A suruay of London
Contayning the Originall, Antiquity,
Increase, Moderne estate, and description of that
Citie, written in the yeare 1598. by John Stow
Citizen of London.
Also an Apologie (or defence) against the
opinion of some men, concerning that Citie,
the greatnesse thereof.
With an Appendix, containing in Latine,
Libellum de situ & nobilitate Londini: Written
by William Fitzstephen, in the raigne
of Henry the second.
Imprinted by John Wolfe, Printer to the honorable Citie of
London: And are to be sold at his shop within the
Popes head Alley in Lombard street. 1598.
PUBLISHED BY John Wolfe
TO THE RIGHT
Honorable, the Lord Mayor of the
Citie of London, to the communaltie, and
Citizens of the same, John Stow Citizen,
wisheth long health and
SInce the first publishing of the perambulation of Kent, by that learned Gentleman M. William Lambert Esquire, I have hearde of sundry other able persons to have (according to the desire of that author) assayed to doe somewhat for the particular Shires and Connties, where they were borne, or dwelt, of which none that I knowe (saving M. Norden, for the Counties of Middlesex, & Hertford) have vouchsafed their labors to the commo~ good in that behalf. And therefore concurring with the first, in the same desire to have drawn together such speciall descriptions of each place, as might not onely make up an whole body of the English Chronographie amongst our selves: but also might give occasion, and courage to M. Camdin to increase and beutifie his singular worke of the whole, to the view of the learned that be abroade. I have attempted the discovery of London, my native soile and Countrie, at the desire and perswasion of some my good friendes, aswell because I have seene sundrie antiquities my selfe touching that place, as also for that through search of Recordes to other purposes, dyvers written helpes are come to my handes, which few others have fortuned to meete withall, it is a service that most agreeth with my professed travelles. It is a duty, that I willingly ow to my native mother & Countrie. And an office that of right I holde my selfe bound in love to bestow upon the politike body and members of the same: what London hath beene of auncient time, men may here see, as what it is now every man doth behold: I know that the argument, being of the chiefe and principall Citie of the land, required the penne of some excellent Artisen, but fearing that none woulde attempt, and finish it, as few have assayed any, I chose rather (amongst other my Laboures) to handle it after my plaine manner, then to leave it unperformed. Touching the Dedication, I am not doubtfull where to seeke my patrone, since you be a politique estate of the Citie, as the walles & buildinges be the materiall partes of the same. To you therefore, doe I addresse this my whole labour, as well that by your authority I may be protected, as warranted by your own skill and understanding of that which I have written, I confes that I lacked my desire to the acco~plishment of some speciall partes; but I trust hereafter that shalbe supplied, and I professe (if more touching this worke come unto me) to afforde it, in all dutie. In the meane time, I recommend this to your view, my laboures to your consideration, and my selfe to your service, (as I have professed during life) in this or any other.
|OF the antiquitie of London.||fol. 1.|
|The wall about the Citie of London,||fol. 6.|
|Of the ancient & present rivers, Brooks, Boornes, Pooles, Wels, and Conduits of fresh water, serving the Citie, as also the ditch compassing the wal of the same.||fol. 10|
|Of the bridges of this Citie||fol. 19|
|Gates in the wall of this Citie.||fol. 25|
|Of Towers and Castelles.||fol. 37.|
|Of Schooles and other houses of learning.||fol. 53.|
|Houses of students of the Common Law.||fol. 58.|
|Of Orders and Customes of the citizens.||fol. 60.|
|Sportes and pastimes of old time used in this citie.||fol. 67.|
|Watches in London.||74.|
|Honor of citizens & worthines of men in the same.||fol. 78|
|The Citie of London divided into parts.||fol. 82.|
|Portsoken Warde.||fol. 85.|
|Towerstreet Warde.||fol. 94.|
|Ealdgate Warde.||fol. 102.|
|Limestreete Warde.||fol. 114.|
|Bishopsgate Warde,||fol. 126.|
|Brodestreet Warde.||fol. 136.|
|Cornehill Warde.||fol. 146|
|Langborne warde and Fenny about.||fol. 156.|
|Billinsgate warde.||fol. 165.|
|Bridge warde within.||fol. 167.|
|Candlewike street ward.||fol. 170|
|Walbrooke warde.||fol. 176|
|Downegate warde.||fol. 182|
|Cordwainer streete warde.||195|
|Bassinges hall ward.||225|
|Faringdon warde infra, or within.||248|
|Queene Hith warde.||286|
|Castle Baynarde warde||295|
|The warde of Faringdon, extra or without.||303|
|Bridge ward without (the 26. in number) co~sisting of the Borough of Southwarke in the county of Surrey.||329.|
|The Suburbes without the walles of the citty, briefly touched, as also without the Liberties more at large described.||346|
|Liberties of the Dutchie of Lancaster without Temple Barre.||365|
|The Citie of Westminster, with the Antiquities, Monuments, Bounds and Liberties thereof.||370|
|Spirituall, or ecclesiastical government.||395|
|Parish Churches in the Citie of London, the Borough of Southwarke, the suburbes, and Citie of Westminster.||407|
|Hospitalles in this City, and Suburbes.||412.|
|Of Leprose people and Lazar houses.||414.|
|Temporall governement of this Citty.||415.|
|An Apologie or defence against the opinions of &c.||467.|
|Singularities in the same expressed.||470.|
|An Appendix, contayning an auncient Authour, who wrate in the raigne of Henry the second, his booke entituled, Libellum de situ & nobilitate Londini, never before imprinted.|
AUnciently untill the Conquerors time, and 200. yeres after, the Citie of London was watered besides the famous River of Thames, on the South part, with the river of the wels, as it was then called on the west, with a water called walbrooke, runing through the middest of the Citie into the river of Thames serving the hart thereof. And with a fourth water or Boorne, which ran within the Citie, through Langboorne warde, watering that parte in the East. In the west Suburbes was also an other greate water, called Oldborne, which had his fall into the River of wels: then was there 3. principall Fountaines, or wels in the other Suburbes, to wit Holly well, Clements well, and Clarkes wel. Neare unto this last named fountaine, were divers other wels, to wit Skinners well, Fags well, Tede well, Leders well, and Radwell. In west Smithfield there was a Poole, in recordes called Horsepoole, And one other Poole neare unto the parish Church of S. Giles without Criplegate. Besides all which they had in every streete and lane of the City divers fayre wels, and fresh springes: and after this manner was this Citie then served, with sweete & fresh waters, which being since decayed, other meanes have beene sought to supply the want, as shall bee shewed, but first of the aforenamed Rivers and other waters, is to be said, as followeth.
Thames the most famous River of this Iland, beginneth a little above a village called winchcombe in Oxfordshire, and still increasing passeth first by the universitie of Oxford, and so with a marvelous quiet course to London, and thence breaketh into the French Ocean by maine tides, which twise in 24. howers space doeth eb and flow, more then 60. miles in length, to the great [Page 11] commodity of Travellers, by the which all kinde of Marchandise be easily conveyed to London, the principall store house, and staple of all Commodities within this Realme: so that omitting to sp ake of greate ships, and other vessels of burden, there perteyneth to the Cities of London, westminster and Burrough of Southwarke above the number as is supposed of 2000. Wherryes and other small boates, whereby 3000. poore men at the least bee set on worke and maintained.
That the River of the wels in the west parte of the Citie, was of old time so called: it may be prooved thus, william the Conqueror in his Charter, to the Colledg of S. Martin, le Grand in London, hath these wordes: I do geve and grant to the same church all the land and the Moore, without the Posterne, which is called Criplegate, on eyther parte of the Posterne, that is to say, from the North corner of the wal, as the ryver of the wels, there neare running departeth the same More from the wal, unto the runing water which entreth the Cittie, this water hath beene since that time called Turnemill Brooke: yet then called the river of the Wels, which name of Ryver continued: and it was so called in the raign of Edwarde the first: as shalbe shewed, with also the decay of the saide river, in a fayre booke of Parliament recordes, now lately restored to the Tower, it appeareth that a par iament being holden at Carlile in the yere 1307, the 35. of Edwarde the first, Henry Lacy Earle of Lincolne, complayned that whereas in times past the course of water, running at London, under Oldeborne bridge, and Fleete bridge into the Thames, had beene of such bredth and depth, that 10. or 12. Shippes, Navies, at once with Marchandizes, were wont to come to the foresaide bridge of Fleete, and some of them to Oldborne bridge: now the same course by filth of the Tanners and such others, was sore decayed: so by raising of wharses, but specially by a diversion of the water made by them of the new Temple, for their milles standing without Baynardes Castle, in the first yeare of King John, and divers other impedimentes, so as the saide ships could not enter as they were wont, and as they ought, wherefore he desired that the Mayor of London with the Sheriffes, and other discrete Aldermen, might be appointed to view the course of the saide water, and [Page 12]that by the othes of good men, all the aforesaide hinderances might be removed, and it to be made as it was wont of olde: whereupon Roger le Brabason, the Constable of the Tower, with the Mayor and Sheriffes were assigned to take with them honest and discrete men, and to make diligent search & inquiry, how the said ryver was in lde time, and that they leave nothing that may hurt or stop it, but keepe it in the same estate, that it was wont to bee: so farre the recorde. Whereupon it followed that the saide river, was at that time clensed, these mils removed, and other thinges done for the preservation of the course thereof, notwithstanding never brought to the old depth, and breadth, whereupon the name of river ceased, and it was since called a Brooke, namely Turnmil or Tremill Brooke, for that divers mils were erected upon it, as appeareth by a fayre Register booke, conteyning the foundation of the Priorie at Clarken wel, and donation of the landes, thereunto belonging, as also by divers other recordes.
This brooke hath beene divers times since clensed, namely and last of all to any effect. In the yeare 1502. the 17. of Henry the 7. the whole course of Fleete dike, then so called was scowred (I say) down to the Thames, so that boates with fish and fewell were rowed to Fleete bridge and to Oldborne bridge, as they of olde time had beene accustomed, which was a great commodity to all the inhabitantes in that part of the City.
In the yeare 1589. was granted a fifteene, by a common Councell of the Cittie, for the clensing of this Brooke or dike and the money amounting to a thousand markes was collected, and it was undertaken that by drawing divers springes about Hampstid hea h, into one head and course, both the Citie should be served of fresh water, in all places of want, and also that by such a follower, as men call it the channell of this brooke shoulde bee scowred into the Ryver of Thames, but much money being therin spent, she effect fayled, so that the brookes by meanes of continuall incrochments upon the banks gyttying over the water, and casting of soilage into the streame, is now become worse cloyed and choken then ever it was before.
The running water so called by William the Conqueror in his saide Charter, which entreth the Citie &c. before there was [Page 13] any ditch betwéene Bishopsgate and the late made Posterne called Moregate, entred the wal and was truely of the wall called Walbrooke not of Gualo as some have farre fetched: it ranne through the Citie with divers windinges from the North towardes the South into the river of Thames, and had over the same divers Bridges, along the Streetes and Lanes, through which it passed. I have read in an olde writing booke intituled the customes of London, that the Prior of the Holy Trinity within Aldgate ought to make over walbrooke in the ward of B edstreete, against the stone wall of the Citie, vz. the same Bridge that is next the Church of Al Saintes, at the wall. Also that the Prior of the new Hospitall, S. Marie Spittle, without Bishopsgate ought to make the middle parte of one other Bridge next to the saide Bridge towardes the North: And that in the 28. yeare of Edwarde the first, it was by inquisition found before the Maior of London that the parish of S. Stephen uppon walbrooke, ought of right to cover the course of the saide Brooke, and therefore the Shieriffes were commanded to distrayne the saide Parishioners so to doe in the yeare 1300. the keepers of those Bridges at that time were william Jordan, and John de Baver. This watercourse having divers Bridges, was afterwardes v ulted over with Bricke, and paved levill with the streetes and lanes, where through it passed, and since that also houses have beene builded thereon, so that the course of walbrooke is now hidden under ground, and thereby hardly knowen. Langborne water so called of the length thereof, was a greate streame of water breaking out of the ground, in Fan Church streete, which ran downe with a swift course, west, through that streete, thwart Grastreet and downe Lombardestreete, to the west ende of S. Mary wolnothes Church, and then turning the course South downe Shareborne lane, so termed of sharing or deviding, it brake into divers rilles or rillets to the River of Thames, of this Bourne that warde tooke the name, and is till this day called Langborne warde, this Bourne also is long since stopped up at the heade and the rest of the course filled up and paved over, so that no signe thereof remaineth more then the names aforesaide, Oldeborne or Hilborne was the like water, breaking out aboute the place [Page 14]where now the bars do stand, and it ran downe the whole streete till Oldebourne bridge, and into the River of the wels, or Turnemil Brook: this Bourn was likewise long since stoped up at the head, & in other places where the same hath broken out, but yet till this day, the saide streete is there still called high Ouldebourn hil, and both the sides thereof together with al the grounds adjoyning that lye betwixt it, and the river of Thames remayne full of springes, so that water is there found at hand, and harde to be stopped in every house.
There are (saith Fitzstephen ) neare London, on the North side speciall wels, in the Suburbes: sweete, wholesome, and cleare, amongst which Holywel, Clarkes wel, & Clementes wel, are most famous and frequented by Schollers, and youths of the City in sommer evenings, when they walke foorth to take the aire. The first, to wit, Holywel is much decayed and marred with filthinesse, purposely layd there, for the heighthening of the ground, for garden plots: the fountaine called S. Clements wel, North from the Parish church of S. Clements, and neare unto an Inne of Chancery, called Clements Inne, is thereof yet fayre curbed square with harde stone, and is alwaies kepte cleane for common use: it is alwaies ful, and never wanteth water, the third is called Clarks well, or Clarken well, and is also curbed aboute square with stone. Not far from the west ende of this Clarkes well Church without the stone wall that incloseth the Church, the other smaller wels that stood neare unto Clarkes wel, to wit Skinners wel, Fagges well, Todwell, Loders well, and Redwell, are all decayed and so filled up. that their places are now hardly discerned: somewhat North from Holywell is one other well curbed square with stone, and is called Dame Annis the cleare, and not farre fro~ it but somewhat west, is also one other cleare water called Perilous Pond, because divers youthes by swimming therein have béene drouned, and thus much be saide for fountaines and wels.
Horsepoole in West Smithfielde was sometime a greate water, and because the inhabitantes in that parte of the Citie did there water their Horses, the same was in olde recordes called Horsepoole, it is now much decayed, the springs being stoped up and the land water falling into the small bottome, remayning[Page 15] inclosed with Bricke, is but fowle: and is called Smithfielde Ponde.
The Poole by S. Giles Churchyarde was a large water in the yeare 1244. for it is read that Anne of Lodbury was drouned therein, this Poole is now for the most parte stopped up, but the spring is preserved, and it was coopped about with stone by the Executors of Richarde whittington.
The said river of the Wels, the running water of Walbrooke, the Bournes aforenamed, and other the fresh waters that were in and aboute this Citie, being in processe of time by incrochment for buildinges and otherwise utterlie decayed, and the number of Citizens mightely increased, they were forced to séeke swéete waters abroade, whereof some at the request of king Henry the thirde, in the 21. yeare of his raigne, were for the profite of the Citie, and good of the whole Realme thether repayring, granted to the Citizens and their Successors by one Gilbert Sanford, with liberty to convey water from the towne of Teiborne, by Pypes of leade into their Citie, & the first Cesterne of leade castellated with stone in the Citie of London was called the greate Conduit in west Cheape, and was begunne to bee builded in the yeare 1285. Henry Wales being then Maior: the water course from Padington to Iames hed hath 510. roddes, from Iames hed on the hill to the Mewsgate, 102. roddes, from the Mewsgate to the crosse in Cheape 484. roddes.
The Tonne upon Cornhil was Cisterned in the yere 1401. John Chadworth then being Maior.
Bosses of water, at Belinsgate, by Powles wharfe, and by S. Giles Church without Cripplegate made aboute the yere 1423.
Water conveyed to the Gaoles of Newgate and Ludgate, 1432. Water procured to the Standarde in west Cheape aboute the yeare 1431. king Henry the sixt in the yeare 1442. graunted to John Hatharley, Maior licence to take up 200. fodar of Leade for the building of Conduites of a common Garnery and of a new Crosse in west Cheape, for honor of the Citie.
The Conduit in Aldermanbury and the Standarde in Fleete streete were made and finished by the executors of Sir William[Page 16] Eastfielde in the yeare 1471. a Sesterne was added to the standerd in Fletestreete, and a Sesterne was made at Fleete bridge, and one other without Criplegate in the yeare 1478.
Conduite in Grastreete in the yeare. 1491.
Conduite of Oldbourne Crosse aboute 1498. againe new made by William Lambe, 1577.
Little Conduite by the Stockes market aboute. 1500.
Conduite at Bishopsgate aboute 1513.
Conduite at London wall aboute 1528.
Conduite at Aldgate without, aboute, 1535.
Conduite in Lothbury, and in Colemanstreete. 1546.
Conduite of Thames water, at Dowgate. 1568,
Thames water conveyed into mens houses by pypes of lead from a most artificiall forcier standing neare unto London bridge and made by Peter Moris Dutch man in the yeare 1582. for service of the Citie, on the East part thereof.
Conduites of Thames water by the parish churches of S. Marie Magdalen, and S. Nicholas Colde Abby neare unto olde Fishstrete, in the yeare 1583.
One other new Forcier was made neare to Broken wharfe, to convey Thames water into mens houses of west Cheape, about Powles, Fleetestreete &c. by an English Gentleman, named Bevis Bulman, in the yeare 1594. Thus much for waters, serving this Citie, first by Rivers, Brookes, Boornes, Fountaines, Pooles, &c. And since by Conduites partly made by good and charitable Citizens, and otherwise by chardges of the comm naltie, as shalbe shewed in description of Wards wherein they be placed.
And now some Benefactors to these Conduites shalbee remembred.
In the yeare 1236. certaine Marchants strangers, of cities beyonde the Seas, to wit Amiens, Corby, and Nele for priviledges which they enjoyed in this Citie, gave 100. . towardes the charges of conveying water from the towne of Teyborne. Robert Large then Maior 1439. gave to the new water Conduites then in hand, forty Markes, and towarde the vaulting over of Walbrooke 200 markes.
Sir Wiliam Eastfielde conveyed water from Teyborne and from Highbery.
Wiliam Combes Sheriffe 1441. gave to the worke of the Conduits. x.
Richarde Rawson one of the Sheriffes 1476. gave, xx .
Robert Revel one of the Shiriffes 1490. gave, x. .
John Mathew Maior 1490. gave xx. .
William Bucke Taylor in the yere, 1494. gave 100. markes towardes repayring of Conduites.
Dame Thomason widow, late wise to John Percivall Taylor, Maior in the yere 1498. gave towards the Conduit in Oldbourne, xx.markes.
Richarde Shore one of the Shiriffes 1505. gave to the Conduit in Oldborne. x .
The Lady Ascue widow to Sir Christopher Ascue, 1543. gave towardes the Conduites, C. .
David Wodren, Shiriffe, 1554. gave towardes the Conduit at Bishopsgate xx. .
Edwarde Jackman one of the Shiriffes 1564. gave toward the Conduites. C. .
Barnarde Randolfe common Sarieant of the Citie 1583. gave to the water Conduits. 700.
Thus much for the Conduits of fresh water to this Citie.
The ditch which partly now remaineth, and compassed the wal of the Citie, was begun to be made by the Londoners in the yere 1211. & was finished in the yere 1213. the 15. of king John, this ditch being then made of 200. foote brode, caused no smal hindrance to the Canons of the holy Trinity, whose church stoode neare unto Aldgate: for that the saide ditch passed through their grounde, from the Tower of London, unto Bishopsgate. This ditch being originally made for the defence of the cittie was long together carefully clensed and mainteyned as neede required, but now of late neglected and forced eyther to a very narrow and the same a filthy channel, or altogether stopped up for gardens planted, and houses builded thereon even to the very wall, and in many places upon both ditch and wall, to what danger of the citie, I leave to wiser consideration: and can but wish, that reformation [Page 18]might be had.
In the yeare of Christ, 1354. the 28. of Edwarde the third, the ditch of this citie flowing over the banke into the Tower ditch the king commanded the saide ditch of the citie to be clensed, and so ordered, that the overflowing thereof, should not force any filth into the Tower ditch. Anno 1379. John Filpot Maior of London caused this ditch to be clensed and every household to pay v. . which was for a daies worke towardes the charges thereof. Richarde the 2. in the tenth of his raigne, granted a Tole to bee taken of wares solde by water, or by lande for 10. yeares towardes repayring of the wall and clensing of the ditch.
Thomas Fawconer Mayor 1414. caused the ditch to be clensed.
Ralf Ioceline, Maior 1477. caused the whole ditch to be cast and clensed, and so from time to time it was clensed and otherwise reformed.
In my remembrance also the same was clensed, namely the Moore ditch, when Sir Wiliam Hollies was Maior in the yeare 1540. And not long before or after, from the Tower of London, to Aldgate. It was againe clensed in the yere 1549. Henry Amcotes being Mayor, at the charges of the companies at which time the saide ditch lay open without eyther wall or pale, having therein great store of very good fish of divers sortes, as many men yet living who have taken and tasted them, can well witnes: but now no such matter the charge of clensing that ditch is saved & great profit made by letting out the banks with the spoile of the whole ditch. I am not ignorant of two fifeteenes granted by a common counsell in the yeare 1595. for the reformation of this ditch, and that a smal portion thereof, to wit, betwixt Bishopsgate, and the Posterne called Moregate, was clensed and made somewhat broder: but filling againe very fast, by reason of over raising the ground neare adjoyning, therefore never the better: and I will so leave it.
THis Citie (saith Fitzstephen) is glorious in manhoode: furnished with munitions: populous with inhabitants, insomuch that in the troublesome time of king Stephen, it hath shewed at a mu[...]er twentie thousand armed horsemen, and threescore thousande ootemen, serviceable for the warres. Moreover saith hee, the Citizens of London, wheresoever they become, are notable before all other Citizens in civillitie of manners, attire, table, & talke. The matrons of this citie are the very modest Sabine Ladies of Italy. The Londiners sometime called Trinobantes, repelled Cesar, which alwaies made his passage by shedding blood, whereupon Lucan song.
Territa quaesitis ostendit terga Britannis.
The citie of London hath bred some, which have subdued many kingdomes, and also the Romaine Empire. It hath also brought forth many others, whome vertue and valour hath highlie advanced, according to Apollo, in his Oracle to Brute, sub occas i solis: &c. In the time of christianitie, it brought foorth that noble Emperor Constantine, which gave the cittie of Rome and all the emperiall ensignes to God, S. Peter and Pope Silvester: choosing rather to be called a Defendor of the church, then an Emperour: and least peace might be violated, and their eyes troubled by his presence, he retired from Rome, and built the cittie of Constantinople. London also in late time hath brought forth famous kinges: Maude the Empresse, king Henry, sonne to Henry the second &c. thus far Fitzstephen: whereunto may bee added innumerable persons of honor, borne in London, and actions done by worthie citizens, whereof I will onely note a few best knowne to the comminalty.
In the yere, 1216. the Londiners: sending out a Navie, tooke 65. ships of Pirates and sea robbers: besides innumerable others [Page 79]that they drowned, which had robbed on the river of Thames. In the yeare 1235. Walter Brune, a Citizen of London, and Rosia his wife founded the Hospitall of our Lady, called S. Mary the Spittle without B shopsgate of London, a house of such releefe to the needy, that there was found standing at the suppression thereof, ninescore beds well furnished for receipt of poore people. In the yeare 1247. Simon Fitzmary, one of the Shiriffes of London, founded the Hospitall of S. Marie called Bethleme, also without Bishopsgate. In the yeare 1283. Henry Wallice, then Maior, builded the Tunne upon Cornhill, to be a prison for night walkers, and a market house called the Stockes, both for fish and flesh, standing in the midst of the Citie. In the yeare 1332, William Elsing Mercer of London, founded Elsing spittle within Criplegate, for sustentation of 100. poore blind men, & became himselfe the first Prior of that Hospital, In the yere 1363. Henry Picad sometime Maior, in one day royally feasted Edward the thirde, king of England, John king of France, David king of Scots, the king of Cipres, (then arived in England) Edwarde Prince of Wales, with many other noble men, and after kept his hall for all commers that were willing to play at Dice, and hasarde. In like manner the Lady Margaret his wife, kept her Chamber to the same intent &c. In the yeare 1378. John Filpot sometime Maior, hyred with his owne money, 1000. Souldiers, and defended the Realme from the incursions of the ennemie, so that in a small time his hired men tooke John Mercer, a searover, with al his Shippes, which hee before had taken from Scarberow, and fifeteene Spanish ships laden with great riches. In the yeare 1380. Thomas of wodstocke, Thomas Percie, Henry Calueley, Robert Knowles, and others, being sent with a great power to aide the Duke of Britaine, the saide John Filpot hyred ships for them of his owne charges, and released the Armour, which the souldiers had pawned for their victuailes, more then 1000. in number. This most noble Citizen (saieth Thomas walsingham) that had travelled for the commoditie of the whole Realme, more then all other of his time, had often releeved the king, by lending him great sommes of money, and otherwise, deceased in anno 1384. after that he had assured Lands [Page 80]to the City for the reliefe of 13. poore people for ever. In the yere 1381. William Walworth then Mayor a most provident, valiant and learned Citizen, did by his arrest made upon wat Tylar (a presumptuous Rebell, upon whome no man durst lay hands) deliver the king and kingdome from the danger of most wicked Traitors, and was for his service knighted in the fielde.
Nicholas Brembar, John Filpot, Robert Laund, Nicholas Twiforde, and Adam Francis, Aldermen were then for their service likewise knighted, and Sir Robert Knoles, for assisting of the Maior was made free of this Citie. This Sir Roberte Knoles thus worthilie enfranchised a Citizen, founded a Colledge with an Hospitall at Pontfract, and hee also builded the greate stone bridge at Rochester, over the river of Medway, &c. In the yere 1391. Adam Bamne Maior, in a great dearth procured corn from parts beyond the seas, to be brought to London in such aboundance as sufficed to serve the Citie, and the Countries nere adjoyning, to the furtherance of which good woorke, he tooke out of the Orphants chest in the Guildehall, 2000. Markes to buy the saide corne and each Alderman laide out 20. . to the like purpose. In the yere 1415. Thomas Faulconer Maior, lent to king Henry the fift towards the maintenance of his wars in France, 10000. Marks upon Jewels. In the yeare 1420. Richarde Whitington Maior founded Whitingtons Colledge for the poore, with divinitie lectures to be reade there, for ever: Hee also builded Newgate &c. In the yeare 1427. John Rinwell Maior gave to discharge certaine wardes of London, from fiftéenes, and other payments. In the yeare 1432. John Wels Maior conveyed fresh water from Teyborne to the Standardei west Cheape for service of the Citie. In the yeare 1438. William Eastfielde Maior, conveyed water to the Conduite in Fleetestreete to Aldermanberry, and to Criplesgate. In the yeare 1439. Stephen Brown Maior sent into Prussia, and caused corne to bee brought thence to London in greate quan titie, whereby he brought down the prize of wheate from iij. .the Bushell, to lesse then halfe that money. In the yeare 1446. Simon Eyre Maior, builded the Leaden hall, for a common Grayner of corne to the use of this Citie, and left 5000. markes to bee bestowed in charitable actions [Page 81]for releefe of the poore. In the yeare 1471. John Stocton Maior, and 11. Aldermen of London, with the Recorder were all made knightes in the fielde, by Edwarde the fourth, for their good service done unto him. In the yeare 1483. Edmond Shaa Maior, builded Criplesgate. In the yeare 1491. Hugh Clopto~ Maior, builded the great stone arched bridge at Stratford upon Auon. In the yeare 1494. Robert Fabyan, Alderman and one of the Shiriffes gathered out of divers good Authors, aswell Latine as French, a large chronicle of England and France, which hee published in English to his greate charges, for the honor of this citie, and common utilitie of the whole Realme. In the yeare 1554, Sir Thomas white Maior founded S. Johns Colledge in Oxforde, and gave greate summes of money to divers Townes in England for releefe of the poore. In the yere 1566. Sir Thomas Gresham Mercer, builded that stately Exchange Royal in London, and left his dwelling house in Bishopsgate streete, to be a colledge of readings &c. as in my summary. About the yeare 1570. Margaret Dan, widowe to William Dan, late one of the Sheriffes of London gave by her testament more then 2000. pound to charitable actions.
Also about the yeare 1577. Dame Mary Ramsey wife to Sir Thomas Ramsey Mayor, being seased of landes in fée simple of her inheritance to the yearely value of 243. pound, by his consent gave the same to Christs Hospitall in London, towardes reliefe of poore children there, and otherwise, as in my summarie and abridgement I have expressed, and as farith by monumentes erected in Christes Hospitall: which gift she afterward in her widowhode confirmed, and greatly augmented.
In the yere 1577. William Lamb Clothworker builded a water Conduite at Oldbourne Crosse, to his charge of 1500. . and did many other charitable acts, as in my summarie. In the yeare 1582. John Haydon Alderman, gave large Legacies, and more then 3000. . for releefe to the poore. In the yeare 1583. Barnalde Randulph, common Serieant of London, gave and delivered with his hand 906. . towardes the building of water Conduites, which was performed. Moreover he gave by his Testament 1000. . to bee imployed in deedes of charity, but that money being left in holdfast hands, I have not heard [Page 82]how it was bestowed.
Thus much for the worthinesse of Citiizens in this Citie, touching whom John Lydgate a Monke of Bury, in the raigne of Henry the sixt made (amongst other) these verses following.
Having thus in generalitie handled the original, the wals, gates, ditches, and fresh waters, the bridges, towers and castles the schools, of learning, and houses of law, the orders and customes, sportes and pastimes, watchinges and martiall exercises, and lastly the honor and worthines of the Citizens: I am now to set down, the distribution of this City into parts: and more especially to declare the antiquities: note worthie in every of the same: and how both the whole and partes, have beene from time to time ruled and governed.
THe Auncient division of this Citie, was into Wardes, or Aldermanries: and therefore I will beginne at the East, and so proceede through the high and most principall streete of the citie, to the west, after this manner. First through Aldgate streete, to the west corner of S. Andrewes Church called Undershaft, on the right hand, and Lymestreete corner, on the left, all which is of Aldgate warde: from thence through Cornhill streete, to the west corner of Leaden hall, all which is of Limestreete warde: from thence leaving the streete, that leadeth to Bishopsgate on the right hand, and the way that leadeth into Grasse streete on the left, still through Cornhill streete, by the Conduite to the west corner against the Stockes, all which is in Cornhill warde, then by the saide Stockes (a market place both of fish and flesh standing in the middest of the Citie) through the Poultrie, (a streete so called) to the great conduite in west Cheape, and so through Cheape, to the Standarde, which is of Cheape warde, except on the South [Page 83] side from Bow lane, to the saide Standarde, which is of Cordwainer streete ward. Then by the Standarde to the great crosse which is in Cripplegate warde, on the North side, and in Bredstreete warde on the south side. And to the little conduite by Paules gate from whence of olde time, the saide high streete stretched straight to Ludgate, all in the warde of Faringdon within, then devided truely from East to West, but since that by meanes of the burning of Paules Church which was in the raigne of William the first surnamed Conqueror. Mawricius then Bishop of London, layde the foundation of a new church, so far in largenes exceeding the olde, that the way towardes Ludgate was thereby greately streightened, as before I have at large discoursed: Now from the North to the South, this citie was of olde time devided not by a large high way or streete, as from East to West, but by a fayre Brooke of swéete water, which came from out the North fieldes through the wall, and midst of the citie into the river of Thames, which division is till this day constantlie and without change maintained. This water was called (as I have said) Walbrooke, of running through, & from the wal the course whereof to prosecute it particularlie, was and is from the said wal to S. Margarets church, in Lothberry: from thence beneath the lower part of the Grocers hall, about the east part of their Kitchen, under S. Mildredes church, somewhat west from the saide Stockes market: from thence through Buckels berry, by one great house builded of stone and timber, called the old Bardge. because Barges out of the river of Thames were rowed up so far into this Brooke: on the backside of the houses in Walbrooke streete (which streete taketh his name of the saide Brooke:) by the west ende of S. Johns church upon Walbrooke, under Horshew Bridge, by the west side of Tallow Chandlers hall, and of the Skinners hall, and so behinde the other houses, to Elbow Lane, and by a parte thereof downe Greenewitch lane, into the River of Thames. This is the course of Walbrooke, which was of olde time bridged over in divers places, for passage of horses and men, as neede required: but since by meanes of encrochment on the bankes thereof, the channell being greatly streightned, and other noyances don thereunto, at length the same by common consent was Arched over with bricke, and paved with stone, equall [Page 84]with the ground, where through it passed, and is now in most places builded upon, that no man may by the eye discerne it, and therefore the trace thereof is hardly knowne, to the common people.
The Citie thus devided from East to West, and from North to South: I am further to shew how the same was of olde time broken into divers partes called wardes, whereof Fitzstephen more then foure hundred yeares ago writeth thus. This Citie (sayeth hee) even as Rome, is devided into wardes, it hath yearely Shiriffes in steade of Consuls. It hath the dignity of Senators in Aldermen &c. The number of these wards in London were both before & in the raign of Henry the third: 24. in al: whereof 13 lay on the East side of the saide Walbrooke, and 11. on the West side of the same: notwithstanding these 11. grew much more larger and bigger then these on the East, and therefore in the yeare of Christ, 1393. the 17. of Richarde the second, Farengdon warde which was then one entier warde, but mightelie increased of buildinges without the gates: was by Parliament appointed to be devided into twaine, and to have two Aldermen, to wit Faringdon within and Faringdon without, which made up the number of 12. wardes on the west side of Walbrooke, and so the whole number of 25. on both sides: moreover in the yere 1550. the Maior, Commonalty, and Citizens of London, purchasing the Liberties of the Borough of Southwark, appointed the same to bee a warde of London, and so became the number of 13. wardes on the East, 12. on the West, and one in the South of the river of Thames, lying in the said Borough of Southwarke, within the county of Surrey, which in all arise to the number of 26. wardes and 26. Aldermen of London.
- Portsoken warde without the wals.
- Towerstreete warde.
- Ealdegate warde.
- Lymestreete warde.
- Bishopsgate warde within the wals and without.
- Bredstreete warde.
- Cornhill ward.
- Langbourne warde
- Billingsgate warde
- Bridge warde within.
- Candlewicke streete warde.
- Walbrooke warde.
- Downgate warde.
- [Page]Vintry warde.
- Cordwainer streete warde.
- Cheape warde.
- Colemanstreete warde.
- Bassinges hall warde.
- Criplesgate warde. within and without.
- Aldersgate ward within and without.
- Faringdon ward within.
- Bredstreete warde.
- Queene hith warde
- Castle Baynarde warde.
- Faringdon ward without.
- The Bridge warde without, in the Brugh of Southwarke.
Down lower have ye Elbow lane, and at the corner therof was one great stone house, called Olde hall, it is now taken downe, and divers fayre houses of Timber placed there, this was sometime pertayning to william de pont le arch, and by him given to the Priorie of S. Mary Overy in Southwarke, in the raigne of Henry the first. In this Elbow lane is the Inholders hall, and other fayre houses: this lane runneth west, and suddenly turneth south into Thames street, and therefore of that bending is called Elbow lane. On the east side of this Downgate streete, is the great olde house, before spokn of, called the Erber, neare to the Church of S. Mary Bothaw, Geffery Scroope held it, by the gift of Edward the third, in the fourteenth of his raigne, it belonged since to John Nevell Lord of Raby, then to Richard Nevell Earle of Warwicke, Nevell, Earle of Salisbery was lodged there, 1457. then it came to George Duke of Clarence, by the gift of Edwarde the fourth, in the fourteenth of his raigne, it was lately new builded by Sir Thomas Pullison Maior, and was afterwarde inhabited by Sir Frances Drake, that famous Warrier. Next to this great house, is a lane turning to Bush lane, (of olde time called Carter lane, of Carts, and Car men having stables there) and now called Chequer lane, or Chequer Alley, of an Inne called the Chequer.
In Thames streete, on the Thames side west from Downegate is Greenewitch lane of old time so called, and now Fryer lane of such a signe there set up. In this lane is the Joynars hall. and other fayre houses. Then is Granthams lane so called of John Grantham somtime Maior and owner thereof, whose house was very large and strong, builded of ston, as appeareth by gates arched yet remaining, Ralph Dodmer, first a Brewer, then a Mercer Maior 1529. dwelled there, and kept his Maioralty, in that house, it is now a Brewhouse, as it was afore.
Then is Dowgate whereof is spoken in an other place. [Page 184] East from this Downgate, is Cosin lane, named of one William Cosin that dwelled there, in the fourth of Richarde the second, as divers his Predicessors, Father, Grandfather, &c. had done before him. William Cosin dwelling there, was one of the Sheriffes, in the yeare, 1306. the 34. of Edwarde the 1. That house standeth at the south end of the lane, having an olde and artificiall convayance of Thames water into it, and is now a Dyehouse called Lambardes messuage. Adjoyning to that house, there was lately erected an engine, to convey Thames water unto Downgate Conduite aforesaide. Next to this lane on the East, is the Stele house, or Stele yarde (as they terme it) a place for Marchahtes of Almaine, that used to bring hether, as well Wheate, Rie, and other graines, as Cables, Ropes, Mastes, Pitch, Tar, Flax, Hempe, Wainscotes, Wax, Steele, and other profitable marchandires: unto these Marchantes, in the yeare 1259. Henry the thirde, in the 44. of his raigne, at the request of his brother Richarde Earle of Cornwell, king of Almaine, granted that all and singular the marchantes, having a house in the Citie of London, commonlie called Guilda Aula Theutonicorum, should be maintayned and upholden through the whole Realm, by all such Freedomes, and free usages, or Liberties, as by the king and his noble Progenitors time they had and inoyed, &c. Edwarde the first renewed and confirmed that Charter of Liberties, granted by his Father. And in the tenth yeare of the same Edward, Henry Wales being Maior, a great contreversie did arise betweene the saide Maior, and the marchantes of the Haunce of Almaine, about the reparations of Bishopsgate then likely to fall, for that the saide marchantes enjoyed, divers Priviledges, in respect of maintayning the saide gate, which they now denied to repaire: for the appeasing of which controversie the king sent his writ to the Treasurer, and Barons of his Exchequer, commanding that they should make inquisition thereof, before whom the marchants being called, when they were not able to discharge themselves, sith they injoyed the liberties to them granted, for the same, a precept was sent to the Maior, and Sheriffes, to distraine the saide marchantes, to make the reparasions, namely Gerard Marbod Alderman of the Hance, Ralph, de Cussarde a Citizen of Collen,[Page 185] Ludero de Denevar, a Burges of Trivar, John of Aras, a Burges of Triuon, Bart am of Hamburdge, Gadestalke of Hundondale, a Burges of Triuon, John de Dele a Burges of Munstar, then remaining in the saide Citie of London: for them selves, and all other marchantes of the Haunce, and so they granted 210. markes sterlinges, to the Maior and Citizens, and undertooke that they and their successors should from time to time repayre the saide gate, and beare the thirde parte of the charges in money, and men to defend it when neede were, and for this agreement the saide Maior and Citizens granted to the saide marchants their liberties, which till of late they have injoyed, as namely amongst other, that they might lay up their grayne which they brought into this realme in Innes, & sell it in their garners, by the space of 40. daies after they had laid it up: except by the Mayor & citizens they were expresly forbidden, because of dearth or other reasonable occasions. Also they might have their Alderman as they had béene accustomed, foreséene alwaies that hee were of the citie, and presented to the Mayor and Aldermen of the cittie so oft as any should bee chosen, and should take an othe before them to maintaine justice in their courts, and to behave themselves in their office according to law, and as it stoode with the customes of the citie. Thus much for their priviledges: whereby it appeareth that they were great marchants of corne brought out of the east parts hether, in so much that the occupiers of husbandry in this lande were enforced to complaine of them for bringing in such aboundance, when the corne of this realme was at an easie price: whereupon it was ordayned by parliament that no person shoulde bring into any part of this realme, by way of merchandise, any wheate, Rie, or Barlie, growing out of the said realme at any time, when then the quarter of wheat exceeded not the price of vj. .viij. .Rie iiij. .the quarter, & Barlie iij. .the quarter, upon for eyture the one halfe to the king, the other halfe to the seasor thereof. These merchants of the Haunce had their Guildhall in Thames stréet in place aforesaid, by the saide Cosin lane. Their hall is large builded of stone with three arched gates towardes the stréet, the middlemost whereof is far bigger then the other, & is seldome opened, & the other two be mured up, the same is now called the old hall.
- [year 1294.] The 22. Sheriffes, Robert Rokesley the younger, Martin Amersbery. C. Raphe Sandwitch.
- [year 1295.] The 23. sheriffes, Henry Box, Richard Glocester, C. Sir Raphe Sandwitch.
- [year 1296.] The 24. sheriffes, Iohn Dunstable, Adam de Halingbery. C. Sir Iohn Britton. This yeare all the liberties of the cittie were restored, the maioraltie excepted.
- [year 1297.] The 25. Sheriffes, Thomas of Suffolke, Adam of Fulham. C. Sir Iohn Briton.
- [year 1298.] The 26. Sheriffes, Richard Refham, Thomas Sely. Maior, Henry Walleis. Certaine cittizens of London brake vp the Tunne vppon Cornhill, and tooke out prisoners, for the which they were greeuously punished.
- [year 1299.] The 27. Sheriffes, Iohn Armenter, Henry Fingene. Maior, Elias Russell.
- [year 1300.] The 28. Sheriffes, Lucas de Hauering, Richard Champs. Maior, Elias Russell.
- [year 1301.] The 29. Sheriffes, Robert Callor, Peter de Bosenho. Maior, S. Iohn Blunt Knight.
- [year 1302.] The 30. Sheriffes, Hugh Pourt, Simon Paris. Maior, Sir Iohn Blunt.
- [year 1303.] The 31. Sheriffes, William Combmartin, Iohn Bucford. C. Sir Iohn Blunt.
- [year 1304.] The 32. Sheriffes, Roger Paris, Iohn de Lincolne. C. Sir Iohn Blunt. Geffrey de Hertilepole Alderman, was elected to be Recorder of London, and tooke his oath, and was appoynted to weare his apparrell as an Alderman.
- [year 1305.] The 33. Sheriffes, William Cosine, Reginald Thunderley. C. Sir Iohn Blunt.
- [year 1306.] The 34. Sheriffes, Geffrey Cundute, Simon Bilet. C. Iohn Blunt. Seacoale was forbidden to be burned in London, Southwarke, &c. Edward the second began his raigne the 7. of Iuly, the yeare of Christ 1307.
- [year 1307.] The first Sheriffe, Nicholas Pigot, Nigellus Drury. Maior, Sir Iohn Blunt.
- [Page 427][year 1308] The second Sheriffes, William Basing, Iames Botenar. Maior, Nicholas Farindon Goldsmith.
- [year 1309.] The third Sheriffes, Roger le Paumer, Iames of S. Edmond. Maior, Thomas Romaine.
- [year 1310.] The fourth Sheriffes, Simon de Corpe, Peter Blakney. Maior, Richard Reffam Mercer. The King commaunded the Maior and Communaltie, to make the wall of London, from Ludgate to Fléetebridge, and from thence to the Thames.
- [year 1311] The fift Sheriffes, Simon Merwod, Richard Wilford. Maior, Sir Iohn Gisors Peperar. Order was taken, that Merchant strangers should sell their wares within fortie daies after their arriuall, or else the same to bée forfeited.
- [year 1312.] The sixt Sheriffes, Iohn Lambin, Adam Lutken. Maior, Sir Iohn Gisors Peperar.
- [year 1313.] The seuenth Sheriffes, Robert Gurden, Hugh Garton. Maior, Nicholas Farindon Goldsmith. Prices set on victuals, a fat stalled oxe foure & twentie shillings, a fat mutton twentie pence, a fat goose two pence halfe penny, a fat capon two pence, a fat hen one penny, two chickens one penny, thrée pigeons one penny, twentie foure egges one penny, &c.
- [year 1314.] The eight Sheriffes, Stephen Abingdon, Hamond Chigwell. Maior, Sir Iohn Gisors Peperar. Famine and mortallitie of people, so that the quicke might vnnethe burie the dead. Horse flesh and dogges flesh was good meate.
- [year 1315.] The nine Sheriffes, Hamond Goodchape, William Bodelay. Maior, Stephen Abendon.
- [year 1316.] The tenth Sheriffes, William Canston, Raphe Balancer. Maior, Iohn Wingraue. An early Haruest, a buschell of wheat that had béen solde for ten shillings, was now sold for ten pence, &c.
- [year 1317.] The eleuenth Sheriffes, Iohn Prior, William Furneis. Maior, Iohn Wingraue. Such a murren of kine, that dogges and rauens that fed on them were poysoned.
- [year 1318.] The twelfth Sheriffes, Iohn Pontell, Iohn Dalling. Maior, Iohn Wingraue.
- [year 1319.] The 13. Sheriffes, Simon Abindon, Iohn Preston. M. Hamond
And in the next yeare, to wit, 1394, the said king ordained by Parliament that four other Grammer schooles should be erected,to wit,in the parishes of Saint Andrews in Didborne,Alhallowes the great in Thames Streete. S.Peters upon Cornehill, and in the Hospitall of S.Thomas of Acons in WestCheape, since the which time as rivers schooles by suppressing of religious houses,whereof they were members,in the raigne of Henrie the 8.have beene decayed,so againe have some others beene newly created,and founded for them:as namely Paules schoole,in place of an old ruined house, was builded in most ample manner, and largely indowed in the yeare 1512. by John Collet Doctor of Divinitie Deane of Paules,for 153.poore mens children:for which there was ordayned a Maister, Surmaister, or Usher, and a Chaplaine. Againe in the yeare 1553. after the creation of Christs Hospitall in the late dissolved house of the Gray Friers, a great number of poore children being taken in, a Schoole was also ordayned there, at the Citizens charges. Also in the yere 1561 the Marchant Taylors of London, founded one notable free Grammar Schoole, in the Parish of S. Laurence Poultney by Candleweeke streete, Richard Hils late maister of that companie, having given 500.l. towarde the purchase of an house, called the Mannor of the Rose, sometime the Duke of Buckinghams, wherein the Schoole is kept. As for the meeting of the Schoolmasters, on festivall dayes, at festivall Churches, and the disputing of their Schollers Logically, &c whereof I have before spoken, the same was long since discontinued: But the arguing of the Schoole boyes about the principles of Grammar, hath beene continued even till our time: for I myselfe in my youth have yearely seene on the Eve of S. Bartholomew the Apostle, the schollers of divers Grammar schooles repayse onto the Churchyard of S. Bartholomew, the Prior in Smithfiels, where upon a banke boorded [Page 75] about under a tree, some one Scholler hath stepped by, and there hath apposed and answered, till he were by some better scholler overcome and put downe: and then the overcommer taking the place, did like as the first: and in the end the best apposers and answerers had rewards, which I observed not, but it made both good Schoolmasters, and also good Schollers, diligently against such times to prepare themselves to the obtayining of this Garland. I remember there repayred to there exercises amongst others the Maisters and Schollers of the free Schooles of S. Pauls in London, of Saint Peters at Westminster: of Saint Thomas Acons Hospitall: and of Saint Anthonies Hospitall: whereof the last named commonly presented the best schollers, and had the prize in those dayes.
The same man discovrseth notablie to the same effect,in his Oration pro Se [...]io, alittle after the middest thereof, the wing that in the life of men dispersed, vis, beareth all the sway: but in the civill life and societie, ars is better maintained, & This thing well saw king William the Conqueror, who in his lawes, fol. 125. saith Burg [...] et [...] fundata, & edificata sunt, ad tuitionen gentiu & populorum Regoi, & idoireo observari debent cum omni libertate, integritate & ratione. And his predecessors, king Ethelstane, and king Canutus in their lawes, fol. 62, and 106. had commanunded thus: Opida instaurantur, &c.
By advantage of the scituation it disperseth foraine Wares, (as the stomack doth meat) to all the members most commodiously.
By the Benette of the river of Thames, and greate trade of Marchandize, it is the chiefe maker of Marrinersm and Nurse of our fanse and ships(as men know) bee the wooden Walles for defence of our realme.
It maintaineth in flourishing estate, the countries of Norfolke, Suffolke, Essex, Kent and Sussex, which as they lie in the face of our most puissant neighbour, so ought they above others, to bee conserved in the greatest strength and riches; and these, as it is well knowne, stand not so much by the benefite of their own soile, as by the neighbourhood and nearenes which they have to London.
It relieveth plentifullie, and with good policie, not onely her owne poor people, a thing which scarcely any other Towne or shire doth, but also the poore that from each quarter of the Realme doe flocke unto it, and it imparteth liberally to the necessitie of the Universities besides. It is an an ornament to the realme by the beautie thereof, and a terror to other countries by reason of the greate welth and frequencie. It spreadeth the honour of our Countrie far abroad by her long navigations, and maketh our power feared, even of barbarous Princes. It only is stored with rich Marchants which sort onely is tollerable: for beggarlie Marchants do byte too neare, and will do more harme then good to the Realme.
It onely of any place on this realme is able to furnish the sodiane necessity with a strong armie. It avayleth the prince in Cronage. Poundage and other her customes, much more then all the rest of the realme.