Diwan-e-Urfi Shirazi

About this text

Introductory notes

‘Urfi Shirāzi (1555-1591) was the son of a prominent provincial administrator from Shiraz, whose work with customary law (ʿurf) led to his son’s choice of ʿUrfi as his penname (taḵalluṣ). The young poet soon became a leading figure in the literary life of Shiraz, but like many of his contemporaries, ʿUrfi was drawn to India due to the prospect of more lavish patronage in the Mughal courts. Arriving in the Deccan (c.1584), ʿUrfi joined the literary salons of Ahmadnagar, where his arrogance made him unpopular; so he moved on to the imperial capital of Fathepur Sikri. He befriended Faiżi, the leading poet at Akbar’s court, and accompanied him on the campaign to Punjab in 1585. Around 1589, ʿUrfi gained patronage from the Mughal statesman Mirzā ʿAbd-ul-Rahim Khān-e Khānān, who introduced him into the service of Akbar, and his son Salim (Jahāngir). ʿUrfi accompanied Akbar on his retreat to Kashmir in 1588. He died of dysentery in Lahore in 1591. The contemporary historian ʿAbd-ul-Qādir Badāʾuni reported that “there is no street or bazaar where booksellers do not stand with copies of the divāns of ʿUrfi... prominently on display”, and the poet’s contemporary popularity is also suggested by the existence of more than 100 extant manuscripts of his works.

Introduction to the specific text w.r.t. the project.

1.

سری در عهد ما سامان ندارد
کسی گر آب دارد نان ندارد
منادی می زند در شش جهت یاس
که درد مفلسی درمان ندارد
به شیرینی سخاوت کان بود لیک
کسی کو زر ندارد جان ندارد
چنان عام است بی آبی درین عهد
که بهرام آب در پیکان ندارد
ز قحط نان به مهمانی عیسی
بجز یک نان فلک در خوان ندارد
هنرور نان کجا یابد که عیسی
بگردون رفت و جز یک نان ندارد
مجو لولو که از بس تنگدستی
خزف هم در صدف عمان ندارد
چنان از بی زری شاد است عرفی
که پنداری به زر ایمان ندارد

2.

ضعف چه ضعفی که ز جسم نزار
سایة سیمرغ کنم آشکار
هوش درین راه و روش مستی است
نغز ترین تحفه تهی دستی است
هوش به سیلاب ده و مست رو
تحفه بر افشان و تهی دست رو
گر طلب گنج کنی هوش دار
بر نفس گنج وران گوش دار
هان نکنی کز ره حرص و نیاز
سوی گهر ریزه بری دست آز
مایة هستی چو تهی دستی است
نیستی ار نیست چه خوش هستی است

3.

سلطان و گدا در طلب جامه و نان اند
تا باز بگیرند جسد را و شکم را

4.

به خوان و مائده شد دست اشتها مطلق
به کام و معده عداوت فزود طبع لئیم

This text is in its original language, and has an English translation:
Translation

This is a selection from the original text

Keywords

آب, نان, گدا

Source text

Title: Diwan-e-Urfi Shirazi

Author: Urfi Shirazi

Editor(s): Ḡolām-Ḥoseyn Javāhari Wajdi

Publisher: Ḡolām-Ḥoseyn Javāhari Wajdi

Publication date: 1960

Original compiled c.1584-1591

Place of publication: Tehran

Provenance/location: Original compiled c.1584-1591

Digital edition

Original author(s): Urfi Shirazi

Original editor(s): Md. Ehteshamuddin Institute of Persian Research, Aligarh Muslim University , Azarmi Dukht Safavi Institute of Persian Research, Aligarh Muslim University

Language: Persian

Responsibility:

Texts collected by: Ayesha Mukherjee, Amlan Das Gupta, Azarmi Dukht Safavi

Texts transcribed by: Muhammad Irshad Alam, Bonisha Bhattacharya, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Muhammad Ehteshamuddin, Kahkashan Khalil, Sarbajit Mitra

Texts encoded by: Bonisha Bhattacharya, Shreya Bose, Lucy Corley, Kinshuk Das, Bedbyas Datta, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Sarbajit Mitra, Josh Monk, Reesoom Pal

Encoding checking by: Hannah Petrie, Gary Stringer, Charlotte Tupman

Genre: India > poetry

For more information about the project, contact Dr Ayesha Mukherjee at the University of Exeter.

Acknowledgements