that it may bee both clear & sharpe.
IKnowe it is an usuall manner among the Novices of our time to put a quart or two of good vinegar into an ordinary leade still, and so to distill it as they do all other waters. But this way I do utterly dislike, both for that heere is no seperation made at all, and also because I feare that the Vinegar doth cary an ill touch with it, either fro the leaden botto or pewter head or both. And therefore I coulde wish rather that the same were distilled in a large bodie of glasse with a head or receiver, the same being placed in sande or ashes.[Page]Note that the best part of the vinegar is the middle part that ariseth, for the first is fainte and phlegmatick, and the last wil taste of adustion, because it groweth heavie toward the latter end, and must be urged up with a great fire, and therefore you must nowe and then taste of that which commeth both in the beginning & towards the latter end, that you may receive the best by it selfe.
22.17. 14.Paste made of fish.
INcorporate the bodie of saltfish, Stock fish, Ling, or any fresh fish that is not full of bones, with crums of bread, flower, Ising lasse,[Page]&c. and with proper spices agreeing with the nature of everie severall fish, and of that paste molde off the shapes & forms of little fishes: as of the Roch, Dace, Perch, &c. and so by arte you may make many little fishes out of one great and naturall fish.
22.18. 15. How to barrell up Oysters, so as they shall last for sixe moneths sweete and good, and in their naturall taste.
OPe your oisters, take the licor of the, and mixe a reasonable proportion of the best white wine vineger you can get, a little salt & some pepper, barrell the fish up in small caske, covering all the Oysters in this pickle, and they will last a long time; this is an excellent meanes to convey Oysters unto drie townes, or to carie them in long voyages.
22.19. 16. How to keepe fresh Salmon a whole moneth in his perfect taste and delicacie.
FIrst seeth your Salmon according to the usuall manner, the sinke it in apt and close vessels in wine vinegar with a braunch of Rosemarie therein. By this means Vintners and Cookes may make profit thereof when it is scarce n the markets, & Salmon thus prepared may be profitably brought out of Ireland and sold in London or else where.
22.20. 17. Fish kept long, and yet to eate shorte and delicately.
FRie your fish in oyle, some commend Rape Oyle, and some the sweetest Sivill Oyle that you canne get, for the fish will not taste at all of the Oyle[Page]because it hath a watrish bodie, & oyle and water make no true unity, then put your fish in white wine vinegar, and so you may keepe it for the use of your Table any reasonabletime.
22.21. 18. How to keepe roasted Beefe a long time sweete and wholesome.
THis is also done in wine vinegar, your peeces being not over great, & well and close barrelled up: this secret was fully proved in that honourable voyage unto Cales.
22.22. 19.How to keepe powdered beefe five or six weekes after it is sodden, without any charge.
WHen your beefe hath beene well & thorowly powdred by tenne or twelve dayes space, then seeth it throughly, dry it with a[Page]cloth, and wrap it in dry clothes placing the same in close vessels and Cupbords, and it will keepe sweete & sound two or three moneths, as I am credibly informed from the experience of a kinde & loving friend.
22.23. 20.A conceipt of the Authors, how beefe may be carried at the sea, with out that strong and violent impression of salt which is usually purchased by long and extreme powdring.
HEere with the good leave & favour of those curteous gentlewomen, for whome I did principally if not only intend this litle treatise; I will make bold to lanch a little from the shoare, and trye what may bee done in the vaste and wide Ocean, and in long and dangerous voyages; for the better preservation of such usuall victuals, as for want of this skill doe[Page]oftentimes meerely perish, or else by the extreame pearcing of the salte, doe lose even their nutritive strength and vertue: & if any future experience doe happen to controll my present conceipt, let this excuse a scholler,quòd in magnis est voluisse satis. But now to our purpose, let all the bloud bee first well gotten out of the beefe, by leaving the same some nine or tenne dayes in our usuall brine, then barrell up all the peeces in vessels full of holes, fastening them with ropes at the sterne of the ship; and so dragging them through the salte sea water (which by his infinite change and succession of water will suffer no putrifaction, as I suppose) you may happily find your beefe both sweete and favourie enough when you come to spend the same. And if this happe to fall out true upon some triall thereof had, then either at my next impression, or[Page]when I shall bee urged thereunto upon any necessitie of service, I hope to discover the meanes also whereby everie Shippe may carry sufficient store of victuall for her selfe in more close and convenient cariages then those loose vessels are able to performe. But if I may be allowed to carie either roasted or sodden flesh to the sea, then I dare adventure my poore credit therein to preserve for six whole moneths together, either Beefe, Mutton, Capons, Rabbets, &c. both in a cheape manner, and also as fresh as wee doe now usually eate them at our Tables. And this I hold to be a most singular & necessarie secret for all our English Navie; which at all times uppon reasonable termes I will bee ready to disclose for the good of my country.
22.24. 22. How to make a larger and daintier Cheese of the same proportion of milk then is commonly used or knowne by any of our best dairiewomen at this day.
HAving brought your milke into curds by ordinarie rennet, either breake them with your handes according to the usuall manner of other cheeses, and after with a fleeting dish, taking away as much of the whey as you can, or els put in the curds, without breaking, into your moate, let them so repose one houre, or two, or three; and then to a cheese of two gallons of milk, ad a waight of tenne or twelve pound, which waight must rest uppon a cover; that is fit with the moate or case wherein it must truly descende by degrees as you increase your waight, or as the curdes doe sink and settle. Let your curdes remaine so all that daye and night following until the next morning and then turne your cheese or curds, & place your waight again theron, adding from time to time some more small waight as you shall see cause. Note that you must[Page]lay a cloath both under and over your curdes at the least, if you will not wrap them all over as they do in other cheeses, changing your cloth at everie turning. Also if you will worke in any ordinary moat, you must place a round and broade hoope upon the moat, being just of the selfe same bignesse or circumference, or else you shall make a verie thinne cheese. Turne these cheeses everie morning and evening, or as often as you shall see cause, till the whey bee all run out, and then proceed as in ordinarie Cheeses. Note that these moates would be full of holes, both in the sides and bottome, that the whey may have the speedier passage. You may also make them in square boxes full of holes, or else you may devise moates or cases either tounde or square of fine wicker, which having wicker covers, may by some slight be so stayed, as that you shall[Page]neede only morning and evening to turne the wrong side upwarde, both the bottomes beeing made loose and so close, and fitting, as they may sinke truely within the moate or molde, by reason of the waight that lyeth thereon. Note that in other cheeses the cover of the moat shutteth over the moat: but in these the covers desfced & fall within the moates. Also your ordinarie cheeses are more spongious and full of eyes then these, by reason of the violent pressing of them, wheras these cheeses setling gently and by degrees, do cut as close and firme as marmalade. Also in those cheeses which are pressed out after the usuall maner, the whey that commeth fro them, if it stande a while, will carrie a Creame uppon it, whereby the cheese must of necessitie be much lesse, and as I ghesse by a fourth parte, whereas the wheye that commeth from these new kind of[Page]cheeses is like faire water in color and caryeth no strength with it.
Note also that if you put in your curdes unbroken, not taking away the whey that issueth in the breaking of the, that so the cheeses will yet bee so much the greater: but that is the more troublesome way, because the curds being tender will hardly endure the turning, unlesse you be verie carefull. I suppose that the Angelotes in Fraunce may bee made in this manner in small baskets, and so likewise of the Parmeesan; and if your whole cheese consist of un flatten milke, they will be full of butter and eate most daintily, being taken in their time, before they be too dry, for which purpose you may keepe them when they begin to growe dry, upon greene rushes or nettles. I have robbed my wifes Dairy of this secret, who hath hitherto refused all recompences that have beene offered her by Gentlewome for the same: & had I loved a cheese my selfe so well as I like the receipt, I thinke I should not so easily have imparted the same at this time. And yet I must needes confesse, that for the better gracing of the Title wherewith I have fronted this pamphlet, I have beene willing to publish this with some other secrets of worth, for the which I have many times refused good store both of Crownes and Angels: and therfore let no Gentlewoman think this booke too dear, at what price soever it shall be valued upon the sale thereof, neither can I esteeme the worke to be of lesse then twentie yeeres gathering.
22.25. 24. Flesh kept sweet insummes.
YOu may keepe veale, mutton, or venison in the heat of summer 9. or ten dayes good, so as it be newly & faire killed, by hanging the same in an high and windie roome (And therefore a plate cupboard full of holes, so as the wind may have a through passage would be placed in such a roome, to avoide the offece of flyblowes) this is an approved secret, easie and cheap, and very necessary to be known and practised in hote & tainting weather. Veale may bee kept ten daies in bran.
22.26. 25. Mustard meale.
IT is usuall in Venice to sell the meale of Mustarde in their markets [Page]as we do flower and meale in England: this meale by the addition of vinegar in two or three dayes be cometh exceeding good mustard, but it would bee much stronger and finer, if the husks or huls were first divided by searce or boulter, which may easily bee don, if you drie your seeds against the fire before you grind the. The Dutch iron handmils, or an ordinarie pepper mill may serve for this purpose. I thought it verie necessarie to publish this manner of making of your sauce, because our mustard which wee buy from the Chandlers at this daye is manie times made up with vile and filthy vinegar, such as our stomak would abhorre if we should see it before the mixing therof with the seedes.
22.27. 30. How to keepe flies from oyle peeces.
ALine limed over and strained about the crest of oyle peeces or pictures, will catch they Flyes, that woulde otherwise deface the Pictures. But this Italian conceipt both for the rarenesse and [Page]use thereof doth please me above all other: viz, Pricke a Cowcumber full o barley cornes with the small spiring ends outward, make little holes in the Cowcumber first with a wodden or bone bodkin, and after put in the graine, these being thicke placed will in time cover all the Cowcumber, so as no man can discerne what strange plant the same should bee. Such Cowcumbers are to bee hung up in the middest of Summer r omes to drawe all the flies unto the, which otherwise would flie upon the Pictures or hangings
22.28. 31. To keepe Lobsters, Crafishes, &c. sweet and good for some fewe dayes.
THese kinds of fish are noted to be of no durabilitie or lasting in warme weather, yet to prolong their dayes a little, though I feare I shall raise the price of [Page]them by this discoverie amongst the fishmongers (who onely in respect of their speedie decay doe now and then afford a peniworth in them) if you wrappe them in sweete and course rags first moistened in brine, and then burie these cloathes in Callis sand, that is also kept in some coole and moist place, I know by mine owne experience that you shall finde your labour well bestowed, and the rather if you lay the in severall clothes, so as one doe not touch the other.
22.29. 32. Divers excellent kinds of bottle Ale.
ICannot remember that ever I did drinke the like sage ale at any time, as that which is made by mingling two or three droppes of the extracted oyle of sage with a quart of Ale, the same beeing well brued out of one pot into another: and this way a whole Stand of sage ale is very speedily made.The like is to bee done with the oyle of Mace or Nutmegs. But if you will make a right gossips cup that shall farre exceed all the Ale that ever motherBunch made in her life time, then in the bottling up of your best Ale, tunne halfe a pinte of white Ipocras that is newly made, and after the best receipt, with a pottle of Ale, stoppe your bottle close, and drinke it when it is stale: Some commend the hanging of roasted Orenges prickt full of Cloves in the vessell of Ale till you find the taste therof sufficietly graced to your own liking.
22.30. 33.How to make wormewood wine verie speedily and in great quantity.
TAke small Rochell or Coniake wine, put a few droopes of the [Page] extracted oile of wormwood therin, brewe it togither (as before is set down in bottle ale) out of one pot into an other, and you shall have a more neate and wholesom wine for your body, the that which is solde at the Stillyard for right wormwood wine.
22.31. 34.Rosewa [...] er and Rosevinegar of the colour of the Rose, and of the Cowslep, and violet vinegar.
IF you woulde make your Rosewater and Rose vinegar of a Rubie color, then make choise of the crimson velvet coloured leaves, clipping away the whites with a paire of sheeres, & being through dryed, put a good large handful of them into a pinte of Damaske or red rosewater, stop your glasse wel & set it in the sun, til you see that the leaves have lost their colour. Or for more expedition you may pecforme this worke in balneo in [Page]a few houres, and when you take out the olde leaves, you may put in fresh till you finde the color to please you. Keep this Rosewater in glasses very well stopt, the fuller the better. What I have said of Rosewater, the same may also be intended of Rose vinegar, violet, marigolde, and cowslep vinegar, but the whiter vinegar you chuse for this purpose, the colour therof will be the brighter, and therefore distilled Vinegar is best for this purpose, so as the same bee warily distilled with a true division of parts, according to the maner expressed in this booke in the distillation of vinegar.
22.32. 35.To keepe the juice of Oranges and Lemmons al the yeare for sauce, Juleps and other purposes.
EXpresse their juyce, and passe it through an Ipocrasse bagge to clarifie it from his impurities, [Page]then fill your glasse almost to the top, cover it closely, and let it stand so till it have done boyling; then fill up your glasse with good sallet oyle, and set it in a coole closet or butterie where no Sun commeth; the aptest glasses for this purpose are straight upright ones, like to our long beere glasses, which would bee made with little round holes within two inches of the bottome to receive apt fawcets, & so the grounds or lees would settle to the bottome, and the oyle would sinke downe with the juice so closely that all putrefaction would be avoyded: or in steede of holes if there were glasse pipes it were the better & readyer way, because you shall hardly fasten a fawcet well in the hole. You may also in this manner preserve many juyces of hearbes and flowers.
And because that profite and skill united do grace each other, [Page]if (curteous Ladies) you will lend eares and followe my direction; I will heere furnish a great number of you (I woulde I coulde furnish you all) with the juice of the best civill Orenges at an easie price, About Alhallontide or soone after you may buy the inward pulpe of civill Oreges wherin the juice resteth, of the comfetmakers for a small matter, who doe onely or principally respect their rindes to preserve and make Orengeadoes with all, this juice you may prepaire and reserve as before.
22.33. 36.Howe to purifie and give an excellent smell and taste unto sallet oyle.
PUt sallet Oyle in a Vessell of wood or earth, having a hole in the bottom, to every 4 quartes of water adde one quarte of oyle, and with a woodden spoone or [Page]spattle beate them well togither for a quarter of an houre, then let out the water, preventing the oyle from issuing by stopping of the hole, repeate this worke two or three times, and at the last you shall finde your oile wel clensed or clarified. In this maner you may also clarifie capons grease, being first melted, and workinge with warm water. All this is borrowed of M. Bartholomaeus Scapius the Maister Cook of Pope Pius Quintus his privie kitchen. I thinke if the last agitation were made in Rosewater, wherin also cloves or Nutmegs had been macerated, that so the oyle woulde bee yet more pleasing.
Or if you set a Jar glasse in balneo full of sweete oyle with some store of bruised cloves, and rinds of civil Oranges or Lemmons also therein, and so continue your fire for two or three houres, and then letting the Clovès & rindes [Page]remain in the oile til both the sent & taste do please you: I think many men which at this day do loath oile (as I my selfe did not long since) woulde be easily drawen to a sufficient liking thereof.
22.34. 37. How to clarifie without any distilla ion both white and & claret wine vinegar for gellies or sauces.
TO everie sixe pintes of good wine vinegar, put the whites of two new laid Egges wel beate, then put all into a newe leaden pipkin, & cause the same to boyle a little over a gentle fire, then let it run through a course gelly bag twise or thrise, and it will be very clear, and keep good one whole yeare.
22.35. 2. An excellent hand water or washing water very cheape.
TAke a gallon of faire water, one handful of Laveder flowers, a few cloves, and some orace[Page]powder, and foure ounces of Bejamin; distill the water in an ordinarie leaden still: You may distill a second water by a newe infusion of water upon the feces, a little of this will sweeten a bason of faire water for your table.