John Huighen van Linschoten. His Discours of Voyages into ye Easte & West Indies

JOHN HUIGHEN VAN LINSCHOTEN. his Discours of Voyages into ye Easte & West Indies. Divided into Foure Bookes Printed at London by JOHN WOLFE Printer to ye Honorable Cittie of LONDON

London. PUBLISHED BY John Windet 1598

To the Right Worshipfull JULIUS CAESAR Doctor of the Lawes, Judge of the High Court of Admiralty, Master of Requests to the Queenes Majesty, and Master of Saint Katherines.

RIGHT WORSHIPFULL: The manyfolde Curtesies, which it hath pleased you from time to time to multiply upon mee, have made me so greatly beholden unto you, that they can never dye, but remaine fresh in my remembrance during my Life: So that I must enforce my selfe with all my best Endevours openly to acknowledge the same, and by all the meanes that possibly I can, to bee thankefull for them; otherwise I might justly be noted with the blacke spotte of Ingratitude, the most odious vice that can raigne amongst men: which vice to avoyde, I have studied earnestly to finde out some way, wherby I might make knowne unto your Worship that duetifull reverence and affection, which I owe unto you in that respect. But having hitherto had no fit oportunitie or good occasion to declare the same, I have beene constrayned[Page] to remaine in this debt, untill now at last it hath pleased God to offer me a meane which I hope will not be displeasing unto you. About a Twelvemonth agoe, a learned Gentleman brought unto mee the Voyages and Navigation of John Huyghen van Linschoten into the Indies written in the Dutche Tongue, which he wished might be translated into our Language, because hee thought it would be not onely delightfull, but also very commodious for our English Nation. Upon this commendation and opinion, I procured the Translation thereof accordingly, and so thought good to publish the same in Print, to the ende it might bee made common and knowen to every body. And calling to minde the usuall custome of Writers and Printers in these daies, who do commonly shelter and shrowde their works under the credit of some such as are able to Patronize the same, your Worship represented it selfe before mee, and did (as it were of right) challenge the Patronage hereof, as being a Matter that appertaineth to your Jurisdiction. For this Dutchman arriving here in England after his long travell and Navigation, and bringing rare Intelligences with him from Forreyne parts, good reason it is that hee should bee examined by such as are in place and Authority appointed for such purposes. And to whome can hee be directed better then to your selfe, whome it hath pleased her most excellent Majestie to authorize for Judge in Sea matters and Admirall causes. And therefore I have brought him unto you, with earnest request, that you will be pleased to examine him accordingly, and if you shall finde him any way beneficiall to our [Page]Countrey and Countrey men, vouchsafe him your good countenance, and give him such intertainment as he shall deserve. Thus am I bold with your worship to acknowledge my dutie after this homely manner, having none other meane to shew my selfe thankefull, but by presenting you with this slender fruite of my abilitie & facultie, which I beseech you to accept in good part, and I shall not cease to pray to God, that hee will blesse you with long life, and prosperous health, to the great comfort of many her Majesties Subjects and Suppliants that are daylie to bee relieved by your good meanes.

Your Worships ever most bounden.



LVcian in one of his Dialogues intituled [undefined span non-Latin alphabet], or Surveyers, writeth of Charon the old Ferrie-Man of Hell, that upon a great desire which he had conceived to view this world and the Actions of men therein, hee begged leave of Pluto, that hee might have a playing day, and bee absent from his boat, to the end he might satisfie his thirsty humor, that troubled him so eagerly. Meeting with Mercurie his fellow Boatswayne, (for he also conducteth Soules in Charons Barge) they two concluded together, like the two Sonnes of Alcëus, to clap the Mountaine Pelius upon Mount Ossa, and when they found that they were not high inough to take the surveigh, they added Mount O Eta unto them, and Parn [...]us over them all. Upon the toppe wherof, having setled themselves, they did at leysure and pleasure take a view not onely of the Seas, and Mountaines, and Cities of the world: but also of the Inhabitants therof, together with their Speeches, Actions and Manners. The same Author in another Dialogue called Icaro-Menippus discourseth of the Cinike Menippus, who being troubled with the same humor tooke unto him the right wing of an Eagle, and the left wing of a Vulture, and having fastened them to his body with strong and sturdie thongs, mounted up first to the Acropolis or Capitol of Athens, and then from Hymettus by the Gerania to Acro-Corinthus, and so to Pholoë, and Erymanthus, & Taygetus, and at last to Olympus: where he grew somewhat more bragg and audacious, then before he was, and soared higher upwards till he had reached the Moone, and then the Sunne, and from thence the Habitation of Jupiter and the rest of the Gods: a sufficient flight (as he saith) for a well trusled Eagle to performe in a day. There he rested himselfe, and discovered all the world and every particularity thereof, to the end he might the more freely & like a Scoggan taunt & scoffe at the Actions of men in their severall kinds. But to leave these Poeticall Fictions, and vaine Fables, which doo but declare the Nature of Man to bee desirous of Novelties, and curious to know those things whereof he is ignorant; let us come to those that being neither conjured out of hell, nor rapt into the heavens, but of their owne honourable disposition and instinct of Nature, have not onely compassed Sea and Land in their own persons to learne and beholde Nations,Realmes, Peoples & Countries unknowne, for the augmentation of their owne private skill and cunning, but also have committed their knowledge and labours to writing for the propagation of the service and glorie of God in Pagan and Heathen places, and the great pleasure, profit & commodity of their Countrymen. Of this kinde and sort of famous men, there hath beene great store in al ages, but specially at the first, Homer, Anaximander, Hecataeus, Democritus, Eudoxus, Timaeus, Eratosthenes, Polybius, Possidonius, Dionysius, Strabo, Solinus, Pomponius Mela, Maximus Tyrius, Ptolomée, & an infinite number of other ancient Authors, that have imployed,[Page] their wits & industries in this behalf to the singular benefit of our later times, wherein there have beene most excellent and exquisite followers of them, as Munsters, Mercators, Thevets, Belonies, Ortelies, Villamonts, & many moe, that by the light and good meanes of those their Predecessors, have run beyonde them many degrees, and discovered such New worlds as were never knowne to our Fathers & Forefathers; and therefore doo deserve the greater commendation. No doubt, it is very troublesome and laborious to journey by land for the attaining to this knowledge: but to travell bySea, is not onely most dangerous, but also in a maner almost a desperate estate, considering especially the great perils whereunto it is hourely subject, as namely,Rockes, Flats, Sandes, Gulphes, Stormes, Tempests, besides the continuall Watching and care in observing the Poles Arctike, and Antarctike, the Aequinoctiall Line, the Altitude and Degrees of the Meridian, the Circle of theZodiake, the Horizon, the Tropikes, theLongitude and Latitude of Heaven and earth, the Paralleles, the Hemisphere, theZenith, theCentre, and a Rablement of such curiosities, that are able to breake the braines of the soundest man alive. To these if you will add the intollerable paines, and infinite diseases that doo spend their bodies, you must needs say, that they are the most miserable Creatures of the worlde: So that you cannot choose but bee of the opinion of Anacharsis that Noble Philosopher, who beeing demaunded whether Number was the greater, that of the dead or that of the Living, did redemaund againe, In which Number do you recken those that travell on the Sea? Signifiyng thereby, that such as travell upon the Sea are in so great danger of death, that they doo continually dye living, and live dying. And therefore well sayd Bias (one of the seven Sages) that Saylers uppon the Sea were alwayes within two ynches of their death: & true it is, which the Latyn Lyrike Poet writeth, That Man had a Hart of Oke, and was fenced with a triple Corslet of Brasse,that first adventured to commit a slender Boat to the raging Sea. A Type and Patterne of all which miseries, together with the cunning and skilfull Art of Navigation, is comprised in this Volume which wee have in hand, being a most perfect description of the East and West Indies, or (as they are commonly called) the Portugall and Spanish Indies: A Worke assuredly very profitable, and commodious for all such as are desirous & curious lovers of Novelties.

Of these Indies, though not in distinguished tearmes of East and West, sundry Historiographers and Authors of the old World have made an honourable Mention, & left an exceeding commendation thereof, for the wonderfull and rare matters, that were discovered by the severall Travels & Navigation of divers famous Captains: as namely, Alexander the great, Seleucus, Antiochus, Patrocles, and Onesicritus, who had been all in the saide Indies, insomuch as one of them held them to be the Third part of all the Land that is inhabited, in regard of the great Provinces, puissant Cities, and unmeasurable Ilands that are found therein: all very fruitfull, and yeelding such treasure and rich Merchandize, as none other place of the whole world can afford. And althogh the curiosity and labour of these auncients was very great, yet greater hath beene the travell and industry of those which of late time, and in our age hath beene imployed therein. For the auncient Travellers had in deede a certain kind of knowledge of this Countrey and People; but it was very uncertaine and unperfect: Whereas we in our times are thoroughly learned and instructed by our owne experience, in the Provinces, Cities, Rivers, Havens and Trafficks of them all: So that nowe it is become knowne to the whole world. First the Portingalls (being great Merchants by reason of their skil in Navigation, which in our dayes is growne to a more full perfection, then ever it hath beene in times past:) they I say first discovered [Page]the Wast and Desert Part of the Indies, caused their King to be entertayned & honoured among the People, encreased and enhaunsed their credit and Name exceedingly, and the sundry commodities of their severall fruits and spices have dispersed & communicated not onely to their owne Countrymen, but also to all Nations under the Sunne. But here the Matter stayed not: For then came the English (a People that in the Art of Navigation giveth place to none other) and they were incited to take this Indian Voyage in hande, and to make it generally knowne unto their Island: & thereupon SyrFrancis Drake, & Master Thomas Candish did not only sayle into the sayde Indies, but also travelled round about the world, with a most happy and famous successe. Whose examples divers honourable Gentlemen and valiant Captaines of England have followed, to their unspeakeable praise and commendation, & the exceeding glory of their Country: as namely the Right Honourable Earle of Cumberland, the Lord Thomas Howard, Syr Francis Drake, Syr Martin Frobisher, Syr Richard Greenefield, Syr John Hawkins, and Syr Walter Raleigh, with divers others named and mentioned in this Booke, And last of all, the People of theLowe-Countreys beeing instructed by the diligent search and travell of the English Nation, fell to the like trafficke into [...]he Indies, and have performed many Honourable and profitable Voyages. Among whom the Author of this B[...]oke, John-Hugh Linschote of Harlem was one, that continued in India for the most part of nine yeares, and had good oportunity of sure and certaine intelligences by reason of his service under Vincentius da Fonseca, a Fryer Dominican, & by K. Philip created Archbishop of all India. This Man Hugh Linschote behaved himselfe so honestly and warily during the time of his abode there, that he was not onely in high favour of his Lord and Maister, but he was also singularly and generally beloved of all the Inhabitants of the places where hee was most resiant. He did most diligently and considerately observe and collect together all occurrents and accidents that happened in his memory & knowledge, and the same hath committed to writing in the Dutch Tongue with all faithfulnes, to his owne everlasting praise, and to the benefit of his Countrey, together with the severall Mappes and descriptions of the Countreys, Cities and Townes, & all the commodities thereunto belonging. Which Booke being commended, by Maister Richard Hackluyt, a man that laboureth greatly to advance our English Name and Nation, the Printer thought good to cause the same to bee translated into the English Tongue.

The Volume conteyneth in it foure severall Treatises: The First is, The Voyage or Journey by Sea of the sayde Hugh Linschote the Author, into the East or Portingall Indies, together with all the Sea-Coasts, Havens, Rivers and Cre[...]kes of the same, theirCustomes and Religion, their Policie and Governement, their Marchandises, Drugges, Spyces, Hearbs, &Plants, the vertues whereof are explaned by the Annotations of Doctor Paludanus, the learned Phisitian ofEn[...]khuysen: And last of all, a Memoriall of such Accidents as fell out during the Authors aboade in India.

The Second Treatise is, The Description of Guinea, Manicongo, Angola, Monomotapa, &c. with a discovery of the great Island of Madagascar, and all the Shallowes, Cliffes and Islands of the Indian Seas: The most part whereof was collected before by one Pigafetta from the mouth of Edward Lopez, and published inEnglish the last yeare.

The Third Treatise is, The Navigation of the Portingales into the East Indies: & from thence to Malacca, China, Japon, Java and Sunda: And from China to the Westerne or Spanish Indies, and all theCoast of Brasilia, &c. The Fourth and last Treatise is, A most true & exact Summarie of all the Rents, Demaynes,Tolles, Taxes, Imposts, [Page]Tributes, Tenths, Third-pennies, and generally all the Revenues of the King of Spayne, arising out of all his Kingdomes, Lands, Provinces and Lordships, as well ofPortugall as of Spayne, collected out of the Originall Registers of his severall Chambers of Accompts: together with a briefe description of the government and Pedegree of the Kinges of Porttugall.

I doo not doubt, but yet I doo most hartely pray and wish, that this poore Translation may worke in our English Nation a further desire and increase of Honour over all Countreys of the World, and as it hath hitherto mightily advanced the Credite of the Realme by defending the same with our Wodden Walles (as Themistocles called the Ships of Athens.) So it would employ the same in forraine partes, aswell for the dispersing and planting true Religion and Civill Conversation therein: As also for the further benefite and commodity of this Land by exportation of such thinges wherein we doe abound, and importation of those Necessities whereof we stand in Neede: as Hercules did, when hee fetched away the Golden Apples out of the Garden of the Hesperides; & Jason, when with his lustie troupe of couragious Argonautes hee atchieved the Golden Fleece in Colchos.



The Voyage and travailes of John Hugen van Linschoten into the East or Portingales Indies: Setting downe a briefe discourse of the said Landes, and sea coastes, with the principall Havens, Rivers, Creekes, and other places of the same, as yet not knowne nor discovered by the Portingales: Describing withall not onely the manner of apparrell of the Portingales inhabiting therin, but also of the naturall borneIndians, their Temples, Idols, houses, trees, Fruites, Hearbes, Spices, and such like: Together with the customes of those countries, as well for their manner of Idolatrous religion and worshipping of Images, as also for their policie and government of their houses, their trade, and traffique in Marchandise, how and from whence their wares are sold, & brought thether: With a collection of the most memorable and worthiest thinges happened in the time of his beeing in the same countries, very profitable and pleasant to all such as are welwillers, or desirous to heare and read of strange thinges.


BEeing young, and living idlelye in my native Countrie, sometimes applying my selfe to the reading of Histories, and straunge adventures, wherein I tooke no small delight, I found my minde so much addicted to sée & travaile into strange Countries, thereby to séeke some adventure, that in the end to satisfie my selfe I determined, & was fully resolved, for a time to leave my Native Countrie, and my friendes (although it gréeved me) yet the hope I had to accomplish my desire, together with the resolution, taken in the end overcame my affection and put me in good comfort, to take the matter upon me, trusting in God that he would further my intent. Which done, being resolved, thereupon I tooke leave of my Parents, who as then dwelt at Enckhuysen, and beeing ready to imbarke my selfe, I went to a Fléet of ships that as then lay before the Tassell, staying the winde to sayle forSpaine, and Portingale, where I imbarked my selfe in a ship that was bound for S. Lucas de Barameda, beeing determined to travaile unto Sivill, where as then I had two bretheren that had continued there certaine yeares before: so to helpe my selfe the better, & by their meanes to know the manner and custome of those Countries, as also to learne the Spanish tongue.


[Page 2]

And the 6. of December, in the yere of our Lord 1576 we put out of ye Tassel, (being in all about 80. ships) & set our course for Spain, and the ninth of the same month, wee passed betwéene Dover and Callis, & within thrée dayes after wee had the sight of the Cape of Finisterra, and the fiftéene of the same moneth we saw the land of Sintra, otherwise called the Cape Roexent, from whence the river Tegio, or Tagus, runneth into the maine Sea, uppon the which river lieth the famous citie of Lisbone, where some of our Fleet put in, and left us. The 17. day wee saw the Cape S. Vincent, & uppon Christmas day after we entred into the river of S. Lucas de Barameda, where I stayed two or thrée dayes, and then travailed to Sivill, & the first day of Januarie following, I entred into the citie, where I found one of my[Page] brethren, but the other was newly ridden to the Court, lying as then in Madrill. And although I had a speciall desire presently to travaile further, yet for want of the Spanish tongue, without the which men can hardlie passe the countrie, I was constrained to stay there to learne some part of their language: meane time it chanced that Don Henry (the last King of Portingale) died: by which meanes a great contention and debate hapned as then in Portingale, by reason that the said King by his Will and Testament, made Phillip King of Spaine, his Sisters Sonne, lawfull Heire unto the Crowne of Portingal. Notwithstanding ye Portingals (alwaies deadly enemies to the Spaniards,) were wholly against it, and elected for their king, Don Antonio, Prior de Ocrato, brothers Son to the King that died before Don Henry: which the King of Spaine hearing, presently prepared himselfe in person to goe into Portingale to receave the Crowne, sending before him the Duke of Alva, with a troupe of men to cease their strife, and pacifie the matter: so that in the end, partly by force, and partly by mony, hee brought the Countrie under his subjection. Whereupon divers men went out of Sivill and other places into Portingale, as it is commonlie séene that men are often addicted to changes and new alterations, among the which my Brother by other mens counsels was one: First travelling to the borders of Spaine, being a cittie called Badaios, standing in the frontiers of Portingale, where they hoped to finde some better meanes, and they were no sooner arived there, but they heard news that all was quiet in Portingale, and that Don Antonio was driven out of the countrie, and Phillip by consent of the Land receyved for King. Whereupon my Brother presently changed his minde of travelling for Portingale, and entred into service with an Ambassador, that on the Kings behalfe was to goe into Italie, with whome he rode: and ariving in Salamanca hee fell sicke of a disease called Tavardilha, which at that time raigned throughout the whole Countrie of Spaine, whereof many thousands died: and among the rest my Brother was one.

This sicknesse being very contagious, raigned not onely in Spaine, but also in Italie, Germany, and almost throughout all Christendome, whereof I my selfe was sicke being as then in Italie, and by them it was called Coccolucio, because such as were troubled therewith, were no otherwise troubled then in the throat, like unto Hennes which have the pip, after the which followed many pestilent fevers, with divers strange fits, which continued not above foure dayes. Not long before, the plague was so great in Portingale, that in two yeres space there died in Lisbone to the number of 80. thousand people: after the which plague the saide disease ensued, which wrought great destruction throughout the whole Countrie of Spaine.

The fift day of August in the same yeare, having some understanding in the Spanish tongue, I placed my selfe with a Dutch gentleman, who determined to travaile into Portingal, to sée the countrie, and with him stayed to take a more convenient time for my pretended voyage.

Uppon the first of September following we departed from Sivill, & passing through divers Townes and Villages, within eight dayes after we arived at Badaios, where I found my other Brother following the Court. At the same time died Anne de Austria Quéene of Spaine, (Sister to the Emperour Rodulphus, and Daughter to the Emperour Maximilian) the Kings fourth and last wife, for whom great sorrow was made through all Spaine: her body was convaied from Badaios to the Cloyster of Saint Laurence in Escuriall, where with great solemnitie it was buried. We having stayed certaine dayes in Badaios, departed from thence, and passed through a Towne called Eluas about two or thrée miles off, being the first towne in the kingdome of Portingale, for that betwéene it and Badaios, the borders of Spaine and Portingale are limited: from thence we travailed into divers other places of Portingale, and at the last arived at Lisbone, about the twenty of September following, where at that time wee found the Duke of Alva beeing Governour there for the King of Spaine, the whole Cittie making great preparation for the Coronation of the King, according to the custome of their countrie. Wee beeing in Lisbone, through the change of aire, and corruption of the countrie I fell sicke, and during my sicknes was seaven times let blood, yet by Gods help I escaped: and being recovered, not having much preferment under the gentleman, I left his service, and placed my selfe with a Marchant untill I might attaine to better meanes. About the same time the plague not long before newly begunne, began againe to cease, for the which cause the King till then had deferred his enterance into Lisbone, which wholly ceased uppon the first day of May, Anno 1581 hee entred with great triumph and magnificence into the cittie of Lisbone, where above all others the Dutchmen [Page 3]

4. Chapter 3. The manner and order used in the ships in their Indian Voyages.

THe shippes are commonlye charged with foure or five hundred men at the least, sometimes more, sometimes lesse, as there are souldiers and saylers to bée found. When they go out they are but lightly laden, onely with certaine pipes of wine & oyle, and some small quantitie of Marchandize other thing have they not in, but balast, & victuals for the company, for that the most and greatest ware that is commonly sent into India, are rials of eight, because the principall factors for pepper doe every yere send a great quantitie of mony, therewith to buy pepper, as also divers particular Marchants, as being the least ware that men can carry into India: for that in these rials of eight they gaine at the least forty per cento: when the ships are out of the river, and enter into the sea, all their men are mustered, as well saylers, as souldiers, and such as are founde absent and left on land, being registred in the bookes, are marked by the purser, that at their returne they may talke with their suerties, (for that every man putteth in suerties,) and the goods of such as are absent, béeing found in the ship are presently brought foorth and prised, and an Inventorie thereof béeing made, it is left to bee disposed at the captaines pleasure. The like is done with their goods that die in the ship, but little of it commeth to the owners hands, being imbeseled and privily made away.

The Master and Pilot have for their whole voyage forth and home againe, each man 120. Millreyes, every Millreyes being worth in Dutch money seaven guilders, and because the reckoning of Portingale monie is onely in one sort of money called Reyes, which is the smalest money to bee founde in that countrie, and although it bee never so great a summe you doe receave, yet it is alwaies reckoned by Reyes, whereof 160. is as much as a Keysers gilderne, or foure rials of silver: so that two reyes are foure pence, and one reye two pence of Holland money I have thought good to set it downe, the better to shew and make you understand the accounts they use by reyes in the countrie of Portingale. But returning to our matter, I say the Master and the Pilot doe receave before hand, each man twenty foure millreyes, besides that they have chambers both under in the ship, and cabbins above the hatches, as also primage, & certaine tunnes fraught. The like have all the other officers in the ship according to their degrées, and although they receave money in hand, yet it costeth them more in giftes before they get their places, which are given by favour and good will of the Proveador, which is the chiefe officer of the Admiraltie, and yet there is no certaine ordinance for their payes, for that it is dayly altered: but let us reckon the pay, which is commonly given according to the ordinance and maner of our ship for that yeare.

The chiefe Boteswain hath for his whole pay 50. Millreyes, and receaveth ten in ready money: The Guardian, that is the quarter master hath 1400. reyes the month, and for fraught 2800. and receaveth seven Millreyes in ready money: The Seto Piloto, which is the Masters mate, hath 1200. reyes, which is thrée duckets the month, and as much fraught as the quarter Master: two Carpenters, & two Callafaren which helpe them, have each man foure duckets a month and 3900. Millreyes fraught. The Steward that giveth out their meate and drinke, and the Merinho, which is he that imprisoneth men aborde, and hath charge of all the [Page 5] amunition and powder, with the delivering forth of the same, have each man a Millreyes the month, and 2340. reyes fraught, besides their chambers and fréedome of custome, as also all other officers, saylers, pikemen, shot, &c. have every man after the rate, and every one that serveth in the ship. The Cooper hath thrée duckets a month, and 3900 reyes fraught: Two Strinceros, those are they which hoise up the maine yeard by a wheele, and let it downe againe with a whéele as néedis, have each man one Millreyes the month, and 2800. reyes fraught: Thirty thrée saylers have each man one Millreyes the month, and 2800. reyes fraught, 37. rowers, have each man 660. reyes the moneth, and 1860. reyes fraught, foure pagiens which are boyes, have with their fraught 443. reyes the month, one Master gunner, and eight under him, have each man a different pay, some more, some lesse: The surgion likewise hath no certaine pay: The factor and the purser have no pay but only their chambers, that is below under hatches, a chamber of twentie pipes, for each man ten pipes, and above hatches each man his cabbin to sléepe in, whereof they make great profit. These are all the officers and other persons which sayle in the ship, which have for their portion every day in victuals, each man a like, as well the greatest as the least, a pound and thrée quarters of Bisket, halfe a Can of Wine, a Can of water, an Arroba which is 32. pound of salt flesh the moneth, some dryed fish, onyons and garlicke are eaten in the beginning of the voyage, as being of small valew, other provisions, as Suger, Honny, Reasons, Prunes, Ryse, & such like, are kept for those which are sicke: yet they get but little thereof, for that the officers kéepe it for themselves, and spend it at their pleasures, not letting much goe out of their fingers: as for the dressing of their meate, wood, pots, and pans, every man must make his owne provision: besides all this there is a Clarke and steward for the Kings souldiers that have their parts by themselves, as the saylers have.

This is the order and manner of theyr voyage when they sayle unto the Indies, but when they returne againe, they have no more but each man a portion of Bisket and water untill they come to the Cape de Bona Esperance, and from thence home they must make their own provisions. The souldiers that are passengers, have nothing els but frée passage, that is roome for a chest under hatches, and a place for their bed in the or loope, and may not come away without the Viceroyes passeport, and yet they must have béene five yeres souldiers in the Indies before they can have licence, but the slaves must pay fraught for their bodies, & custome to the King, as in our voyage home againe we will at large declare [...]


The 24. of Aprill we fell upon the coaste of Guinea which beginneth at nine degrées, and stretcheth untill wee come under the Equinoctiall, where wee have much thunder, lightning and many showers of raine, with stormes of wind, which passe swiftly over, & yet fall with such force, that at every shower we are forced to strike sayle, & let the maine yeard fall to the middle of the mast, & many times cleane down, sometimes ten or twelve times everyday: there wee finde a most extreame heate, so that all the water in the ship stinketh, whereby men are forced to stop their noses when they drinke, but when wee are past the Equinoctiall it is good againe, & the nearer wee are unto the land, the more it stormeth, raineth, thundreth and calmeth: so that most commonly the shippes are at the least two monthes before they can passe the line: Then they finde a winde which they name the generall winde, and it is a South east winde, but it is a side wind, and we must alway lie side waies in the wind almost untill wee come to the cape de Bona Speranza, and because that upon the coast of Brasillia about 18. degrées, on the south side lieth great slakes or shallowes, which the Portingales call Abra [...]hos, that reach 70. miles into the sea on the right side, to passe them, the ships hold up most unto the coast of Guinea, and so passe the said Flattes, otherwise if they fall too low and keepe inwardes, they are constrained to turne againe unto Portingale, and many times in danger to be lost, as it hapned to our Admirall Saint Phillip, which in the yeare 1582 fell by night upon the Flats, and was in great danger to be lost, yet recovered againe, & sayled backe to Portingale, and now this yeare to shunne the Flats shee kept so neare the coast of Guinea, that by meanes of the great calmes and raynes, shee was forced to drive up and downe two months together, before shee could passe the line, & came two months after the other ships into India: Therefore men must take heed, and kéepe themselves from comming too neare the coast, to shun [Page 6] the calmes and stormes, and also not to hold too farre of thereby to passe the Flats & shallowes, wherein consisteth the whole Indian Voyage.


The 15. of May being about fiftie miles beyond the Equinoctiall line Northwardes, we espied a French ship, which put us all in great feare, by reason that most of our men were sicke, as it commonly hapneth in those countries through the excéeding heate: & further they are for the most part such as never have beene at Sea before that time, so that they are not able to do much, yet we discharged certaine great shot at him, wherewith he left us, (after he had played with us for a smal time) and presently lost the sight of him, wherewith our men were in better comfort. The same day about evening, wee discried a great ship [...], which wee judged to bee of our Fleet, as after wee perceived, for it made towards us to speake with us, and it was the Saint Francisco, wherewith wee were glad.

The [...]6. of May, wee passed the Equinoctiall line which runneth through the middle of the Iland of Saint Thomas, by the coast of Guinea, and then wee began to sée the south star, and to loose the north star, and founde the sunne at twelve of the clocke at noone to be in the north, and after that wee had a south east wind, called a general wind, which in those partes bloweth all the yeare through.

The29. of May being Whitsonday, the ships of an ancient custome, doe use to chuse an Emperour among themselves, and to change all the officers in the ship, and to hold a great feast, which continueth thrée or foure dayes together, which wee observing chose an Emperour, and being at our banket, by meanes of certaine words that passed out of some of their mouthes, there fell great strife and contention among us, which procéeded so farre, that the tables were throwne downe and lay on the ground, and at the least a hundred rapiers drawne, without respecting the Captaine or any other for he lay under foote, and they trod upon him, and had killed each other, and thereby had cast the ship away, if the Archbishop had not come out of his cha-ber among them, willing them to cease, wherwith they stayed their hands, who presently commaunded every man on paine of death, that all their Rapiers, Poynyardes, and other weapons should bee brought into his chamber, which was done, whereby all thinges were pacified, the first and principall beginners being punished & layd in irons, by which meanes they were quiet.

The 12. of June we passed beyond the afore said Flats and shallowes of Brasillia, whereof all our men were excéeding glad, for thereby we were assured that we should not for that time put backe to Portingale againe, as many doe, and then the generall wind served us, untill wee came to the river of Rio de Plata, where wee got before the wind to the cape de Bona Speranza.


The 20. of the same month, the S. Fransiscus that so long had kept us copany was againe out of sight: and the eleaventh of July after, our Master judged us to bee about 5 [...]. miles from the cape de Bona Speranza: wherefore he was desired by the Archbishop to kéepe in with the land, that wee might sée the Cape. It was then mistie weather, so that as we had made with the lad about one houre or more, wee perceived land right before us, and were within two miles thereof, which by reason of the darke and misty weather we could no sooner perceive, which put us in great feare, for our judgement was cleane contrarie, but the weather beginning to cleare up, we knew the land, for it was a part or bank of the point called Cabo Falso, which is about fiftéene miles on this side the cape de Bona Speranza, towards Mossambique the cape de Bona Speranza lieth under 34. degrées southward, there wee had a calme and faire weather, which continuing about halfe a day, in the meane time with our lines we got great store of fishes uppon the same land at ten or twelve fadoms water, it is an excellent fish much like to Haddocks, the Portingales call them Pescados.

The twenty of the same month wee met againe with Saint Francisco, and spake with her, and so kept company together till the 24. of June, when wee lost her againe. The same day wee stroke all our sayles, because wee had a contrarie wind, and lay two dayes still driving up and downe, not to loose anie way, meane time wee were against the high land of Tarradona [...]al, which beginneth in 32. degrees, and endeth in 30. and is distant from Capo de Bona Speranza 150. miles, in this place they comonly use to tak [...] counsell of all the officers of the ship, whether it is best for the to sayle through within the land of S. Laurenso, or without it, for that within the land they sayle to Mossambique, and from thence to Goa, and sayling without it they cannot come at Goa, by reason they fal down by meanes of the streame, and so must sayle unto Cochin, which lieth 100. miles lower then Goa, and as the ships leave the cape, then it is not good to make towards Mossambique, because they cannot come in time to Goa, by reason of the great calmes that are within the land, but [Page 7] they that passe the Cape in the month of July, may well goe to Mossambique, because they have time inough there to refresh themselves, and to take in fresh water and other victuals, and so to lie at anker ten or twelve dayes together, but such as passe the cape in the month of August, doe come too late, and must sayle about towardes Cochin, thereby to loose no time, yet it is dangerous & much more combersome, for that commonly they are sicke of swolen legges, sore bellies, and other diseases. The 30. of July, wee were against the point of the cape called Das Corentes, which are 130. miles distant from Terra Donatal, and lieth under 24. degrées Southwarde, there they begin to passe betwéene the Ilands.

8. The Ile Madagascar, otherwise called Saint Laurence.

[...]The people of the Iland are blacke like those of Mossambique, and goe naked, but the haire of their heades is not so much curled as theirs of Mossambique, and not full so blacke. The Portingales have no speciall traffique there, because there is not much to be had, for as yet it is not very well known. The 1. of August we passed the flats called Os Baixos de Judea, that is, the Flats of the Jewes, which are distant from the cape das Corentes, 30. miles, and lie betwéen the Iland of S. Laurence & the firme land, that is from the Iland fiftie miles, and from the firme land seaventy miles, which Flats begin under 22. degrées and a halfe, and continue to twentie one degrées: there is great care to bee taken lest men fall upon them, for they are very dangerous, and many ships have bin lost there, and of late in Anno 1585. a ship comming from Portingale called S. Iago beeing Admirall of the Fleet, and was the same that the first voiage went with us from Lisbone for vice Admirall, as in another place we shall declare.

The fourth of August we discried the land of Mossambique, which is distant from the Flattes of the Jewes nintie miles under fifteene degrées southwards. The next day we entred into the road of Mossambique, and as we entered we espied the foresaid ship called S. Iago which entered with us, and it was not above one houre after we had descried it, beeing the first time wee had séene it since it left us at the Iland of Madera, where we seperated our selves. There wee found likewise two more of our ships, Saint Laure [...]zo and Saint Francisco, which the day before were come thether with a small ship that was to sayle to Malacca, which commonly setteth out of Portingale, a month before any of the ships do set sayle for India, only because they have a longer voiage to make, yet doe they ordinarily sayle to Mossambique to take in sweete water & fresh victuals as their voiage falleth out, or their victuals scanteth: If they goe not thether, the they saile about on the back side of ye Iland of saint Laurenso, not setting their course forMossambique. Being at Mossambique wee were foure of our Fléete in company together, only wanting the Saint Phillip, which had holden her course so nere the coast of Guinea, (the better to shun the Flats of Bracillia that are called Abrollios, whereon the yere before she had once fallen,) that she was so much becalmed that she could not passe the Equinoctiall line in long time after us, neyther yet the cape de Bona Speranza without great storms & foule weather,[Page] as it ordinarilie happeneth to such as come late thether, whereby shee was compelled to compasse about & came unto Cochin about two months after we were al arived at Goa, having passed and endured much misery and foule weather, with sicknes and diseases, as swellings of the legs, and the scorbuicke, and paine in their bellies &c.

9. The 4. Chapter. The description of Mossambique, which lieth under 15. degrees on the South side of the Equinoctiall line uppon the coast of Melinde, otherwise called Abex or Abexim.

Mossambique is a Towne in the Iland of Prasio with a safe, (although a small) haven, on the right side towardes the cape: they have the golden mines called Sofala, on the left side the rich towne of Quiloa: and by reason of the foggie mistes incident to the same, the place is both barren & unholsome, yet the people are rich by reason of the situation. In time past it was inhabited by people that beleeved in Mahoomet, being overcom & kept in subjection by the tirant of Quiloa, & his lieftenant (which the Arabians called Zequen) that governed them. Mossambique is a little Iland, distant about halfe a mile from the firme land, in a corner of the said firme land, for that yefirme land on the north side stretcheth further into ye sea the it doth, & before it there lie two smal Ilands named S.George & S. Jacob, which are even wt the corner of the firme land, and betwéene those two Ilands not inhabited, & the firme land the ships doe sayle to Mossambique leaving the Ilands southward, on the left hand, and the firm land [...]n the north, and so without a Pilot compasse about a mile into the sea to Mossambique, for it is déepe enough, and men may easily shun the sands that lie upon the firme land, because they are openly séene [...] The Iland of Mossambique is about halfe a mile in compasse, flat land, and bordered about with a white sand: Therein growe many Indian palmes or nut trées, & some Orange, Apple, [Page 9] Lemmon, Citron, and Indian Figge trées: but other kindes of fruit which are common in India are there verie scarce. Corne and other graine with Rice and such necessarie marchandizes are brought thether out of India, but for beasts and foule, as O [...] en, shéep, Goats, Swine, Hennes, &c. there are great aboundance and very good and cheape. In the same Iland are found shéepe of five quarters in quantitie, for that their tayles are so broad and thicke, that there is as much flesh upon them, as upon a quarter of their body, and they are so fatte that men can hardlie brooke them. There are certaine Hennes that are so blacke both of feathers, flesh, and bones, that being sodden they séeme as black as inke: yet of very swéet taste, and are accounted better then the other: whereof some are likewise found in India, but not so many as in Mossambique. Porke is there a very costly dish, and excellent faire and swéete flesh, and as by experience it is found, it farre surpasseth all other flesh: so that the sicke are forbidden to eate any kinde of flesh but onely Porke, because of the excellency thereof.

MOssambique signifieth two places, one which is a whole kingdome lying in Africa, behinde the cape of Bona Speranza, betweene Monomotapa & Quiloa, the other certaine Ilands herafter drawne and described, lying on the south side of the Equinoctiall line under 14. degrees and a halfe, whereof the greatest is called Mossambique, the other two Saint Jacob and Saint George. These Ilands lie almost in the mouth of a river which in Africa is called Moghincats.

About Mossambique is a verie great & a safe haven, fit to receive and harbour all ships that come and goe both to & from Portingal & the Indies, and although both the Kingdome and the Iland are not very great, yet are they very rich and abundant in all kinde of thinges, as appeareth in the description of the same.

Mossambique the chiefe & greatest of them is inhabited by two maner of people, Christians and Mahometanes , the Christians are Portingales, or of the Portingales race, there is also a castle wherin the Portingales keepe garrison, from whence also all other castles and fortes thereabouts are supplied with their necessaries, speciallie Sofala, where the rich mine of Gold lieth: there the Portingale ships doe use to harbour in winter time, when of wind or by meanes of foule weather, they cannot accoplish their voiage.

The Indian ships doe likewise in that place take in new victuals and fresh water.

[...] Sayling along further by the coast towardes the Indies you passe by Quiloa (which in times past was called Rapta) not great but verie faire by reason of the great trees that grow there, which are alwaies fresh and greene, as also for the diversities of victuals, & it is also an Ilande lying about the mouth of the great River Coavo, which hath her head or spring out of the same lake from whence Nilus doth issue. This Iland is inhabited by Mahometans, and they are all most white apparelled in silk and clothes of cotton wooll: their women weare bracelets of gold and precious stones about their neckes and armes: they have great quantitie of silver workes, & are not so browne as the men, & well membered: their houses are commonly made of stone, chalke, and wood, with pleasant gardens of all kind of fruit and sweet flowers: from this Iland the kingdome taketh his name. [...]They have no swéet water in this Iland to drinke, but they fetch it from the firme land, out of a place called by the Portingales Cabaser, and they use in their houses great pots which come out of India, to kéepe their water in [...][Page 11] [...]because they are the strongest Moores in all the East counries, to doe their filthiest and hardest labor, wherein they onely use them: They sayle from thence into India but once every year, in the month of August till half September, because that throughout the whole countries of India they must sayle with Monssoyns, that is with the tides of the year, which they name by the windes, which blow certaine monthes in the yeare, whereby they make their account to goe and come from the one place to the other, & the time that men may commonly sayle betwéene Mossambique and India, is 30.dayes little more or lesse, and then they stay in India till the month of Aprill, when the winde on

[Page 15]

10. Chapter 6. Of the Iland and Towne of Ormus.

ORmus lyeth upon the Iland Geru, in times past called Ogyris, and it is an Iland and a kingdom which the Portingales have brought under their subjection, whereas yet their King hath his residence, that is to saye, without the towne where the Portingales inhabite. [...] The Island is about thrée miles great, very full of cliffes and rockes, and altogether unfruitfull. It hath neyther gréene leafe nor hearbe in it, nor any swéete water, but onely rockes of salte stones, whereof the walles of their houses are made: it hath nothing of it selfe, but only what it fetcheth from the firme lande on both sides, as well out of Persia as [Page]from Arabia, and from the Towne of Bassora, but because of the situation, and pleasantnes of the Iland there is al things therein to bee had in great abundance, and greate traffique for that in it is the staple for all India, Persia, Arabia and Turkie, and of all the places and Countries about the same, & commonly it is full of Persians, Armenians, Turkes and all nations, as also Venetians, which lie there to buy Spices and precious stones, that in great abundance are brought thether out of all parts of India, and from thence are sent over land to Venice, and also carried throughout all Turkie, Armenia, Arabia, Persia and every way [...] every yeare twice there commeth a great companie of people over land which are called Caffiles or Caruanes, which come from Aleppo, out of the Countrie of Surie thrée daies jornie from Tripoli which lyeth uppon the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, this companie of people, or Caffila observe this order, that is, every yeare twice in the months of Aprill and September. There is a Captaine and certain hundreths of annisaries, which convaye the said Caffila untill they come to the Towne of Bassora, from whence they travaile by water unto Ormus. The marchants know the times when the Caruana or Caffila will come, so that against that time they make and prepare their marchandises in a readinesse, and then are brought thether divers Cammels, Dromedaries, Moyles and horses everye man his troope, which are there likewise to bee solde, so that there are assembled at the least five or sixe thousand persons all together, and ryde all in order like a battell that marcheth in the fielde two and two upon a Cammell, or else ware hanging on both sides of the Cammel, as you shal sée in the Picture that followeth. With a good garde of anisaries, because they are often times set upon by the Arabians which are great théeves, and come to robbe them, for they must travaile in the woods at the least fortie daies together, wher in every thrée or foure dayes they finde wels or pits, from whece they provide themselves of water which they carrie with them in beastes skins tanned, whereof they make Flaskes and Botles.

The people nowe of late yeares have left off their robbing and stealing in the hiph waies, but long before the birth of Christ, they used it, as the Prophet Jeremie doth witnes saying in his third Chapter and second verse, Lift up your eyes, and behold what fornicatio you commit in every place, you sit in the streetes, and stay for your companions like the Arabianin the woodes &c. I remember that wee fell among many thousande of these people, which in great povertie dwell within the woodes, and sandie downes, that are altogether barren, where they live, in the heate of the Sunnes lying with their Cammels, getting their lyving only by robbing and stealing, their meate and best breade are Cakes which they bake under Cammels dung dried in the Sunne, which the Sand maketh hotte, and Cammels Milke and flesh, with such like unprofitable meate, to conclude they live like miserable men, as in truth they are.

Likewise ther are certaine victualers that follow this companie, which carrie all kinde of things with the as Honie, Dates, Shéepe Goates, Hens, Egges &c. and all other sorts of victuals and provision, so that for money they may have what they will, every night they lie still and have their Tents, wherein they sléepe, kéeping good watch, in this manner they travaile to the Towne of Bassora, and passe through Babylon now called Bagedet, and through other places. Being at Bassora, they stay their certaine daies, wher againe they assemble themselves, to returne home, and travaile in the like sorte backe againe unto Aleppo, whereby all manner of marchandises, out of all places are brought thether in great aboundance, by great numbers of traveling Marchants, of al nations whatsoever, except Spaniards, Portingals, and the King of Spaines subjects, which are narrowly looked unto, although divers times many of them passe among the rest, under the names of French men, English men, or Venetians, which nations have their factors and servants continually resident in Aleppo, as also in Tripoli, where their dayly traffique is from Venice, Marsellis and London and in Tripoli they unlade their wares, and there the shippes take in their lading, and from thence they send their marchandises by land to and from Aleppo, where they use great traffique, and have many priviledges and freedomes graunted them by the great Turke [...]


[Page 16]

But let us now returne unto our matter of the Ile of Ormus, which lyeth under 27. degrées, and in Sommer time is so unreasonable and intollerable hotte, that they are forced to lie and sléepe in wooden Cesterns made for the purpose full of water, and all naked both men and women, lying cleane under water saving only their heads: al their houses are flat above, and in the toppes therof they make holes to let the ayre come in, like those of Cayro, and they use certaine instruments like Waggins with bellowes, to beare the people in, and together winde to coole them withall, which they call Cataventos.

Cayrus hath very high houses, with broad peint-houses, to yeelde shadowe, therby to avoide the heate of the Sunne: in the middle of these houses are greate Pipes often cubites longe at the least, which stand Northward, to convaye and spread the colde ayre into their houses, specially to coole the lowest romes.

In winter time it is as colde with them as it is in Portingale, the water that they drinke is brought from the firme land, which they kéepe in great pots, (as the Tinaios in Spaine) and in Cesternes, whereof they have verie great ones within the fortresse, which water for a yeare, or a yeare and a halfe, against they shall neede, like those of Mossambique. They fetch water by the Iland of Barein, in the Sea, from under the salt water, with instruments foure or five fadome déepe, which is verie good and excellent sweete water, as good as any fountaine water.

There is in Ormus a sickenesse or common Plague of Wormes, which growe in their legges, it is thought that they procéede of the water that they drink. These wormes are like unto Lute strings, and about two or thrée fadomes longe, which they must plucke out and winde them aboute a Straw or a Pin, everie day some part therof, as longe as they féele them creepe: and when they hold still, letting it rest in that sort till the next daye, they binde it fast and annoynt the hole, and the swelling from whence it commeth foorth, with fresh Butter, and so in ten or twelve dayes, they winde them out without any let, in the meane time they must sit still with their legges, for if it should breake, they should not without great paine get it out of their legge, as I have séen some men doe [...]

[Page 18]

12. The 8. Chapter. Of the towne, fortresse and Island of Diu, in times past called Alambater.

THe Towne and Ilande of Diu lyeth distant from the ryver Indo 70. miles under 21. degrées, close to the firme land: in times past it belonged to ye King of Cambaia, in whose land and coast it lyeth, where the Portingals by negligence of the Kinge, have built a fortresse, & in processe of time have brought the Towne and the whole Iland under their subjection, and have made it very strong, & in a manner invincible, which fortresse hath béene twice besieged by souldiers of Cambaia and their assistants, first in Anno 1539 and secondly in Anno 1546. and hath alwaies béene valiantly defended by the Portingals, as their Chronicles rehearse. This Towne hath a very great Haven, and great traffique, although it hath verye little or nothing at all of it selfe, more then the situation of the place, for that it lyeth betwéen Sinde and Cambaia, which Countries are abundant in all kind of things, wherby Diu is alwaies ful of strange nations, as Turks, Persians, Arabians, Armenians, and other countrie people: and it is the best & the most profitable revenue the King hath throughout all India, for that the Banianen, Gusaratten, Rumos andPersians, which traffique in Cambaia, & from thence to Mecca, or the red Sea, doe commonly discharge their wares, and take in their lading in Diu, by reason of the situation thereof, for that it lyeth in the entrance ofCambaia, and fromDiu it is shipped and sent to Cambaia, and so brought backe againe to Diu.

The Towne of Diu is inhabited by Portingals, together with the natural borne Countrimen, like Ormus and al the townes & places holden by the Portingals in India, yet they kéepe their fortresse strong unto themselves. This Iland aboundeth, and is very fruitfull of all kind of victuals, as Oxen Kine, Hogges, Shéepe, Hennes, Butter, Milke, Onions, Garlicke, Pease, Beanes, and such like, whereof there is great plentie, and that very good, and such as better cannot be made in all these Low-countries, but that the Fuell is not so well drest: they have likewise Chéeses, but they are very drie and sault, much Fish which they sault, and it is almost like unto salt Ling, or Codde, and of other sortes they make hanged flesh which is very good, and will continue for a whole Viage: of all these victuals, and necessarie provisions they have so great quantity that they supply the want of all the places round about them, especially Goa, and Cochin, for they have neither Butter, Onyons, Garlicke, Pease, Oyle nor graine, as Beanes, Wheat, or any séede: they must all bee brought from other places thether, as in the orderly description of the coast as it lyeth, I will shew you, what wares, goods, marchandises, victuals, fruites and other things each lande, Province or Countrie yéeldeth and affordeth.

From Diu sayling along by the coast about fiftéene or sixtéene miles, beginneth the mouth of the water that runneth to Cambaia, which is at the entrie, and all along the said water about 18. miles broade, and 40. miles long, and runneth in North-east and by North, and at the farther ende of the water is the Towne of Cambaia, whereof the whole Countrie beareth the name, and lyeth under twentie thrée degrées, there the King or Solden holdeth his Court.

13. The 9. Chapter. Of the kingdome and land of Cambaia.

THe land of Cambaia is the fruitfullest Countrie in all India, and from thence provision of necessaries is made for all places round about it: whereby there is a greate traffique in the Towne, as well of the inhabitants, as otherIndians and neighbors, as also of Portingals, Persians, Arabians, Armenians &c. The King observeth the law of Mahomet, but most parte of the people that are dwellers and naturall borne Countrimen, called Gusarates and Baneanem, observePythagoras law, & are the subtilest and pollitiquest Marchauntes of all India, whose counterfets and shapes are placed in this booke by those of India, with a description of their living, ceremonies & customes, as in time and place shall be shewed. This lande of Cambaia aboundeth in all kinde of victuals, as Corne, Rice and such like grain, also of Butter and Oyle, wherewith they furnish all the Countries round about them. There is made great store of Cotton Linnen of divers sorts, which are called Cannequins,Boffetas, Iorims, Chautares and Cotonias, which are like Canuas, thereof do make sayles and such like things, and many other sortes that are very good and cheape.


[Page 19]

They make some therof so fine, that you can not perceyve the thréedes, so that for finenesse it surpasseth any Holland cloth, they make likewise many Carpets, called Alcatiffas, but they are neyther so fine nor so good as those that are brought toOrmus out of Persia, and an other sort of course Carpets, that are called Banquays, which are much like the striped Coverlits that are made in Scotland, serving to lay upon chestes & cubbords: They make also faire coverlits, which they call Godoriins Colchas, which are very fair and pleasant to the eye, stitched with silke, and also of Cotton of all colours and stitchinges: pavilions of divers sorts and colours; Persintos that are stringes or bands, wherewith the Indians bind and make fast their bedsheddes, thereon to lay their beds: all kind of bedsteds, stooles for Indian women, and other such like stuffes, costly wrought and covered with stuffes of all colours: also fine playing tables, and Chessebordes of Ivory, and shields of Torteux shelles, wrought and inlaide very workemanlike, many fayre signets, ringes, and other curious worke of Ivorie, and sea horse téeth, as also of Amber, whereof there is great quantitie: They have likewise a kind of mountain Christall, wherof they make many signets, buttons, beades and divers other devises. They have divers sorts of precious stones, as Espinelle, Rubies Granadis, Jasnites, Amatistes, Chrysolites, Olhos de gato, which are Cattes eyes, or Agats, much Jasper stone, which is called bloud and milke stone, and other kindes of stones: also many kindes of Drognes, as Amfion, or Opium, Camfora, Bangue, and Sandale wood, whereof when time serveth, I will particularly discourse, in setting down the spices and fruites of India, Alluijn, Cane Sugar, and other merchandises, which I cannot remember, and it would be over long and tedious to rehearse them all: Annell or Indigo groweth onely in Cambaia, and is there prepared and made ready, and from thence carried throughout the whole world, whereof hereafter I will say more: but this shall suffice for the description of Cambaia, and now I will procéede.

At the ende of the countrey ofCambaia beginneth India & the lands of Decam, and Cuncam, the coast that is the inwarde part thereof on the Indian side [...]

15. The 10. Chapter. Of the coast of India, and the havens and places lying upon the same.

THe coast of India hath the beginning at the entry or turning of the lande of Cambaia from the Islande called Das Vaguas, as it is saide before, which is the right coast, that in all the East Countries is called India: but they have other particular names, as Mosambique, Melinde, Ormus, Cambaia, Choramandel, Bengala, Pegu, Malacca, &c. as when time serveth shall be shewed, whereof a part hath already béene described. Now you must understande that this coast of India beginneth at Daman, or the Island Das Vaguas, and stretcheth South and by East, to the Cape of Comoriin, where it endeth, and is in all 180. miles, uppon the which coast lie the towns and havens hereafter following which the Portingals have under their subjections, and strong fortes therein [...]

Concerning the towne of Goa and the situation thereof, as also the description of Decam & Cuncam, as touching their kings and progenies we will in another place particularly declare, with many other memorable thinges, as well of the Portingalles, as of the naturall countrimen. Wherefore for this time we will passe them over, and speak of the other principal towns and havens, following along the coast [...]all the townes [Page 20] aforesaid, Daman, Basaiin and Chaul, have good havens, where great traffique is done throughout all India: all these townes and countries are very fruitfull of Ryce, Pease, and other graines, Butter, and oyle of Indian Nuttes: but oyle of Olives is not to be found in all the East Indies, onely what is brought out of Portingall, and other such like provisions is there very plentifull: they make also some Cotton linnen, but very little. The towne of Chaul hath great traffique to Ormus, Cambaia, to the redde sea, to Sinde Masquate, Bengala, &c. & hath many rich Marchants, and shippes: there is a place by Chaul, which is the old towne of the naturall borne countrymen, where divers kindes of silkes are woven, of all sortes and colours, as Grogeran, Sattin, Taffata, Sarscenet, and such like stuffes, in so great aboundance that India and all other places bordering the same are served therewith: whereby the inhabitantes of Chaul have a great commoditie, by bringing the raw silke out of China, spinning and weaving it there; and againe being woven, to carrie and distribute it throughout all India. There are likewise made many and excellent faire deskes, bedsteds, stooles for women, covered with stuffes of all colours, and such like marchandises, whereby they have great traffique: There is likewise great store of Ginger, as also all the coast along, but little estéemed there: This land called the North part, hath a very holesome and temperate ayre, and is thought to be ye soundest & healthsomest part of all India, for the towne of Diu, and the coast of Malabar is very unholesome. These Indians, as also those of Cambaia which are called Benianen, and Gusarrates, and those of the lande that lyeth inwardes from Decam, which dwell upon the hill, called Ballagatte, which are named Decaniins, and Canaras, are altogether of yellowe colour, and some of them somewhat whiter, others somewhat browner, but those that dwel on the sea coast, are different and much blacker, their statures visages and limmes are altogether like men of Europa, and those of the coast of Malabar, which stretcheth and beginneth 12. miles from Goa Southward, and reacheth to the cape de Comoriin, whose naturall borne people are called Malabaren, which are those that dwell upon the sea coast, are as blacke as pitch, with verie blacke and smoth haire, yet of bodies, lims and visages, in all thinges proportioned like men of Europa: These are the best soldiers in all India, and the principall enemies that the Portingalles have, and which trouble them continually.


But the better to know the situation of the countrey, you must understande that all the coast severed from India, is the low land lying 8. or 10. miles upon the coast, which is that whereof we speake, and is called Cuncam, and then there is a high or hilly Countrey, which reacheth almost unto the skies, and stretcheth from the one ende unto the other, beginning at Daman or Cambaia to the Cape de Comoriin, and the uttermost corner of India, and all that followeth again on the other coast called Ghoramandel. This high land on the top is very flatte and good to build upon, called Ballagatte, and Decan, and is inhabited and divided among divers Kings and governors. The inhabitants and natural borne countrimen, are commonly called Decaniins, and Canaras, as in the description of Goa and the territories thereof shalbe particularly shewed, with the shapes, fashions and counterfeites of their bodies, Churches, houses, trées, Plantes, and fruites, &c.

17. The 11. Chapter. Of the coast of India, that is from Goa to the cape de Comoriin, and the furthest corner of the lande, which is called the coast of Malabar.

THe coast of Malabar beginneth from Cape de Ramos, which lyeth fro Goa Southwardes ten myles, and endeth at the Cape de Comoriin, in time past called Corii, which is 100. and 7. or8. miles, whereon lie the places hereafter following, which are inhabited by the Portingals, and kept with fortresses: first from the said Cape de Ramos to the fortresse of Onor are tenne miles, lying full under 14. degrées, and is inhabited by the Portingalles. There is great quantity of Pepper, for that they are able every yeare to lade a shippe with 7. or 8. thousand Quintalles of Pepper, Portingal waight, & it is the best and fullest berries in all Malabar or India [...] [Page 21] There is likewise much Ryce. This fortresse is not much frequented, but onely in the time of lading of their Pepper. which within fewe yeares hath béene used to be laden there, for before they used not to lade any in that place.

From Onor to the towne of Barselor are 15. miles, and lyeth under 13. degrées: it is also inhabited by Portingalles as Onor is: there is great store of Ryce & Pepper: from Barselorr to Mangalor are 9. miles, and lyeth under twelve degrées, and a halfe, which also is a fortresse inhabited as the others are by Portingals, and hath great store of Pepper and Ryce [...]The Malabars without the fortresse have a village, with many houses therein, built after their manner; wherein there is a market holden every day, in the which all kindes of victuailes are to be had, which is wonderfull, altogether like the Hollanders markets. There you find Hennes, Egges, Butter, Hony, Indian Oyle, and Indian figges, that are brought from Cananor, which are very great, and without exception the best in all India: of the which sorts of victuailes, with other such like they have great quantities: also very faire and long mastes for shippes, such as better cannot be found in all Norway, and that in so great numbers, that they furnish all the countries rounde about them. It is a very gréene and pleasant lande to beholde, full of faire high trées, and fruitfull of all thinges, so is the whole coast from Malabar all along the shore. Among these Malabars the white Mores do inhabite that beléeve in Mahomet, and their greatest traffique is unto the redde sea, although they may not doe it, neyther any other Indian without the Portingalles pasport, otherwise the Portingals army (which yearly saileth along the coasts, to kéepe them cleare from sea rovers) for the safetie of their marchants, finding them or any other Indian or nation whatsoever, at sea without a pasport, woulde take them for a prize, as oftentimes it happeneth that they bring shippes from Cambaia, Malabar, or from the Ile of Sumatra, and other places that traffique to the redde sea. These Mores of Cananor kéepe friendshippe with the Portingalles, because of the fortresse which holdeth them in subjection, yet covertly are their deadly enemies, and secretly contribute and pay great summes of money to the other Malabars, to the ende that they shoulde mischiefe and trouble the Portingalles, by all the meanes they can devise, whose forme and images do follow after those of Goa and Malabar.


From Cananor to Calecut are 8. miles, which lyeth full under 11. degrées: This towne of Calecut hath in times past béene the most famous Towne in all Malabar orIndia, and it was the chiefe towne of Malabar where the Samoriin, which is the Emperour, holdeth his Court, but because the Portingalles at their first comming and discovering of India, were oftentimes deceyved by him, they resorted to the King of Cochin, who as then was subject to the Samoriin, being of small power [...] From Calecut to Cranganor are tenne myles, and lyeth under tenne degrées and a halfe: there the Portingalles have a Fortresse.

From Cranganor to Cochin are tenne miles, and lyeth not full under tenne degrées. The towne of Cochin is inhabited by Portingals, and naturall borne Indians, as Malabars and other Indians that are christened: it is almost as great as Goa, very populous, and well built with faire houses, Churches, and cloysters, and a fayre and most pleasant River, with a good channell, and a haven: a little beyonde the towne towards the land runneth a small river or water, where sometimes men may passe over dry footed: on the further side whereof lyeth a place called Cochin Dacyma, and it is above Cochin, which is in the jurisdiction of the Malabars, who as yet continue in their owne religion: there the King kéepeth his Court: It is very full and well built with houses after the Indian manner, and hath likewise a market every day, where all kind of thinges are to be bought, as in Cananor, but in greater quantities. The land of Cochin is an Island, and it is in many places compassed about, and through the Isle with small Rivers [...]


[Page 22]

[...]The Countrie is verye great and pleasant to behold full of woodes and trees, it hath also woods of Cinamon trées, which are called Canella de Ma es, that is wilde Cinamo, which is not so good as the Cinamon of Seylo , for when the Cinamon of Seylo is worth 1 0. Parda e or Dollers that Cinamon is worth but 5 or 3 . Parda wen, and is likewise forbidden o bee carried into Portingale, notwithstanding: There is every yeare great quantitie thereof shipped, but it is entred in the Custome bookes for Cinamon of Seylon, whereby they pay the King his full Custome for the best, Cochin hath also much Pepper, and can every yeare lade two ships full, other shippes lade along the coast, at the fortresse aforesaid, & use to come unto Cochin, after they have discharged all their Portingal wares and Marchandises, at Goa, and thether also come the Factors and Marchants and lade their wares [...]

20. The 12. Chapter. The description of the kings, the division of the land and coast of Malabar, and their originall.

[...]These Malabares are excellent good soldiours, and goe naked, both men and women, onely their privy members covered, and are the principallest enemies that the Portingals have, and which doe them most hurt: and although commonlie they have peace with the Samoriin, and hold so many forts upon the land, as you have heard before, yet the Malabares have their havens, as Chale, Calicut, Cunhale, Panane, and others, from whence with boates they mak roads into the sea, and doe great mischief, making many a poore merchant. The Samoriin likewise, when the toy taketh him in the head, breaketh the peace, & that by the counsell of the Mahometanes, who in all things are enemies to the Christians, & séeke to do them mischief: and because of the Malabares invasions, the Portingall fléet is forced every yeare to put forth of Goa in the summer-time, to kéepe the coast, and to preserve the merchants that travaill those coutries from ye Malabars, for that the most traffique in India, is in Foists like galleyes, wherein they traffique from the one place to the other, which is their daylie living & occupations, as it shalbe shewed at large: and yet there are continuall pyracies committed on the sea, what order soever they take, wherby poore marchats are taken prisoners, & robbed of all they have. The land throughout is very fruitfull, gréene and pleasant to beholde, but hath a very noysome and pestiferous ayre for such as are not borne in the countrie, and yet pepper doth onely growe on this coast, although some groweth by Mallacca in certae parts of the land, but not so much, for from hence is it laden and conveyed throughout the whole world.

21. The 13. Chapter. Of the Ilands called Maldyva, otherwise Maldyva.

RIght over against the cape of Comoriin 60. miles into the sea westward, the Ilands called Maldyva doe begin, and from this cape on the North syde they lie under7. degrées, & so reach south south east, till they come under 3. degrées on the south side, which is 140. myles. Some say there are 11000. Ilands, but it is not certainely knowne, yet it is most true, they are so many, that they can not be numbred. The Inhabitants are like the Malabares: some of these Ilands are inhabited, and some not inhabited, for they are very lowe ground, like the countrie of Cochin, Cranganor. &c. and some of them are so lowe, that they are commonlie covered with the sea: the Malabares say, that those Ilandes in time past did joyne fast unto the firme land of Malabar, & were part of the same land, and that the Sea in processe of tyme hath eaten them away, & so separated them from the firme land. There is no merchandize to be had in them, but only coquen, which are Indian nuttes, and cayro, which are the shelles of the same nuts, & that is the Indian hemp, wherof they mak ropes, cables, and other such like commodities: those are there to be found in so great aboundance, that with them they serve the whole country of India, and al the oriental coast: of the wood of the same trées they make themselves boats after their manner, with all things to them belonging: of the leaves they make sayles, sowed together with strings made of the nutshelles, without any iron nayles, and so being laden with the nuttes and other parts of the said trées, they come and trafficke with those of the firme land, their victuals in the ship being the fruite of the same trée: so that to conclude, the boate with all her furnitures, their marchandises and their victuals is all of this palme trée, and that maintaineth all the inhabitants of the Ilands of Maldyva, and therewith they trafficke throughout India: there are some of these nuttes in the said Iland that are more estéemed then all the nuttes in India, for that they are good against all poyson, which are verie faire and great, and blackish: I saw some that were preseted unto the viceroy of India, as great as a vessell of 2. tunes Indian measure, and cost above 300. Pardawen, which were to send unto the King of Spaine [...]

[Page 24]

22. The 14. Chapter. Of the Iland of Seylon.

THe Iland of Seylon is said to be one of the best Ilands that in our time hath béene discovered, and the fruitfullest under the heavens, well built with houses, and inhabited with people, called Cingalas, and are almost of shape and manners like to those of Malabar, with long wyde eares, but not so blacke of colour [...] The Iland is full of all sorts of Indian fruites and of al kind of wild beasts, as harts, hindes, wild bores, hayres, coneys, and such like in great abundance, of all sorts of foules, as peacoks, hennes, doves and such like: and for oringes, lemons, and citrons, it hath not onely the best in al India, but better then any are found either in Spaine or Portingal, to conclude, it hath many and almost all things that are found in India through all the severall provinces and places thereof: it hath also manie Indian palme trees, or nut trees, which are called cocken: and certane credible persons doe affirme, which told it mée, that in the same Iland are nutmegges, Cloves, and Pepper trées, although there is no certaintie thereof, for that as yet they have not béene brought, or uttered to sell among the Christians, but the best Cinamon in all the east countries is there to be had, where it groweth in whole woodes, and from thence is dispersed into all places of the world [...]

23. The 15. Chapter. Of the coast of Choramandel and the kingdome of Narsinga or Bisnagar.

THe coast of Choramandel beginneth from the cape of Negapatan, and so stretcheth North & by East, unto a place called Musulepatan, which is 90. miles, and lieth under 16. degrées and a half [...] [Page 27]

From Musulepatan the coast runneth again Northeast and by East, to the kingdom of Bengalen, which is120. miles, and it is the lande and kingdome of Orixa, which stretcheth along the same coast unto the River of Ganges, the beginning of the kingdom of Bengalen. This coast of Narsinga, Bisnagar and Orixa, are by the Portingalles commonly called (as also the coast of Negapatan and Saint Thomas) Choramandel, until you come to Bengalen, where the Portingalles have great traffique, for that it is a very rich and plentiful Country of all things, as Ryce and all manner of fowles, and beasts in great abundance. It is also a holesome countrey and a good ayre for strange nations, for that the Portingals and other countreymen can better brooke it then other places in India: From these coastes they use great traffique unto Bengala, Pegu, Sian, & Malacca, and also to India: there is excellent faire linnen of Cotton made inNegapatan, Saint Thomas, and Musulepatan, of all colours, and woven with divers sorts of loome workes and figures, verie fine and cunningly wrought, which is much worne in India, and better estéemed then silke, for that it is higher prised then silke, because of the finenes & cuning workmaship: they are called Rechatas & Cheylas, wherof the Christians & Portingals in India do commoly make bréeches [...]

24. The 16. Chapter. Of the Kingdome of Bengalen, and the river Ganges.

AT the ende of the Kingdome of Orixa and the ast of Ghoramandel beginneth the River Ganges in the kingdom of Bengalen: This is one of the most famous Rivers in all the world, and it is not knowne from whence it springeth. Some are of opinion that it commeth out of the earthly paradise because of an old speech of the Bengalers, which is, that in time past a certaine King of Bengalen was desirous to know fro whence the river Ganges hath her beginning, to the which ende hee caused certaine people to bee brought up and nourished with nothing but rawe fish, and such like foode, thereby to make them the apter to accomplish his desire, which people (having made boats fitte for the purpose) he sent up the river, who were certain monthes upon the water, so long til they came where they felt a most pleasant and swéete savour, and founde a very cleare and most temperate skie, with still and pleasant water, that it séemed unto them to bee an earthly paradise, and being desirous to rowe further upwardes they could not, so that they were compelled (séeing no remedie) to returne againe the same way that they came, and being returned, certified the King what they had séene. They that will not credit this are hard of beliefe, for my parte I leave it to the readers judgement.

This River hath Crocodiles in it, like the river of Nilus in Aegipt, the mouth or entry thereof lyeth under 22. degrées, and the coast runneth East and by South; to the Kingdome of Aracan, which is about 80. miles: it is an uneuen coast full of Islandes, sholes, hookes, and créekes, for the lande of Bengalen lyeth inwards of the gulf, which is called Bengala, for that fro Aracan, the coast beginneth againe to runne South and East outwardes towardes Malacca, and to the uttermost hooke which is called Singapura: But returning to Bengala and the River Ganges, you must understand that this river is holden and accounted of all the Indians to be a holy and a blessed water, and they do certainely believe, that such as wash and bath themselves therein (bee they never so great sinners) all their sinnes are cleane forgiven them, and that from thenceforth they are so cleane and pure from sinne, as if they were newe borne againe, and also that hee which washeth not himself therein cannot be saved, for the which cause there is a most great and incredible resorte unto the same, from all the partes of India & the East countries, in great troupes, where they use divers strange ceremonies, and superstitions, most horrible to heare, for they doe most stedfastly beléeve that they shall thereby merit eternall life.


[Page 28]

[...]They have a custome that they never dresse or séeth meat twice in one pot, but have every time a new pot. Whensoever they are found in adulterie, they have their noses cut off, and from that time forwarde they must leave ech others company, which is most narrowly looked unto by their law. The countrey is most plentiful of necessary victuails specially Rice, for that there is more of it in that countrey then in al the east countries, for they do yearly lade divers shippes therewith, which come thether from all places, and there is never any want thereof and all other things in like sort, and so good cheape that it were incredible to declare; for that an O [...]e or a Cowe is there to be bought for one Lari [...] n, which is as much as halfe a Gilderne, Shéepe, Hens, and other things after the like rate, a Candit of Ryce, which is as much, little more or lesse as fourteene bushelles of Flemmish measure, is sold there for halfe a Gilderne, and for halfe a Doller: Sugar and other ware accordingly, whereby you may wel conceive what plentie they have [...]

Besides their Ryce, much Cotton linnen is made there which is very fine, and much estéemed in India, and not only spread abroad and carryed into India and al the East parts, but also into Portingal, and other places: this linnen is of divers sorts, and is called Sarampuras, Cassas, Comsas, Beatillias, Satopassas, and a thousande such like names: They have likewise other linnen excellently wrought of a hearbe, which they spinne like yearne: this yearne is to be sene at the house of Paludanus: it is yealowish, and is called the hearbe of Bengalen, wherewith they do most cunningly stitch their coverlits, pavilions, pillowes, carpets, and mantles, therein to christen children, as women in childbed with us use to doe, and make them with flowers and branches, and personages, that it is wonderfull to sée, and so finely done with cunning workemanshippe, that it cannot be mended throughout Europe: likewise they make whole péeces or webbes of this hearbe, sometimes mixed and woven with silke, although those of the hearbe it selfe are dearer and more estéemed, and is much fayrer the the silke. These webs are named Sarrijn, and it is much used and worne in India, as well for mens bréeches, as dublets, and it may be washed like linnen, and being washt it sheweth and continueth as faire as if it were new.

From Bengala commeth much Algallia, or Civet, but by the subtiltie and villany of the Bengalians it is falsifyed, & mixed with filth, as salt, oyle, and such like stuffe, whereby it is not much estéemed. Also in Bengala are found great numbers of the beasts, which in Latine are called Rhinocerotes, and of the Portingalles Abadas, whose horne, téeth, flesh, blood, clawes, and whatsoever he hath, both without and within his bodie, is good against poyson, and is much accounted of throughout all India, as in an other place shall be shewed more at large. There groweth likewise marble coloured Réedes, whereof you may sée many sortes in the custodie of Paludanus, which the Portingalles call Canas de Bengala, that is, Réedes of Bengala: within they are full of pith, and are about the thicknesse of Spanish réedes, but somewhat thinner, and when they are gréene they bowe and bend like Willow twigges: they are outwardly of divers colours and speckled as if they were painted. They use them in Portingall for olde women to beare in their handes when they goe abroad or uppon the stones. There is another sorte of the same réeds which they call Rota: these are thinne like twigges of Willow for baskets, whereof Paludanus can shewe you great numbers, with the which in India they make many faire baskets, and a thousande other curious devises, Sugar, Butter, and such like ware they have in great quantitie as I said before: but this shall suffice for Bengala, whereof we leave to speake, and returne to the description of the coast as it lyeth along the shore.

[Page 29]

26. The 17. Chapter. Of the coasts and lands of Aracan, Pegu and Sian, to the Cape of Singapura, & the towne and fortresse of Malacca.

BEyond the kingdome of Bengala, beginneth the kingdomes of Aracan & Pegu, which coast stretcheth from Bengala south and by East to the town and haven of Martavan, in the land of Pegu, and is 70. miles [...]these kingdomes of Aracan and Pegu are very rich & fruitfull of all things, besides Gold and precious stones, as Rubies, Espinels, Saffires, Iacinthes, Emeraldes, Granates, and such like. There are greater number of Elephantes in those countries, then in any other place of India, or the Orientall countries; & the Portingalles that traffique there, affirme that the king of Pegu hath a white Elephant which hee prayeth unto, and holdeth it to bée holy [...]

[Page 32]

27. The 19. Chapter. Of the Iland of Sumatra, in times past called Taprobana.

RIght over against Malacca, Southeast about 20. miles from the firme land by Malacca, wher the straight is at the narrowest, lieth the famous Ilande of Taprobana, now called Sumatra, by some Historiographers named Chersoneo Aurea, others affirme it to be Ophir, from whence Salomon had his Golde, as the Scripture rehearseth, and say that in times past it was firme land, and joyned unto the Countrie of Malacca. The Iland beginneth from the first pointe which lyeth right against the Gulfe of Bengala under five degrees, on the North side, and stretcheth also before Malacca, South Southeast, untill it passeth by the Iland called Iaua Maior, where it endeth under 6. degrées on the South side, and is in length 170 miles, and in breadth 60. miles. The Portingals dwell not therein in any place, but deale and trafique in some places thereof, yet very few, for that the inhabitants themselves doe bring many of their commodities unto Malacca [...]


[...]The Iland is very rich of mynes of Gold, Silver, Brasse, (whereof they make greate Ordinance) precious stones, and other mettall: of all kinde of Spices, sweete woode, rootes, and other medicinable Herbes and Drugges: it hath a hill of Brimstone that burneth continually, and they saye, there is a fountaine which runneth pure & simple Balsame, it hath likewise great store of Silke [...] There are some places in this Iland where the Portingales doe traffique, which are those that use to traffique to Malacca, as a Towne called Pedir, which lyeth 20. miles from Achejin, uppon the coast right over against Malacca, from whence commeth much Pepper and Golde, & from an other place called Campar, which lyeth almost under the Equinoctiall line, uppon the corner on the South side, on the same side on the West coast of the Iland lyeth a place called Manancabo, where they make Poinyards, which in India are called Cryses, which are very well accounted and estéemed of, and is thought the best weapon in all the Orient, whereof those of Iaua & Malacca do make gret provision for theselus.

[Page 33]

29. The 20. Chapter. Of the Iland of Iaua Maior, with their wares, Marchandises, and trades, waights, myntes, and prices thereof with other particularities.

SOuth Southeast right over against the last point or corner of the Ile of Sumatra, on the south side of the Equinoctiall line lyeth the Iland called Iaua Maior, or great Iaua, where there is a straight or narrow passage betweene Sumatra and Iaua, called the straight of Sunda, of a place so called, lying not far from thence within the Ile of Iaua: this Iland beginneth under degrées on the south side, and runneth east and by south 150 miles long, but touching the breadth, it is not found, because as yet it is not discovered, nor by the Inhabitants themselves well knowne. Some thinke it to be firme land, and parcell of the countrie called Terra incognita, which being so, shoulde reach from that place to the Cape de Bona sperace, but as yet it is not certainly known, & therefore it is accouted for an Iland: the inhabitants say that within the land there is a River, wherin if any wood doth fal, it turneth into stone. Through this straight or narrowe passage Thomas Candish an Inglish captaine passed with his Ship, as he came out of the south parts, from Nova Spaigne. This Iland aboundeth with Rice, and all manner of victuals, as oxen, kyne, hogges, shéepe and hennes, &c. also Onyons, Garlicke, Indian nuttes and with al kind of Spices, as cloves, Nutmegges, and mace, which they carry unto Malacca. The principall haven in the Iland is Sunda Calapa, whereof the straight beareth the name: in this place of Suda there is much Pepper, and it is better then that of India or Malabar, wherof there is so great quantitie, that they could lade yearlie from thence 4 or 5 thousand kintales Portingale waight: it hath likewise much frankinsence, Beniom of Bonien called Folie, Camphora, as also Diamantes, to which place me might very well traffique, without any impeachment for that the Portingales come not thether, because great numbers of Iaua come themselves unto Malacca to sell their wares [...]


[...]FromMalacca they travell to the Ilandes of Molucca, Banda & Amboyna, where the Portingales have both sorts & captaines and trafficke with them: their way is from Malacca south east and by south, above 100 miles, betwéene many Ilands and th [...]ugh many shallowes, so that they must anker everie night, to avoyd danger of sandes, which continueth almost all the waye to Molacca, and having in that sort passed those hundreth miles, they set their course eastward, and east and by north, 250 miles, to the Iland called Banda, which lyeth under 5 degrées on the[Page] south side. In this Iland the Portingales doe trafficke, for in it are the best Nutmegges & Flowers. There likewise they doe preserve nutmegges, and make oyle thereof, which is brought to Malacca, and from thence into all other places: the trafficke there consisteth most in bartering, as it doth in Suda & Iaua, but they are not to be trusted, you must kéep good watch, and goe not on land, but stay abord the shippe, whether the Ilanders bring their marchandises, and deale with men as I said before, for it happeneth divers times that they deceave the Portingales, which trust them over much, for that one of my acquaintance and my friend being there, for captaine in a shippe, the shippe being cast away upon that coast, was with all his men taken & put in prison, where for the space of two yeares he indured a most miserable life, and in the end was ransomed. All these voyages to Banda, Moluca, & those Ilands, and also any other way whatsoever in India, may no man make, without licence and speciall favour of the King of Portingall, and their offices are given them in recompence of their service in the Indies, as also all other offices, as in an other place shall be declared.


[Page 35]

About 20 miles beyond Banda North west, lieth the Iland called Amboyna, where the Portingales have a small fort: this Iland hath not much spice, but the shippes that sayle from Malacca to Maluco, doe stay there, and take in fresh water. From this Iland Northwarde 70 miles, lyeth the Iland Tydor, under one degrée [...] th, and i the first Iland of the Moluca [...]xe miles northward lyeth Malaco, & not farre thence Tarnate, and the Ilands of Cloves.

32. The 21. Chapter. Of the Iland of Maluc .

[...]These Ilands have no other spice then cloves, but in so great abundance, that as it appeareth, by them the whole world is filled therewith. In this Iland are found [...]ie hilles, they are very dry & burnt land, they have nothing els but victuals of flesh and fish, but for Rice, Corne, Onyons, Garlicke, and such like, and all other necessaries, some are brought from Portingale, and some from other places thereabout, which they take and barter for cloves. The bread which they have there of their owne baking is of wood or rootes like the men of Brasillia, and their cloathes are of woven strawe or herbes, faire to the eye: in these Ilands onlie is found the bird, which the Portingales call passaros de Sol, that is Fowle of the Sunne, the Italians call it Manu codiatas, & the Latinists, Paradiseas, & by us called Paradice birdes, for ye beauty of their feathers which passe al other birds: these birds are never séene alive, but being dead they are found upon the Iland: they flie, as it is said, alwaies into the Sunne, and kéepe themselves continually in the ayre, without lighting on the earth, for they have neither féet nor wings, but onely head and body, and the most part tayle, as appeareth by the birdes that are brought from thence into India, and some from thence hether but not many, for they are costlie. I brought two of them with me, for Doctor Paludanus, which were male and female, which I gave unto him, for his chamber. These Ilands lie among divers other Ilands, and because there is no speciall notice of them, by reason of the small conversation with them: I let them passe, and turne again unto the coast of Malacca, which I left at the Cape of Singapura, and so will shewe the Coast along.

33. The 22. Chapter. From the Cape Singapura to the towne of Sian, and the coast of Cambaia, and Cauchinchina, and the Iles of Borneo, Lusons, Manillios or Philippinas.

. [...]These two towns Pan and Patane are kingdomes, but contributarie to Sian: From these places comes the wood called Pala Dagula, and the costly swéet woode called Calamba, which being good, is waid against Silver and Gold: they also have Camphora, but not so good as that of the Island Borneo. There is founde some gold, and the stone called Bezars stone, which is very costly and proved to be good against poyson. There are likewise some Diamants, and also Nutmegs and flowers, and the wood Sapon, whereof also much is brought from Sian, it is like Brasill to die withall [...] The coast runneth again south east 70. miles to the towne of Cambaia: this towne lyeth under 10. degrées. From thence the coast runneth againe Northeast60. miles, and 60. miles Northwest: fro whence it runneth West North west to the furthest parte inwarde of the créeke of Cuchinchina: This coast of Cambaia is also called the coast of Chapaa, this land hath much of ye swéet wood Calamba: Through this kingdome runneth the river Mecom into the sea, which the Indians name Captaine of all the Rivers, for it hath so much water in the Summer, that it covereth and watereth all the countrey, as the river Nilus doth the countrey of Aegypt [...] This towne of Lusson or Manillia lyeth under 14 degrées, by this towne and Iland of Lusson lie a great number of Ilands, which are all called the Manillians, Lussons or Philippinas, and are all at the commandement of the Spaniardes, whose Governour or Captaine lyeth in the towne of Manillia or Lusson, who was sent thether out of Nova Spaigne in the behalfe of the king of Spaine, and also a Bishop, as head over all the rest.


[Page 36]

All these Ilands have in time past béene under the crown of China, and upon some occasion left it, whereby there was no policie nor government among the Inhabitants of the same, for that he that was the richest and of most power amongst them was maister, and lived together like beastes, whereby the Spaniardes had small labor to subdue them, whereof manie they baptised, and made them Christians, which everie day increased: it is a very fruitful land, and hath much corne and al sorts of wilde beastes, as harts, hynd , & such like: also cattle, as buffels, oxen, kyne, hogges, goates &c. they have manie muske cattes, all kinde of fruites, as in China, abundance of hony and fish: it is said also that there is all kindes of spices, but as yet there is no certaintie thereof, but onely that the Spaniardes give it forth so: but you must thinke they doe it because they wil extol and set forth their things above all others, as their maner is. Those of China trafficke with these Ilads, and bring thether all sortes of commodities out of their country, as al silkes, cottons, porselynes, powder for shot, sulphur, brimstone, yron, stéele, quicke silver, and other metals, coper, meal nuttes, chasnuttes, bisquit, dates, al sorts of lynnen cloth, deskes, and such like, and of all curious things that may be found, & there cometh fro China thether every year at least 20 shippes, and from thence is their marchandise by the Spaniardes shipped and sent into newe Spaine, & to Mexico, which [1 page missing]


[Page 38]

[...]The land by meanes of ye good ayre and temperatenes therof is fo fruitfull, that al things are there to be had in great abundance, as Corne, Rice, and other such like graine or séedes, and is both sowen and mowed continually al the yeare long. Within the land ther are some Elephants, Lyons, Tygers, and such cruell beastes. There are also many beasts of Mosel [...]aett, that is to say, Muske Cattes, which are of the bignesse and likenesse of a little Dogge, which they kill and burie for certaine daies, and being rotten, and well brused with blowes, whereby the flesh and bloud are mixed together, they make many round Balles of the same flesh & bloud so mixed, each Ball of an ounce waight, by the Portingals called Papo, which they carrie into all places. There are also in that land many Cattes of Algallia, or Ci [...] et Cattes, and some Amber. They have also horses, but smaller then the horses in Europe. Géese, Hennes, Duckes and such like, are there in great aboundaunce, ryver, and sea Fish are likewise plentifull, and all kind of necessaries whatsoever. The countrie hath many mines of Golde and Silver, but the King letteth it not commonly be carried out of the countrie, but kéepeth it in his house for treasure, therefore they seeke and procure all things to bee brought into the land: notwithstanding they have great riches in their houses, of Gold, Silver, and other common Jewels, they esteeme more of Silver then of Golde, because the Golde is of many values and prices, and the SilVer is alwaies of one price. It hath also many Pearles and Alioffar, which come out of the Iland and Province of Aynao, also much Quick-silver, Copper, Iron, Steele, Blick, Tin, Leade, Brimstone and other such like mettales, and Amber, besides all these riches, and innumerable rents that the King of China hath, it is said that he hath in every chiefe shire or Province towne a great and unknowne treasurie. It is a common custome in that countrie to weare, as we doe here, course and common cloth and linnen, as also Silke Satin and Brocado, which is cloth of Golde and Silver, with faire workes and borders, downe to their shooes, which they commonly use, because of the great quantitie of Silke, that is within the countrie, for it is affirmed for a truth, that only from the town of Canton there is yearely carried into India, above thrée thousand Quintals of Silke, which are sold by waight, besides the Silkes that are yearely carried to the Ilands of Iapa , Lucon, or Phillippinas, and to the land of Si [...] n, and other countries bordering about the same: and yet there stayeth so much within the countrie, that therewith might bee laden whole Fléetes of shippes, and would not be missed: there is also much Flax and Cotton, and so good cheape, that it is almost incredible: the earthen Pots, Cuppes and vessels that are made there, are not to bee numbred, which are yearely carried into India, Portingall, Nova Spaignia, & other waies, but the finest sorte may not be carried out of the land upon paine of death, but serve onely for the Lords and Governours of the countrie: which are so fine that Christall is not comparable unto it. These Pots and Cups are made inwards in the lande, of a certaine earth that is verie hard, which is beaten smal and then layed to stéepe in Cesterns of stone full of water, made for the purpose, and when it is well stéeped and often stirred, (as we do milke to make Butter) of the finest thereof which driveth or swimmeth on the top they make the finest worke, and use the courser accordingly whereof some they paint, and then they are dried and baked in Ovens.


The land also aboundeth in Honie, Suger and Waxe, of all sorts of Spices, rootes and plantes as also fruites, and much more then in Spaine: and other kindes of fruites also which are not knowne heere: there are Oranges that are swéeter then Suger: there is a kind of fruit called Lechyas, which are like Plums, but of another taste, and are very good & much estéemed, whereof I have eaten, to conclude it hath of all things that man can wish or desire.

The rents and revenewes of the King of China are so great, that it is incredible, for he hath onely in custome out of a river in the Province of Canton, for Salt that is made there, yearly a million and a halfe of Golde, whereby men may estéeme the rest accordingly. All the Townes in that Countrie are walled about with stone walles, and have [Page]Ditches of water round about them for their securitie, they use no fortresse nor Castles, but onely uppon every Gate of the Towne they have strong Towers, wherein they place their Ordinance for defence of yetowne [...][Page 39] The Countrie is verie temperate & good ayre, for it beginneth under 19. degrées, and is in some places higher then 50.degrées, whereby it is to be presumed, that it must of force be fruitfull, a great helpe thereunto is the earnest and continuall labour the countrimen and inhabitants take, to build houses in their land, whereby there is not one foote of land lost, or that lyeth wast, for even to the verie mountaines, it is both plowed & planted, because there are so many people in the Countrie. It is not in mans memorie, that ever there was plague in that Countrie, and they have a law which is very straightly holden, that no man may goe or depart out of the Countrie without licence, nor yet that any stranger may come into the land without leave upon paine of death. Likewise no man may travaile through the Country to begge, whereof they have a great care, and looke néerely unto it. The people are well formed, and commonly fat and well liking of body, broade and round faces, smal eyes, great eyebrowes, broad foreheads, small and flat noses, litle beards, seaven or eight hayres above their lippes and under their chinnes, and verie blacke haire, which they estéeme verie much, & have great care in ye keming thereof, and in keeping it cleane, as well men as women, and weare it as long as it will growe, and then binde it in a knot on the top of their [Page 40] heads, and upon it they put a péece of Silke netting. Those that dwell on the Sea side, with whome the Portingals traffique, that is in Machau and Canton, are a people of a brownish colour, like the white Moores in Africa and Barbaria, and part of the Spaniards, but those that dwell within the land, are for color like Netherlanders & high Dutches. There are many among them that are cleane blacke, which have great eyes and much beard, but verie few of them, as it may well bee thought, and as the men of China themselves report. Their ofspring was out of lartaria, or from other of their neighbours of straunge Countries, at such time when they had licence to travaile into those Countries, and to have conversation with them by trade of marchandise, which nowe they may not doe, as it is saide before. They use to weare the nayles of their left hands very long, and on the right hand short, which they hold for an auncient ceremonie of their law and beliefe. Their apparell (as I said before) is most of Silke of all colours, that is such as are of welth, & indifferent rich, others & such as are poore, do weare apparel of Cotton linnen, & of blacke and coloured Sayes, and such like stuffe: Cloth made of Wooll nor Velvet they can not make in all China, although there wanteth no wooll, and they have many shéepe: notwithstanding, they know not how to use it, and wonder much at it when the Portingalles bring it thether. The women goe verie richly apparelled, with long and wide Gownes, they weare many Jewels on their heades, within their haire, and also uppon their bodies, they doe commonly hold their hands covered, they are but little séene abroad, but sit most part within the house, and estéeme it for a great beautifying unto them to have small féete, to the which end they use to binde their féete so fast when they are young, that they cannot grow to the full, whereby they can hardly goe, but in a manner halfe lame. Which custome the men have brought up, to let them from much going, for that they are verie jealous, and unmeasurable leacherous and unchast, yet is it estéemed a beautifying and comlinesse for the women. Those that are of any wealth or estate, are born in chaires through the stréets, hanged and covered with Silke, Sattin, and Damaske Curtins, woven with silver and golde thréedes, and have small holes to looke through, so that they may sée and not be séene.

37. The 24. Chapter. Of the Provinces, Townes, and other things worthie of memorie in the kingdome of China.

THe kingdome of China is devided into 15 provinces, every one being as great (as it is reported & founde written) as the best kingdome in Europe, and are governed by a Viceroye or Governour, which by the Chinaes is called Cochin. Two of the said Provinces are ruled by the King himselfe and his Councell, which are Tolanchia and Paguia, wher the King is alwaies resident. The other Provinces are calledFoquiem, Olam, Sinsay, Xansay, Oquiam, Aucheo, Hona, Canton, Quicheo,Chequeam, Saxi, Aynaon, Sus [...] an. Most of these Provinces have rivers and waters running through them, & have conference and familiaritie by buying and selling with each other both by water and by land [...]


Most of the Townes are built uppon rivers and running streames, and closed about with broade ditches, and thicke stone walles, Without the Walles betwéene them and the Ditches, is a walke, where sixe men on Horse backe maye ryde in ranke, and the like within, which space is made to mende and repaire the Walles when néede requireth, whereof they are very carefull, and looke warily unto them. The high waies and foote pathes throughout the whole kingdome, are fairely paved, and all along even and smoth till you come to the hils, and the entrance or Frontespicio of the Citties, verie costly and workmanly built with thrée or foure Gates one by the other, all stricken over full of Iron, and the stréetes within the Citties and Villages very fairely paved, and playned as straight as a line, and even in breadth, so that if you stand at the ende of a stréete, you may sée to the other ende, by reason of the straightnes bee it never so long [...]


[Page 42]The manner of their banquetings and feastes are thus, as many persons as are invited, so many tables are prepared and made ready, although they be a hundreth: the tables are verie faire and finely painted with all kynd of imagerie and flowers, most pleasant to behold, so that they use no table-clothes, but round about the edges of the table there hangeth a cloth down to the ground, of silk, damaske, gold or silver, everie one according to his estate, and at the corners of the tables there hang divers faire baskets full of all sorts of sweete flowers, with ma [...]c [...] paine stuffe of all formes and fashions, gilded & very cunningly made. In the middle of the tables they place the meats, very costlie and well drest, and in good order, all in dishes of fine earth, or els silver. The meat both fish and flesh, or whatsoever it is, is all cut in peeces, the bones and sinewes cleane taken forth, which they never touch with their fingers, but onely use to take it up with [...] litle peeces of blacke wood made round, whereof you may see some at D. Paludanus [...] , that I gave him: and these they use in stead of [...]orkes, which with them is so ready, yt there falleth not one bit o [...] crume upon the table, whereby they use no napkins to wipe their handes, for they need them not, neither doe the soule either hand or mouth. Their drinke is wyne made of Rice, and brewed as we brew beer. They drinke often, but verie litle at a time, and will drinke at the least 20. times in one smal cup before it be empty: whe they are at their Feasts and banquets they have much musicke. They have likewise many manners & customes of curtesies, which are these: The common people as they méet together, they shut their left hand, and cover it with their right hand, and so hold them together on their breast, with much bowing & stooping with their heads downwards, thereby to shewe that they love each other, and are as fast bound and united together in love, as their hands are fast knit together, and that with all their harts, wherewith they use manie courteous spéeches. Among the Nobles or Mandoriins, when they méet together, they presently shut both handes, and lay their fingers each upon the other, and so with their armes make a hoop or bowe, and so stad still stooping and bowing their heads and bodies with great curtesie, making choise who shal first go by, with many other ceremonies used among the Nobles, which were over long to rehearse. Wherefore at this present I will leave them; and cease to write any further of their ceremonies, and other customes, as necessitie requireth, for that if I should describe them all at large, it would be over tedious, and a hundreth quiers of paper would not suffice: yet if any man be desirous to sée more hereof, let him read the booke made by a Spanish Fryer named Fray Juan Gonsales de Mendosa, of the description of China, which booke is translated out of Spanish into Latine, although there are some falts, by wrong information given unto the Author: notwithstanding it conteuneth many particular things worthie the reading.

40. The 25. Chapter. Of the town and Iland of Machau in China, where the Portingales have their residence, and trafficke with their marchandises, wares, and some prices therof, and the waight, measure, and money as well of China, as of Malacca, which continually come thether.

[...]The marchandise or ware that they carrie fro Makau to Japen, are silks, & from Japen they return nothing but silver, whereby they doe greatly profit. And seing we are in hand with their trafficks, from Makau, I think it not impertinent to rehearse some of the ware which the Portingals use commonly to buy there and to traffique withall, together with the ordinarie prices therof, as also the waight and monyes, as well of China as of Malacca, because of the neerenesse and common traffique that they dayly use with each other, more then any other places of India, which I [...]e [...] downe in this place, because this waight and reckoning differeth from that of Portingall and India. It is to be understoode that in China there are three sorts of Silkes, that is, one sort called [...] which is esteemed for the best. The second called Fulcan, which is good also. The third and worst Silke is called Lankam, besides these there are other sorts of Silke, as Silke unspunne, called raw Silke, and Silke that is spunne and made in thréedes, which the Portingals call Retre [...]

41. The 26. Chapter. Of the Iland of Japan.

ThiHe Iland or the land of Japan is many Ilands one by the other, and are seperated and devided only by certaine small Créekes and rivers, it is a great land, although as yet the circuite thereof is not knowne, because as yet it is not discovered nor by the Portingalles sought into, it beginneth under30. degrées, and runneth till you come to 38 degrées, it lyeth East from the firme land of China, about 80. miles, and from Maccau by the waye that the Portingalles travaile Northeast warde, is about 300. miles, and the Haven where commonly the Portingals use to traffique, is called Nangasache. They have likewise other places where they traffique and deale. The countrie is cold, procéeding of much rayne, Snow and Ice that falleth therein, it hath some Corne lande, but their common Corne is Ryce. In some places the land is verie hillie and unfruitfull, they eate no flesh but the flesh of wilde beasts, and such as is hunted, wherein they are verie expert, although there are Oxen, Cowes, Sheepe, and such like Cattell good store, yet they use them to other things about their labours, and because it is tame flesh, which they cannot brooke, they refuse it as wee doe horse flesh, they doe likewise refuse to eate Milke, as wee doe bloud, saying that Milke although it is white, yet it is verie bloude. They have much Fish, whereof they are verie desirous, as also all kinds of fruites, as in China. Their houses are commonly covered with wood, and with strawe, they are [...] and workmanlike builte, specially the rich mens houses, they have their Chambers hanged and flowred with Mattes, which is their best hangings. The Japens are not so curious nor so cleanly as the men of China, but are contente with a meane, yet for the most part they goe verie well apparelled in Silke, almost like the Chinos. The countrie hath some mines of silver, which from thence is by the Portingals yearely brought unto China, and there bartered for Silke, and other Chinish wares, which the Japeans have néede of. The countriemen are verie skilfull to search for Silver, and to sell their wares. They have among them verie good handicrafts men, and cunning workemen in all kind of handie workes, they are sharpe witted, and quickly learne any thing they sée, as by experience it is found in those parts which the Portingales have discovered. The common people of the lande are much different fro other nations, for that they have among them as great curtesie and good policie, as if they had lived continually in the Court, they are verie expert in their weapons as néed requireth, although they have little cause to use them, for that if anye of them beginneth to brawle or to drawe his sworde, hee is put to death, they have not any prisons, for that who soever deserveth to be imprisoned, is presently punished, or banished the countrie. When they meane to lay holde upon a man, they must doe it by stealth and by deceipt, for otherwise he would resist and doe much mischiefe. If it bee any Gentleman or man of great authoritie, they beset his house about with men, and whether hee chaunce to slay himselfe or not, they enter the house by force, and kill al they find therin. Which to avoid, he suffereth himself often times to be killed by his servantes. And it is often séene that they rip their own bellies open, which often times is likewise done by their servants for the love of their Masters, therein to shew their Masters the love they beare unto them, so little estéeming their owne lives, to pleasure and serve them. The like doe young Boyes in presence of their parents, onely for griefe or some small anger. They are in all their actions very patient and humble, for that in their youthes they learne to indure hunger, colde, and all manner of labour, to goe bare headed, with few cloathes, as well in Winter as in Summer, and not onely the common people, but the principall Gentlemen and Nobles of the countrie. They account it for great beautie to have no haire, which with great care they doe plucke out, onely keepe a bunch of haire on the crowne of their heades, which they tie together. Touching their traffique, manners, speach, and all their ceremonies, concerning life and curtesie, they are cleane contrarie unto all other nations, speciallie from those of China, and till this day observe the same as an infallible law, which groweth upon this occasion [...]


[Page 46]

[...]Their manner of eating and drinking is: Everie man hath a table alone, without table clothes or napkins, and eateth with two peeces of wood, like the men of China: they drinke wine of Rice, wherewith they drink themselves drunke, and after their meat they use a certaine drinke, which is a pot with hote water, which they drinke as hote as ever they may indure, whether it be Winter or Summer.

The Turkes holde almost the same maner of drinking of their Chaona, which they make of certaine fruit, which is like unto the Bakelaer, and by the Egyptians called Bon or Ban: they take of this fruite one pound and a half, and roast them a little in the fire, and then sieth them in twentie poundes of water, till the half be consumed away: this drinke they take everie morning fasting in their chambers, out of an earthen pot, being verie hote, as we doe here drinke aquacomposita in the morning: and they say that it strengtheneth and maketh them warme, breaketh wind, and openeth any stopping.

The manner of dressing their meat is altogether contrarie unto other nations: the aforesaid warme water is made with the powder of a certaine hearbe called Chaa, which is much estéemed, and is well accounted of among them, and al such as are of any countenance or habilitie have the said water kept for them in a secret place, and the gentlemen make it themselves, and when they will entertaine any of their friends, they give him some of that warme water to drinke: for the pots wherein they sieth it, and wherein the hearbe is kept, with the earthen cups which they drinke it in, they esteeme as much of them, as we doe of Diamants, Rubies and other precious stones, and they are not esteemed for their newnes, but for their oldnes, and for that they were made by a good workman: and to know and kéepe such by themselves, they take great and speciall care, as also of such as are the valewers of them, and are skilfull in them, as with us the goldsmith priseth and valueth silver and gold, and the Jewellers all kindes of precious stones: so if their pots & cuppes be of an old & excellet workmas making, they are worth 4 or 5 thousad ducats or more the peece. The King of Bungo did give for such a pot, having thrée feet, 14 thousand ducats, and a Japan being a Christian in the town of Sacay, gave for such a pot 1400 ducats, and yet it had 3 peeces upon it. They doe likewise estéeme much of any picture or table, wherein is painted a blacke trée, or a blacke bird, and when they knowe it is made of wood, and by an ancient & cuning maister, they give whatsoever you will aske for it. It happeneth some times that such a picture is sold for 3 or 4 thousand ducats and more. They also estéeme much of a good rapier, made by an old and cunning maister, such a one many times costeth 3 or 4 thousand Crowns the péece. These things doe they kéeepe and estéeme for their Jewels, as we estéeme our Jewels & precious stones And when we aske them why they estéeme them so much, they aske us againe, why we estéeme so well of our precious stones & jewels, whereby there is not any profite to be had, and serve to no other use, then only for a shewe, & that their things serve to some end [...]


[Page 47]

[...]The rents and revenues belonging to the King are very small, and are nothing else but rice, which is their living: he hath every yere onelie 500 thousad packes or sackes of Rice, and not any other customes, rents and revenues, whereof he giveth to 10 or 12 Cunixu each man 30 or 40 thousand sackes, the rest is for his owne costes and charges, to the maintenance of his estate, and the Cunixus must distribute of their parts among the Toms, and the Toms among the soldiers, wherewith they maintaine themselves, every man in his estate [...]


A little beyond Japon under 34. and 35. degrées, not farre from the coast of China, lyeth an other great Iland, called Insula de Core, whereof as yet there is no certaine knowledge, neither of the greatnesse of the countrie, people, nor wares that are there to be found. From Makau East Northeast, distant above 90. miles lye certaine Ilandes, called Lequeo Pequeno, or little Lequeo, and lye about 20. miles distant from the firme land of China, and 90. miles farther in the same course, lye other Ilands, called Lequeo Major, or great Lequeo. All these Ilandes are travelled unto, and inhabited by those of China, whereof we will now cease to speake, till an other time, (having particularly made a briefe discourse in an other place, of all their manners, customes, wares, and marchandises, according to the truest instructions I could find) and so will returne againe to the description of Goa, together with the places bordering about the same.

45. The 28. Chapter. Of the towne and Ilande of Goa, chiefe Cittie of India.

THe Citie of Goa, is the Metropolitan or chiefe Cittie of all the Orientall Indies, where the Portingales have their traffique, where also the Viceroye, the Arch bishop, the Kings Councel, and Chauncerie have their residence, and from thence are all places in the Orientall Indies, governed and ruled. There is likewise the staple for all Indian commodities, whether all sorts of Marchants doe resort, comming thether both to buy and sell, as out of Arabia, Armenia, Persia, Cambaia, Bengala, Pegu, Sian, Malacca, Java, Molucca, China, &c. The Cittie and Iland of Goa, lyeth under 15. degrees, on the North side, and is distant from the Equinoctiall, (by the way that the Portingales shippes do come thether from Mossambique) 400. miles. It is an Iland wholly compassed about with a river, and is above thrée miles great, it lyeth within the coast of the firme lande, so that the Iland, with the Sea coast of the firme land, doe both reach as farre each as other into the Sea. It is only seperated from the firme land, by an arme of the Sea, or of the ryver, that runneth in by the North side of the towne, and so round about the Iland to the South side, where it entereth againe into the Sea, and is in forme almost like a halfe Moone. The ryver runneth even unto the Towne, and is indifferent broade, there are betwéene the firme land and the Iland, certaine small Ilandes that are all inhabited by the naturall borne countrimen, and on the other side of the town the ryver is there so small, that in Summer time, by wading to the knées in water, a man may passe it over on foote. On the which side the Iland hath a wall with certaine Bulwarkes, which ye Portingales of late yeares have caused to be made, to defend them from the firme land in time of warre, as it often happeneth, for it hath divers times béene besieged by Dialcan or Hidalcam, at the mouth and the entrie of the ryver. On the North side lyeth the land of Bardes, which is high land, under which land the Portingales doe Anker safely out of all danger, and there they have a place to lade and unlade their wares. This land of Bardes is also under the Portingall subjection, and is full of Villages inhabited with people that are of the firme land, lying above it, called Canarijns, who for the most part are Christians, but observe their owne manner of apparell, which is to goe all naked, their priuve members onely covered. This land is full of Indian Palme trées, whereon the Indian Nuts called Cocos doe grow, as also all the other Ilands lying in the ryver. This land of Bardes, is seperated from the firme land by a small river, which is so little, that it cannot almost be discerned from the firme land. On the South side of the Iland of Goa, wher the river runneth againe into the Sea, there commeth even out with the coast a land, called Salsette, which is also under the subjection of the Portingales, and is inhabited, and planted both with people and fruite, like the land of Bardes, and is likewise parted with a little ryver from the firme land. Betwéene this land of Salsette, & the Iland of Goa, lie also some small Ilands, all full of Indian Palme trées, and by the mouth or issue of the ryver, lyeth an Iland which is called Goa Velha, that is old Goa, from whence there commeth no speciall thing, neither is it much inhabited. Those lands of Bardes and Salsette, are by the Kings of Portingale let out to farme, and the rents therof are imployed to the payment of the Archbishop, Cloysters, Priests,[Page 52] Viceroy, & other the Kings Officers, yearely stipends, which is graunted them, by speciall Priveledges and Patents from the King. The Iland is verie hillie, and in some places so desert and rough, that on some sides men can hardly travell over land (but with great labour) to the towne of Goa, the Iland even to the Sea side is full of Villages, and inhabited by the Canarijus, which are the naturall borne people of the land, and doe altogether live by working upon the land, and by their Palme trees. The villages and dwellings of these Canarijus, are most rounde about the Iland, and on the water sides, or by small Lakes, whereof there are some fewe, within the Iland, and the cause why they dwell thus, is for that the Palme trées will not grow in any other place but upon low ground, by the waters, specially in sandie ground: so that there are no Palme trées to be found on the high land within the countrie unlesse it bee upon sandie groundes on the Sea coast, or ryvers sides. On the East side of the towne of Goa upwardes, into the ryver, about thrée miles from the towne of Bardes, lyeth a place wher the Portingals ships doe Anker, the ryver hath some créekes, and a ship of 200. Tunnes or there abouts, may easily discharge before the Towne, but the Portingales great ships must discharge them selves at Bardes: which being done, they may i [...] they will fréely goe and lie before the town. The towne is well builte with faire houses and stréetes, after the Portingall manner, but because of the heate they are somewhat lower. They commonly have their Gardens and Orchards at the backe side of their houses, full of all kinde of Indian fruites: as also the whole Iland through, they have many pleasant Gardens and farmes, with houses to play in, and trées of Indian fruites, whether they goe to sport themselves, and wherein the Indian women take great delight. The towne hath in it all sortes of Cloysters and Churches as Lisbone hath, onely it wanteth Nunnes, for the men cannot get the women to travell so farre, where they should be shut up, and forsake Venus, with whome (so that they may enjoy and fulfill their lustes) they had rather loose their lives, whereof they make small account. The Iland is both winter and Summer all alike gréene, and hath alwaies some kinde of fruite in season, which is a great pleasure, the towne lyeth uppon some hils and dales like Lisbone, it hath in times past béene verie small, and walled, with a drie Ditch round about it, wherein there is no water, but when it rayneth, the walles are yet standing, but no Gates remaining, and the towne is now built round about with houses, so that it is, at the least twice as big without the walles, as it is within, and lyeth open without walles or closures, saving onely that the Iland hath a wal on the East side, which beginneth over against the land of Salsette, and so runneth along untill you come at Bardes, and is onely to defend them from the firme land, where the Portingales have no commaundement. The whole Iland hath no other defence, but onely upon the corner of the land of Bardes, at the mouth of the ryver, where there standeth an olde ruinous Castle, wherein lyeth two or thrée Iron péeces, and one man that in the night time kéepeth the watch, the Iland on the Sea side is verie high, full of stonie Cliffes, but the land of Bardes hath on the Sea side a verie faire white Sand, about halfe a mile long, and somewhat more: the defence of the Ilande consisteth herein, that on the East side there are thrée or foure passages or Gates, that stand upon the water side, on the uttermost part of the Iland, right against the firme land, Salsette and Bardes, everie gate or passage hath a Captaine and a clarke, which kéepe watch, that no man may passe into the other side, but by their licence. And the Indians, Decanijus, and other Moores and heathens, that are resident in Goa, and therein have their habitation, when they goe into the firme land to fetch their necessarie provisions, comming to those places which are called Pas [...]os, they must everye man have a marke, which is Printed on their naked armes, and so they passe over to the other side, and at their returne againe they must shew the same marke, whereby they may fréely enter, for the which they pay two Basarukes, which is as much as a Hollanders Doit, and this is the profit that the Captain and Clarke of the said Passos doe make. In the night they have a Boy, that kéepeth watch, and hath a small Bell, which hangeth over the gate, which Boylyeth downe, and tieth the string of the Bell at his foote and so ringeth it often times, to shew that hee watcheth, which is all the watch they hold thoroughout the whole Iland. There are five of thesePassos, one upon the South side of the Iland, where men passe to the firme lande, and to the land of Salsette, and is called Benesterijn, commonly named Passo de Saint Iago, because the Parish of Saint Jacobs standeth ther: The Tebe de Passo is on the East side of the Iland, where men doe onely passe into. The firme land called O Passo Secco, which is the drie passage, for in that place the ryver is at the narrowest and shallowest. The third Passo on the South side of the Iland, joyneth almost to the Towne, called[Page 53] O Passo de Daugijn, or of Madre de Deus, and so farre goeth the wall, beginning at Passo de Benesterijn, or S. Iago, and from thence the whole Iland is without any wall or closure: from this Passo, right over against it, they passe over to an Iland, which is hard by the firme land, where is also a Passo called O Passo de Norwa: the fift or last Passo lyeth in the middle way of the River downwards towards Bardes, which is the strongest of them all, and best looked unto, but no otherwise made then all the rest, & is called O Passo de Pangijn, fro thence they passe to Bardes, and also all the boates and ships that passe in and out of the river, must stay there & be searched, and this is all their watch and strentgh in the Iland [...]


The Iland hath nothing of it self to nourish it withall, but onely some cattle, hennes, goates, doves, &c. but very fewe, because of the barrennesse and evil situation of the place, which is a most hillie, barren, and wild countrie, and full of wast ground: all their necessaries, as beastes, hennes, hogges, egges, milke, &c. come from Salsette and Bardes, but most part out of the firme land, Corne, Rice, and other grayne: also Oyle, and all other necessaries come from other countries, and are brought in by the River, as fro Cambaia on the North side, and from the coast of Malabar and other places, as in the description of the coast we have in part declared: of wyne called wyne of palme trées, they have inough, and so much that they have to spare for other places. They have but little fresh water, but only one Well called Banganiin, which stadeth about a quarter of a mile with out the Cittie, wherewith the whole towne is served, which the slaves fetch in pots & sel it in the towne, and is verie good to drinke: for water to dresse meat, wash, and doe other thinges withall, they commonly have Wels within their houses: the land of it self is verie stonie and drie, having a kinde of red earth, so that some Italian Alchymistes have promised to get Copper & Gold out of the same, which neither ye king nor Vice-roy would ever coset unto, fearing least the report of such treasure would be occasion of greater troble unto them by their enemies that are round about them, through the desire that they have of riches, and therefore they have deferred to séeke for it [...]

[Page 54]

47. The 29. Chapter. Of the customes of the Portingales, and such as are issued from them, called Mesticos, or half countrimen, as wel of Goa, as of all the Oriental countries.

[...]there are certain cryers appointed by the Citie for ye purpose, which have of al things to be cryed and sold: these goe all the time of the Leylon or outroop, all behangd about with all sorts of gold chaines, all kindes of costly Jewels, pearles, rings, and precious stones: likewise they have running about them, many sorts of captives and slaves, both men and women, young and old, which are daylie sould there, as beasts are sold with us, where everie one may chuse which liketh him best, everie one at a certaine price. There are also Arabian horses, all kinde of spices and dryed drugges, sweet gummes, and such like things, fine and costly coverlets, and many curious things, out of Cambaia, Sinde, Begala, China, &c. and it is wonderfull to sée in what sort many of them get their livinges, which every day come thether to buy wares, and at an other time sel them again. And when any man dieth, all his goods are brought thether & sold to the last pennie worth, in the same outroop, who soever they be, yea although they were the Viceroyes goods: and this is done to doe right and justice unto Orphanes & widdows, and that it may be sold with the first, where everie man may sée it, so that everie yeare there is great quantitie of ware sold within that Citie, for that there die many men within the Towne, by meanes of their disordered living, together with the hotenes of the coutry: the like assemblie is holden in all places of India, where the Portingales inhabite [...]


There are others that use exchanging of moneyes, and to buy money when it cometh, as tyme serveth to fell it againe, for they buy the Rials of eight, when the shippes come from Portingale, whereof some buy at the least 10 or 12 hundreth, and kéepe them till the Moneth of April, which is the time when the shippes sayle to China, for then are the Rials of eight sought for to carry thether, and are commonly worth 25 or 30 in the hundreth profite, and then they receive for them a certain money, which at the same time is brought fro Ormus, called Larriins, that come out of Persia, which they buy for 8 or 10 in the hundreth profite, & kéepe them til the Portingales on the moneth of Septeber come thether, and so deliver them againe for 20 or 25 in the hundreth profite, in exchange for Rials of eight, as I said before, for they must have these Larriins with them to Cochin, to buy pepper and other wares, for that it is the best and most profitable money. There are yet other sorts of money called Pagodes, Venetianers, & Santhones, which are gold, al which they doe likewise buy & sel, so ytthere are manie that doe nothing els, & become rich, speciallie he that hath a good stocke. This exchange cometh most comonlie from the Spiritualtie, who do secretly use it, by other mens meanes, without any let or hinderance. Some there are that live upon their rents which they have by their palme trées, whereon the Indian nut called Cocus doth grow, whereof they may very well live and have well to maintaine themselves, for that it is the principall commoditie of that Iland.

There are some that let out their trées, and have every day for each trée half a Pardawe or more, which is as much as a Carolus Guilderne, and some have 300 or 400 trées and more upon one ground, which they let out unto the Canariins, as we let out our pastures, medowes & corn grounds. The Portingales and Mesticos in India never worke, if they doe, it is but very little [...]

49. The 30. Chapter. Of the Portingalles and Mesticos, their houses, curtesies, mariages, and other customes and manners in India.

[...]They are very cleanly and swéet in all things belonging to their houses, specially in their linnen, for that every day they change shirtes and smockes both men and women, and their slaves and servants likewise with other thinges that they weare, which they doe because of the great heat in that land. The Portingals are commonly served with great gravitie, without any difference betwéene the Gentleman & the common Citizen, townesman or soldier, and in their going, curtesies, and conversations, common in all thinges: when they go in the stréetes they steppe very softly and slowly forwards, with a great pride and vaineglorious majestie, with a slave that carrieth a great hat or vaile over their heads, to keepe the sunne and raine from them [...]


[Page 56]

[...]When they have any weddinges and are married, whosoever they be if they have any wealth, all the friendes and neighbours come together, every man on horsebacke, and hee that hath not a horse wil borrow one, and are every man very costly apparelled, at the least some 50. or 100. horses little more or lesse, as the person is of qualitie, and so they ride altogether in good order unto the Church with their servantes, and every man his hatte for the Sunne, the parentes and friendes in the hinder part, and in ye last row the bridegroome betwéene two of them, whom they call gossops: after them followeth the bryde betwéen two Commeres, each in their Pallamkin, which is most costly made, and after them followe the slaves both men and women going in troupes, as if they ranne to hunt, and so comming to the Church, and being married according to the order used in the Church of Rome: they are in the same order brought home again, and passing through the stréets, the neighbours leaning uppon Indian Carpets looke out of the windowes, and throwe Rose water upon the Bryde & Bridegroome, and other sweet smelling waters, with Roses and Sugar Comfets, or corne [...]


[Page 58]

[...]But concerning the souldier that is unmaried, thus it is. They goe in the summer time into the Armado lying on the water, and being within the townes and on the land, they are very stately apparrelled, and goe verie gravely along the streets with their slaves or men hired for the purpose, that beare a hatte over them for the sunne and raine: for there are many Indias that are daily hired for the purpose, and have 12. Basarucos the day, which is as much as two sivers or a stoter, & they serve such as have no slaves, and that will not keepe any to that end. Their meate is Rice sodden in water, with some salt fish, or some other thing of small value (without breade) and cleare fountaine water for their drinke, wherewith they are well pleased

[Page 60]

52. The 31. Chapter Of the maner and customes of Portingale and Mesticos women in India.

[...]The women eate no bread or very little, nor yet the slaves, not that they refuse it for the dearenes or want of bread, (for they have enough and great aboundance) but they are so used to eate rice, that they desire no other, which they seeth with water and eate it with some salt fish, or a kinde of salt fruit called Mangas, or with some other composition both of fish and flesh, with pottage which they powre upon it, and so eate it with their handes: for there they eate nothing with spoones, and if they should sée any man doe so, they would laugh at him. When they drinke they have certaine pots made of blacke earth very fine and thin, much like those that we use in Holland for flower pottes, having in the necke thereof a partition full of holes with a spout, (and these cruses are called Gorgoletta,) to this end, that when they drinke, they may hold the potte on high, and touch it not with their mouthes, but the water running from the spout falleth into their mouthes, never spilling drop, which they doe for cleanlinesse, because no man should put it to his mouth, & when any man commeth newly out of Portingall, and then beginneth to drinke after their manner, because he is not used to that kinde of drinking, he spilleth it in his bosome, wherein they take great pleasure and laugh at him calling him Reynol, which is a name given in jest to such as newlie come from Portingall, & know not how to behave them selves in such grave manner, and with such ceremonies as the Portingales use therein India: so that at the first they are much whooped and cried at in the stréets, untill by use and practise they have learned the Indian manner, which they quicklie doe. The women are verie luxurious and unchaste, for there are very few among them, although they bee married, but they have besides their husbands one or two of those that are called souldiers, with whome they take their pleasures: which to effect, they use al the slights and practises they can devise, by sending out their slaves and baudes by night, and at extraordinary times, over walles, hedges, and ditches, how narrowlie soever they are kept and looked unto. They have likewise an hearbe called Deutroa, which beareth a séed, whereof brusing out the sap, they put it into a cup or other vessell, and give it to their husbands, eyther in meate or drinke, and presently therewith, the man is as though hee were halfe out of his wits, and without feeling, or els drunke, doing nothing but laugh, and sometime it taketh him sleeping, whereby he lieth like a dead man, so that in his presence they may doe what they will, and take their pleasure with their friends, and the husband never know of it. In which sort he continueth foure and twentie houres long, but if they wash his féete with colde water hee presently reviveth, and knoweth nothing thereof, but thinketh he had slept [...]

[Page 64]

53. The 33. Chapter. Of the heathens, Indians and other strangers dwelling in Goa

IN the towne and Iland of Goa, are resident many Heathens, Moores (which are Mahometans) Jewes, and all strange nations bordering thereabout, everie one of them using severall customes, and superstitions in Religion. The Moores hold Mahomets law, and the Jewes Moyses law. There are also many Persians, Arabians, and Abexij [...] s, some of them Christians, and some of them Moores. There is in Goa many Armenians that are Christians, and others that goe and come to traffique there, as Persians, Arabians, Banianes, of Cambaia, Gusarates, and Decani [...]ns &c. The Moores eate all things except Swines flesh, and dying are buried like the Jewes, but the Heathens, as Decani [...]s, Gusarates, and Canaras, and other Indians being dead, are burnt to ashes, and some women being alive are burned with them, that is such as are Gentlemen or Noblemen, and the wives of the Bramenes, which are their Idolatrous Préestes. Also for the Marchantes some of them eate all things, except Cowes or Buffles flesh, which they esteeme to be holy Others eate not any thing whatsoever, that hath either life or bloud in it, as those of Gusarata, and the Banianes of Cambaia, which observe Pythagoras lawe: most of them pray unto the Sunne and Moone, yet they doe all acknowledge a God that made, created and ruleth all things, and that after this life there is an other, wherein men shall be rewarded according to their workes. But they have Idoles and Images, which they call Pagodes, cut and formed most ugly, and like monstrous Devils, to whome dayly they offer, and say, that those holy men have béene living among them, whereof they tell so many miracles, as it is wonderfull, and say that they are intercessors betwéene them and God [...]To dresse their meat they have certaine earthen pots wherein they séeth Rice, and make holes in the ground, wherein they stampe it, or beate it with a woodden pestel made for the purpose, and they are so miserable, that they buy the Rice in the Huskes, as it groweth on the grounde, and some of them have Rice sowen behinde their house to serve their necessarie use. They use to drinke out of a copper Canne with a spout, wherby they let the water fall downe into their mouths, and never touch the pot with their lippes. Their houses are commonly strawed with Cowe dung, which (they say) killeth Fleas. They are verie cleane on their bodies, for every day they wash themselves all their body over, as often as they ease themselves or make water, both men and women, like the Moores or Mahometans. They wash themselves with the left hand, because they eate with the right hand, and use no spoones [...]


[Page 65]

[...]The heathenish Indians that dwell in Goa are verie rich Marchants, and traffique much, there is one stréete within the towne, that is full of shops kept by those Heathenish Indians, that not onely sell all kindes of Silkes, Sattins, Damaskes, and curious workes of Porselyne from China and other places, but all manner of wares of ve [...]uet, Silke, Sattin and such like, brought out of Portingall, which by meanes of their Brokers they buy by the great, and sell them againe by the péece or elles, wherein they are verie cunning, and naturally subtill [...]The Heathens have likewise their shops with all kinde of spices, which they sell by retaile, both by waight and measure, as Grocers and Potticaries doe with us, and this is onely used among them [...]


[Page 67]

In the Month of September when winter endeth, the bankes of sand doe fléete and wade away out of the River, so that not onely smal shippes may come in and go out, but also the great Portingall ships of 1600.tunnes may fréely enter without a Pilot, for it is déepe enough and without daunger. In winter it is a heavie and melancholike being there, for there is no other exercise to be used, but onely to sitte in their shirtes, with a paire of linen bréeches, and goe & passe the time away with their neighbours, in playing and such exercises, for that throughout the whole town there is no other doing. The women and Mesticostake great pleasure in the winter time when it rayneth, with their husbandes and slaves to go into the fieldes, or some garden, whether they carry good store of victuailes, & there in their gardens have many Cesternes or pondes of water, wherein they take their delightes to swimme and to bath themselves. In this time most of their Indian fruit is in season. The summer beginneth in September, and continueth till the last of Aprill, and is alwaies clear sky & fair weather, without once or very little raining: Then all the ships are rigged and made ready to saile for all places, as also the Kinges armie to kéepe the coast, and to convoy Marchantes, and then the East winds beginne to blow from off the lande into the seas, whereby they are called Terreinhos, that is to say, the land windes. They blow very pleasantly & coolly, although at the first by chaunging of the weather they are very dangerous, & cause many great diseases, which do commonly fall in India, by ye chaunging of the time. These winds blow alwaies in summer, beginning at midnight, and continue till noone, but they never blowe above tenne miles into the sea, from off the coast, and presently after one of the clocke untill midnight the west winde bloweth, which commeth out of the sea into the lande, and is called V [...]rason. These winds are so sure and certaine at their times, as though men helde them in their handes, whereby they make the land very temperate, otherwise the heate would bee unmeasurable. It is likewise a strange thing that when it is winter upon the coast of India, that is from Diu to the Cape de Comorin, on the other side of the Cape de Comorin on the coast called Choramandel, it is cleane contrarie, so that there it is summer, and yet they lye all under one height or degrées, and there is but 70. miles by land betwéene both the coasts, and in some places but 2 . miles, and which is more, as men travel over land from Cochin to S. Thomas (which lyeth on the same coast of Choramandel) and comming by the hill of Ballagatte where men must passe over to goe from the one coast unto the other: on the one side of the hil to the top thereof it is pleasant clear sunne shining weather, and going downe on the other side there is rayne, winde, thunder and lightning, as if the worlde should end and be consumed: which is to be understood, that it chaungeth from the one side to the other, as the time falleth out, so that on the one side of the hilles it is Winter, and on the other side Summer: and it is not onely so in that place and countrey, but also at Ormus, on the coast of Arabia Felix by the Cape of Rosalgatte, where the shippes lie: it is very still, cleare, and pleasant water, and faire summer time, and turning about the Cape on the other side, it is raine and wind with great stormes and tempests, which with the times of the yeare doe likewise change on the other side, and so it is in many places of the Orientall countries.

The sicknesses and diseases in Goa, and throughout India, which are common, come most with the changing of the times and the weather, as it is said before: there raigneth a sicknesse called Mordexim, which stealeth uppon men, and handleth them in such sorte, that it weakeneth a man, and maketh him cast out all that he hath in his bodie, and many times his life withall. This sicknesse is very common, & killeth many a man, whereof they hardly or never escape. The bloody Flixe is there likewise very common and daungerous, as the plague with us. They have many continuall fevers, which are burning agues, and consume mens bodies with extreame heate, whereby within foure or five dayes they are eyther whole or dead. This sicknes is common and very daungerous, & hath no remedie for the Portingalles but letting of blood: but the Indians and heathens do cure themselves with hearbes, Sanders, and other such like oyntments, wherewith they ease themselves. This sicknes consumeth many Portingalles every yeare, some because they have little to eat, & lesse to drink of any meat or drink that is nourishing, & use much company of wome, because ye land is naturall to provoke the therunto, as also ye most part of the soldiers by such means have their living and their maintenance, which often times costeth them both life and limme, for although men were of iron or steele, the unchaste life of a woman, with her unsatiable lustes were able to grinde him to powder, and swéep him away like dust, which costeth many a mans life, as the Kinges Hospitall can wel beare witnes, wherein they lodge, whensoever they are sicke, where every yeare at the least there entered 500. live men, and never [Page 68] come forth till they are dead, and they are only Portingals for no other sick person may lodge therin, I mean such as are called white men, for the other Indians have an Hospitall by themselves. In this Hospitall they are verie well looked unto by Jesuites, and Gentlemen: whereof every month one of the best is chosen and appointed, who personally is there by them and giveth the sicke persons whatsoever they will desire, and sometimes spend more by foure or five hundred Duckats of their owne purses, then the Kings allowance reacheth unto, which they doe more of pride and vaine glorie, then for compassion, onely to have the praise and commendation of liberalitie. It is no shame there to lie in the Hospitall, for many men go thether willingly, although they have wherewith to keepe themselves in their houses, and have both wife and children. These Hospitals in India are very necessarie for the Portingals, otherwise they shold consume away like miserable men, but by ye means they are relieved, whatsoever they have, eyther sicknesse, wounds, secrete diseases, pockes, piles, or any such like, there they are healed, and sometimes visited by the Viceroy himselfe, when he thinketh upon them, and that his commodities come in. He that wil not lie there, and hath any woundes or privie diseases, may come thether twice every day and be drest, & goe his way againe without any question or deniall. When they die therein, they are by two slaves carried into the Church yarde, without eyther singing or ringing, onely one man followeth after them, & throweth some holy water uppon the grave: but if the sicke man chanceth to leave any goods behind him, and speaketh unto the Priestes to bring him to his grave, and to say Masses for his soule, then they runne thither by heapes, and burie him like a man of countenance eyther in the Church or chauncell, according to his will, and then hath hee singing and ringing enough.

But returning to our matter of sicknesse, pock [...]s and piles, with other secret diseases, they are in those countries verie common & not hidden or concealed, for they thinke it no shame, more then to have any other disease. They heale them with the roote China: there are some that have had them at the least thrée or foure times, and are not any thing at all shunned or disliked for the same, but dare both boast and bragge thereof. It is not any thing perillous for the bodie, insomuch that they had rather have them, and feare them lesse then any of the foresaid diseases. The plague hath never béen in India, neither is it known unto the Indians, but poysoning, witchcraft, & such like, whereby some lose their healthes, and some their lives, is their dayly exercise, and very common with them. The stone gravel, and rupture raigneth much among them, specially among married men, by reason of the great quantitie of water that they drinke being given to all pleasure and riotousnes, enjoying all what their hearts desire, sitting alwayes with their bellies open in their shirtes in a gallerie, recreating themselves with the wind which cooleth them, sometimes having a slave to scratch and pare their nayles and féete, another the head, the third holds a Fan to drive away the flées. Their is the common use for two houres after noone, where likewise they take an afternoones sléepe, and ever as they have thirst, they bring him a dish of conserves, or other comfets, that the water shoulde not worke too much in his bodie, but taste the better. With such and the like exercises they do passe the day til night comes on, so that commonly they have all swollen bellies like Bacchus, whereby the soldiers and other Indians call them Barrigois, that is, bellies, or great bellies.

The day both Summer and Winter is there all of a length, not much difference, onely in the chaunge they have about an houres difference. The sunne riseth at sixe, and setteth at sixe. When it is noone, commonly they have the Sunne in the middle of the element just over their heades, and it giveth no shadowe, although it stretcheth somewhat out as the Sunne taketh his course. In Goa you may sée both the Poles of the world, the North and South starres stande not farre above the Horizon. And this shall suffice for the times and seasons of the yeare, sicknesses and other diseases in India, as brevitie requireth.

[Page 70]

56. The 36 Chapter. Of the Indians called Bramenes, which are the ministers of the Pagodes, & Indian Idoles, and of their manner of life.

[...]They wear sometimes when they go abroad a thinne cotton linnen gowne called Caba [...] a, lightly cast over their sholders, and hanging downe to the grounde like some other Indians, as Benianes, Gusarates, and Decaniins. Upon their heads they weare a white cloth, wounde twice or thryce about, therewith to hide their haires, which they never cut off, but weare it long & turned up as the women do. They have most commonly rounde rings of golde hanging at their ears, as most of ye Indians have. They eat not any thing that hath life, but féed them selves with hearbes and Ryce, neyther yet when they are sicke will for any thing bee let blood, but heale themselves by hearbes & ointmentes, and by rubbing their bodies with Sanders, and such like swéet woods. In Goa and on the sea coasts there are many Bramenes, which commonly doe maintaine themselves with selling of spices and other Apothecarie ware, but it is not so cleane as others, but full of garbish and dust. They are very subtil in writing and casting accounts, wherby they make other simple Indians beleeve what they will [...]

[Page 71]

57. The 37. Chapter. Of the Gusarates, & Banianes of Cambaia.

THe Gusarates and Banianes are of the country of Cambaia: many of them dwel in Goa, Diu, Chaul, Cochin, & other places of India, because of their trade and traffick in marchadise, which they use much with all kindes of wares, as corne, cotton linnen, anil, Rice, and other wares, specially all kinde of precious stones wherein they have great skill. They are most subtill and expert in casting of accounts, and writing, so that they do not onely surpasse and goe beyond all Jewes and other nations thereabouts, but also the Portingals & in this respect they have no advantage, for that they are very perfect in the trade of marchandise, & very ready to deceive men. They eate not any thing that hath life or blood in it, neither would they kil it for all the goods in ye worlde, how small or unnecessarie soever it were, for that they stedfastly beléeve, ye every living thing hath a soule, & are next after men to be accounted of, according to Pythagoras law, & know it must die: and sometimes they do buy certain fowles or other beastes of the Christians or Portingals, which they meant to have killed, & whe they have bought them, they let them flée and run away. They have a custome in Cambaia, in the high wayes, & woods, to set pots wt water, and to cast corne & other graine upon the ground to féed birds & beastes withal: & throughout Cambaia they have hospitals to cure and heale all maner of beasts & birds therein whatsoever they a [...]le, & receive them thether as if they were men, and whe they are healed, they let them flie or run away whither they will, which among them is a work of great charity, saying, it is don to their even neighbors. And if they take a flea or a Lowce, they wil not kil it, but take or put it into some hole or corner in the wall, and so let it go, & you can do them no greater injury then to kil it in their presence, for they wil never leave intreating and desiring withall curtesie not to kill it, and that man shoulde not [Page 72] séeme to commit so great a sinne, as to take away the life of that, to whom God had given both soule and body: yea, and they will offer much money to a man to let it live, and goe away. They eate no Radishes, Onions, Garlicke, nor any kinde of hearbe that hath any colour of red in it, nor Egges, for they thinke there is blood in them. They drinke not any wine, nor use any vineger, but onely water. They are so dangerous of eating and drinking with other men which are not their Countriemen, that they would rather starve to death then once to doe it. It happeneth oftentimes that they saile in the Portingales ships from Goa to Cochin to sell their wares, and to traffique with the Portingales, and then they make their provisions for so long time as they thinke to stay upon the way, which they take aboard with them, and thereupon they féede, and if the time falleth out longer, then they made account of their water and provision beeing all spent, as it hapned when I sailed from Goa to Cochin, they had rather die for hunger and thirst then once to touch the Christians meate, they wash themselves before they eate, as the Bramenes doe, as also every tyme when they ease themselves or make water. They are of a yellowe colour like the Bramenes and somewhat whiter, and there are women among them which are much whiter and clearer of complection than the Portingale women [...]

58. The 38. Chapter. Of the Canaras and Decanijns.

Thi>He Canaras and Decaniins are of the countrie of Decam, commonly called Ballagate, lying behinde Goa. many of them dwell in Goa, where their wares and shops are, of all sorts of Velvets, Silkes, Sattins, and Damaskes, which they buy by great of the Portingales, also al kinds of cotton linnen, porselyne, and all kindes of wares and marchandises of Cambaia, China, Bengalla, &c. which they likewise buy of the Portingales, and other nations, and sell it againe by retaile: for the which purpose they have brokers of their owne Countrimen, which looke for all kindes of wares and commodities [...] They eate all thinges except Kine, Hogges, and Buffels, flesh and fish. They account the Oxe, Cow or Buffel to be holie, which they have commonly in the house with them, and they besméere, stroke, and handle them with all the friendship in the world, and féed them with the same meat they use to eate themselves, and when the beastes ease themselves, they hold their hands under their tails and so throw the dung away. In the night time they sléepe with them in their houses, & to conclude, use them as if they were reasonable creatures, whereby they thinke to doe God great service. In their eating, sitting in the house, washing, making cleane, and other [Page 73] ceremonies and superstitions they are altogether like the Bramenes, Gusurates, and Banianes. In their mariages they contract ech with other at 7. yeres, & at 11. or 12. yeares they are maried, and dwell together [...]

59. The 39. Chapter. Of the Canarijns and Corumbijns of India.

THe Canarijns & Corumbjins are the Countrimen, and such as deale with tilling the land, fishing & such like labors, to get their livings, & look unto the India Palme trées, whereon the Cocos doe grow. There are some among them that doe nothing els but wash cloathes, which is there used like another occupation, they are called Maynattos: there are others that are called Patamares, which serve onlie for Messengers or Posts, to carie letters from place to place by land, in winter time when men can not travaile by sea. These Canarjins and Corumbjins are the most contemptible, and the miserablest people of al India, and live very poorely, maintaining theselves with little meate. They eate all kinde of things, except Kine, Oxen, Buffels, Hogs, and Hens flesh [...]The rice is sowed uppon low ground, which in winter time is covered with water, wherewith those Canarijns doe maintaine themselves: these bring hennes, fruit, milke, egges and other such like wares into the towne to sell. They dwell in little straw houses, the dores whereof are so low, that men must créepe in and out, their houshold stuffe is a mat upon the ground to sléepe upon, and a pit or hole in the ground to heate their rice in with a pot or two to féeth it in, and so they live and gaine so much as it is a wonder [...]


[...]I and some other of my friends went to walke in the fieldes, & into the villages where the Canarijns dwell [Page 74] and having thirst, I went to one of the Canarijns houses to aske some water, therewith to refresh us, (which they commonly drinke out of a Copper Canne with a spout, thereat to drinke without touching it with their mouthes, which is all the mettell they have within their houses,) & because I was verie thirstie, I stooped downe and thrust my head in at the doore, asking for some water, where I espied a woman alone within the house, tying her cloth fast about her middle, & before her having a woodden trough, (by the Portingales called Gamello) full of water, where she stood and washed a childe, whereof as then she had newly bin delivered without any help: which having washt, she laid it naked on the ground upon a great Indian figge leafe, and desired mee to stay and shee would presently give mee water. When I understood by her that she had as then newly béene delivered of that Child without any help, I had no desire to drink of her water, but went unto another to aske water, and perceived the same woman not long after going about her house, as if there had bin no such matter, and the children are brought up in that manner cleane naked, nothing done unto them, but onely washed and made cleane in a little cold water, and doe in that sort prosper and come up as well as man would wish, or as any child within these countries can do with all the tending they have, & live many times untill they be a hundreth yeares old, without any headach, or toothach, or loosing any of their téeth. They weare onley a tuske of haire on the toppes of their heads, which they suffer to grow long: the rest of their haire is cut short, they are very expert in swimming and diving, they row up and downe the Rivers in boates called Almadias, whereof some of the are hewen out of a péece of wood, and so narrow that a man can hardly sit in them, and it chanceth oftentimes that they turne over & over twice or thrice before they passe the river, and then they leape out into the water and turne them up, and so powring out the water they get into them again. They are so miserable, that for a penny they would indure to be whipped, and they eate so little, that it séemeth they live by the aire, they are likewise most of them leane and weake of limmes, of little strength & very cowardes, whereby the Portingales doe them great outrage and villanie, using them like dogges and beasts. In their mariages and deathes they observe the manner of the Decan [...]ins & Canaras, as also in their religion & ceremonies. When the man is dead his body is burnt, and the woman cuts her haire off, and breaketh all her Jewels, although they be but few & small, for they are most of glasse.

[Page 75]

61. The 40. Chapter. Of the Arabians and Abexiins dwelling in India.

[...]These Abexijns and Arabians serve for small money, and being hyred are verie lowlie and subject, so that often times they are beaten and smitten, not as slaves, but like dogs, which they beare very patientlie, not once speaking a word: they comonlie have their wives and children with them in the shippe wherein they are hyred, which continually stay with them, what voyage soever they make, and dresse their owne meat, which is Rice sodden in water with salt fish among it. The cause why the women sayle in the ship, is, for that in Summer and not else, their shippes goe to sea, whe they alwayes have calme water and faire weather, with good windes: they have commonlie but one Portingale or two for Captaine, maister and Pilote, and they have a chief Boteson, which is an Arabian, which they cal Mocadon, and he is ruler of the Arabians & Aberijns, that are saylers, whome he hath under his subjection, even as if they were his slaves or subjects. This Mocadon is he that conditioneth and maketh bargaine with the owners of the ship to have so manie saylers, and he receiveth the monethlie money for their wages, and accounteth with the saylers particularlie, but for government of the ship he hath not to doe, neither troubleth himselfe therewith. The shippes when they sayle, use no caske for water, because there is not any throughout all India, nor any made there, save onely such as come out of Portingall, and used in the Portingall shippes: but instéed of pypes they use a great foure cornered woodden cesterne, yt stadeth by the main maste, at the very foote therof, upon the keele of the shippe, which is verie well pitched, and made fast, wherein they lade as much water as they thinke will serve them for their voyage. The captaine, maister or Pilote, Marchants and passingers, have everie man their meat by themselves and their water in great Indian pots called Martavans, whereof in ye description of Pegu I have alreadie spoken. These people are so serviceable and willing to doe any thing, that if there chanceth but a hat, or any other thing, to be blowen over, or fall into the water, they will presently leape, cloathes and all into the sea, to fetch it again, for they swimme like fishes, when the ships lie within the haven or river, and that they will all goe on land, then they goe into the boate, and so row to shore, which done one of them roweth backe againe with the boate, which he tyeth fast to the ship and swimmeth to land: and when they will goe abord again, if any of the saylers be unwilling to swimme to fetch the boate, they are by the Mocadon or the maister, with strokes compelled to doe it: but they comonlie never stay till it cometh so arre, but rather strive who shall be first in the water to shew their diligence: and when they doe any thing abord, as hayling ropes and other things, they sing & answere each other very sweetlie, so yt it séemeth to be very good Musick. Their exercise on land is, all the day to drinke, and to sit in tipling houses with their wives and children, and then they goe hand in hand through the stréets, réeling here and there, making a great noise with singing and gaping after their manner: there wome weare breeches like the Arabians and Mahometans.

[Page 77]

62. The 42. Chapter. Of the Malabares and Nayros in India, with their manners and customes.

THe Malabares are those that dwel on the Sea caost, betwéene Goa, & the Cape de Comorijn Southward from Goa, where the Pepper groweth [...] they must before they eate, or converse with other Nayro wash and clense their bodies with great ceremonies and superstitions. Likewise they must not bee touched by any Christian, or any other man. And when the Portingales came first into India, and made league and composition with the King of Cochin, the Nayros desired that men shold give them place, and turne out of the way, when they mette in the stréetes, as the Polyas and others used to doe, which the Portingales would not consent unto, thinking it to be against their credits and honors, for them to be compared to the Polyas and unprofitable sort of people, whereas they estéemed themselves better then the Nayros, both in person and armes: therefore they would have the Nayros to give them place, whereby they could not agrée, in the end it was concluded, (to pacifie the matter, and to kéepe peace and quietnes among them) that two men should be chosen, one for the Nayros, and the other for the Portingales, that should fight body to body, and he that should be overthrowne, that nation should give place unto the other, this was done in the presence of both nations, and the Portingall overcame the Nayro, whome hee slew, whereupon it was agréed, that the Nayros should give place unto the Portingall, and stand a side untill hee be past, where soever they meete [...]


[Page 79]

[...]they have a pit or Well digged, wherein they doe holde water, which standeth openly in the way, where everie man passeth by, wherein every morning when they ryse, they wash themselves all over, beginning first at the foote and so rysing up to the head, as well men as women, without being ashamed to be séene of such as goe by, or looke upon them, and the King himselfe likewise: which water is so gréene, slymie and stincking, that a man can not chuse but stop his nose as he goeth by it: and they certainlie beléeve, that when soever they should forget to wash themselves in that water, that they should then be whollie uncleane and full of sinne: and this washing or making cleane must not be done in any running water, but it must be in a place where the water standeth in a pit or Well, and by their Bramenes conjured with many words and ceremonies, otherwise it were of no vertue but whollie unprofitable, for their Idolatrous services [...]

64. The 43. Chapter Of the Moores and Jewes in India.

THere are great numbers of Moores and Jewes in al places of India, as at Goa, Cochin, & within the land, some coming out of other places, and the rest borne of Jewes and Moores in that country, and so by birth right Indians, who in times past by conversation and company of those Jewes & Moores, have bene brought to their sect and opinion [...]The Moores like wise have their Mesquitos, wherein they pray, and above the Church they have manie sellers and galleries, where they learne their children their [Page 80] principles of Religion before they goe to Church: they wash their féet, for the which purpose they have alwaies a cesterne with water standing without the Church, & leave their Alparcos (which are their shoes) standing at the Church dore before they goe in, and being in the Church they fall flat on the ground upon their faces, and so with their armes & handes lifted up, make manie counterfait faces. They are also circumcised like the Jewes, & eate no hogges flesh, and when they are dead they are buried. In their churches they have not any Images, but onelie some stones or round pillers standing upright with certaine Chaldean letters (out of their Alcaron) graven upon them. These Moores traffique much with spices to the red sea, and other places, both by water and by land. And although manie of them dwell among the Portingales and traffique much with them, yet secretly they are their most deadly enemies, and doe them much mischief, and are the principal occasion that there are no more Christians converted to the faith of Christ, séeking all the wayes and meanes they can to withdraw and disswade them from it, whereby the Indians doe both use and followe their customes and Religion.


[Page 82]

In the kingdome of Narsinga, or the coast called Choramandel, there standeth a Pagode, that is verie great, excéeding rich, and holden in great estimation, having manye Pilgrimages and visitations made unto it from all the countries bordering about it, where everie yeare they have many faires, feastes, and processions, and there they have a Wagon or a Carte, which is so great and heavie, that thrée or foure Elephants can hardly draw it, and this is brought foorth at faires, feastes, and processions. At this Carte hang likewise many Cables or Ropes, wherat also all the countrie people, both men and women of pure devotion doe pull and hale. In the upper part of this Carte standeth a Tabernacle or seate, wherein sitteth the Idoll, and under it sit the Kings wives, which after their manner play on all instruments, making a most swéete melodie, and in that sort is the Carte drawne foorth, with great devotions and processions: there are some of them, that of great zeale and pure devotion doe cut péeces of flesh out of their bodies, and throwe them downe before the Pagode: others laye themselves under the whéeles of the Carte, and let the Carte runne over them, whereby they are all crushed to péeces, and pressed to death, and they that thus die, are accounted for holy and devout Martyrs, and from that time forwardes are kept and preserved for great and holy Reliques, besides a thousand ther such like beastly superstitions, which they use, as one of my Chamber fellowes, that had seene it, shewed me, and it is also wel knowne throughout all India [...]

[Page 83]

66. The 45. Chapter. Of all the kinde of beastes, Cattell, and foules in India.

THere is over all India great store of Cattell, as Oxen, Kine, Shéepe, Hogges, Goates, Kids, and such like, and verie good cheape, and in great aboundance, although the flesh is not of so good a tast as that in Europe, which procéedeth from the heate of the countrie, & therfore it is not much estéemed. A man may buy the best Cow in Goa, for five or sixe Pardawes.Oxen are there little killed to eate, but are most kept to til the land, all other things as hogges, shéepe and goates, are sold after the rate. Mutton is little estéemed of, and not much used to be eaten for it is forbidden to such as are sicke, & the Hogs flesh is much better & sounder, which is rather permitted unto sicke persons then Mutton. Ther are shéepe in that countrie of five quarters in quantity, for that the tayle is as great, & hath as much flesh upon it, as any of the quarters, there are many Buffles, but nothing good to be eaten, unles it be by poore people, but their Milke is very good, and[Page 84] is very well solde and ordinarily eaten, for you shall sée the slaves & Canarijns in great numbers, all day going about the stréetes to sell the Milke of Buffles, and Goates, and excellent swéete Creame, and fresh butter in small péeces. They make likewise some small white Cheeses, but they are very salte and drie: wilde Bores, some Hares, Conies, Harts and Hindes are there also to be found, but not many Cockes, Capons, Pheasantes and Doves are there in great abundance and good cheape. In the Island of Goa and there about are Sparrows, and some other small birdes, yet not many: but on the coast of Cochin and Malabar there are very few Sparrows, nor any such like small birdes. There are in India many Battes, and some of them so great, that it is incredible to tell. They doe great mischiefe to trées, fruites and hearbes, whereby the Canariins are constrained to set men to watch in their trées, and yet they can hardly ridde them away. The Indians eate them, and say they are as good meat as a Partridge. There is a most wonderfull number of black Crows, which do much hurt, and are so bold, that oftentimes they come flying in at their windowes, and take the meat out of the dish, as it standeth upon the table, before them that are set downe to eate: and as I my selfe sate writing above in a chamber of the house, the windowes being open, one of those Crowes flew in at the window, and picked the cotton one of mine Inke horne, and blotted all the paper that lay on my table, do what I could to let him. They sitte commonly uppon the Buffles backes, and pecke off their haire, so that you shal find very few Buffles that have any haire upon their backes, and therefore to avoide the Crowes they get themselves into marishes, and watrie places, where they stand in the water uppe to the neckes, otherwise they could never be rid of them. There are likewise great numbers of Rattes, and some as bigge as young Pigges, so that the Cattes dare not touch them. Sometimes they digge downe the houses, for that they undermine the walles & foundations through and through, wherby many times the houses fall downe and are spoyled. There is another sort of Rattes, that are little and reddish of haire: They are called sweet smelling Rattes, for they have a smell as if they were full of Muske. Of Ants or Pismires there is so great aboundance throughout al India, and so noysome, that it is incredible to such as have not seene it: for that men may set nothing whatsoever it be that is to be eaten, or fattie, nor yet their clothes nor linnen, but you shall presently find at the least a thousand upon it, and in the twinckling of an eye they wil presently consume a loafe of bread: wherefore it is the manner throughout India, to make all the Cubbords wherein they kéep their victualls, and chests, where their linnen and apparrell lyeth, with foure féete or pillers, and under every foot or piller a stone or woodden Cestern full of water, and place the Cubbord or chest in the middle of the roome, not néete the wall, whereby they cannot come at it, otherwise it would be spoyled, and if they do never so little forget to powre water into the Cesternes, if it be but a Pater noster while, presently ther will be so many Pismires crawling all over it, that it is wonderfull: so that it séemeth to bee a curse or plague of God sent uppon that countrey. There are some likewise that use such Cesternes of water under their bedstéed, because they wold not be troubled with them as they lie in their beds, and also under their tables. Some men which kéep Canary birds, or such small fowles (that are brought thither from Portingall, or out of Turkey and Persia for their pleasures) are forced to set them on a sticke or pearch made for the purpose, with a Cesterne of water under it, otherwise it would presently be killed by the Pismires: and though it hangeth in the top of the house, yet they will come at it, if it have a string, to hold it by. The soldiers and poore people that have not the meanes to buy Cubbordes with Cesternes) put the bread and other victua [...] les which they leave (which is not over much) into a cloth tyed on knots, and hang it on a nayle against a wall, and make a circle about it of Charcoale, so that the Pismires cannot get over, nor come at it. There is another sorte of Pismires which are almost a finger long, and reddish of colour: they runne into the fields & do great hurt to the herbes, fruites and plants. Moathes & wormes which créepe and eate through mens cloathes, are there in great aboundance, whereby men must use no more cloathes nor linnen in those countries then that he necessarily and dayly weareth on his back, otherwise they are presently moatheaten and spoyled. They can hardly kepe any paper or bokes from wormes, which are like eare wormes, but they do often spoyle & consume many papers & evidences of great importance. There are also many Wall-lyce. There is a kind of beast that flyeth, twice as bigge as a Bee, and is called Baratta: These creatures also do much hurt, and are commoly in Sugar, Hony, Butter, Oile, and al fatte wares and swéet meats. Many of them likewise come into their chestes among their clothes and linnen, which they doe also spoyle and spot. They are in great numbers and verie hurtfull. There can bee nothing so close shut or made fast, but they wil get in & spoile it, for where they lie or be, they spot all things with their egges, which stick as fast as sirop upon a paper, so that ther may bee estéemed [3 pages missing] they are to draw, they binde the fat or packe fast with a rope that he may féele the waight thereof, and then the keeper speaketh unto him: whereuppon hee taketh the corde with his snout, and windeth it about his teeth, and thrusteth the end into his mouth , & so draweth it hanging after him, whether they desire to have it. If it be to be put into a boate, then they bring the boate close to the shore of the Key, and the Elephant putteth it into the boate himselfe, and with his snout gathereth stones together, which he laieth under the fat pipe, or packe, & with his teeth striketh & thrusteth the packe or vessell, to see if it lie fast or not. It will draw any great shot or other Iron work, or mettall being made fast unto it, be it never so heavie, they draw fustes, small Gallies, and other great boats, as Caruels, and such like, as easily out of the water upon the land, as if no man were in them: so that they serve their turnes there, even as our slids or carts with horses doe here to carrie our wares and marchandises, their meat is rice and water, they sléepe like kine, oxen, horses, and all foure footed beastes, and bow their knées and all their members as other beasts doe. In winter when it beginneth to raine, then they are unquiet, and altogether mad, so that their kéepers cannot rule them, and then they are let some whether out of the towne to a great trée, and there tyed unto it by the legs with a great iron chaine, where they cary him meate, and so hee lieth in the open aire, as long as he is mad, which is from Aprill to September, all the Winter time when it raineth, and then he commeth to him selfe, and beginneth to serve againe as tamely, that a ma may lie under his bellie, so you doe him no hurt: but he that hurteth him, hee must take héede, for they never forget when any man doth them injurie, untill they be revenged. Their téeth which is the Ivor bone, is much used in India, specially in Cambaia, whereof they make many curious péeces of workemanship the women weare manillas, or arme bracelets therof, ten or twelve about each arme, whereby it is there much worne, and are in great numbers brought out of Aethiopia, Mosambique and other places. In the Island of Seylon and Pegu, they fight most upon Elephants, and bind swords upon their teeth, they have likewise woodden Castles uppon their backes, wherein are five or sixe men that shoot out of them with bowes, or peeces, and also cast out wildfire. They doo no other hurt but onely serve to put the enemie out of order, and to scatter them out of their rankes, but if any one of them once turneth his backe, then they all begin to turne & runne over their owne people, and put them all out of order. They are very fearefull of a rat or a mouse, and also of the Pismyres, because they feare they would créepe into their snouts. They are likewise afraide of gunne shot and of fire, unlesse by length of time they be used unto them. When they have the companie one of the other, the male Elephant standeth upon the higher ground, and the female somewhat lower. As they goe along the way, although you see them not, you may heare them a farre off by the noyse of their féet and clapping of their eares, which they cotinually use. They are as swift ingoing almost as a horse, and are very proud, and desirous of honour. When there is any great feast or holiday kept in Goa, with solemne procession, commonly the Elephants go with them, the yong before, and the old behind, and are all painted uppon their bodies with the Armes and Crosses of Portingall, & have every one five or six trumpetters or players upon the Shalmes, sitting uppon them that sound very pleasantly, wherewith they are as well pleased, and goe with as great gravitie, and in as good order as if they were men. It hapned in Goa, that an Elephant shuld draw a great fust out of the water unto the land, which fust was so great and heavie, that hee could not doe it alone, so that they must have another to help him: whereupon the keeper chid him, using many hard wordes, saying, that he was idle and weak, and that it would be an everlasting shame for him, that they must fetch another to helpe him, wherewith the Elephant was so desperate, that he thrust away his fellow (which was brought to help him) and beg n freshly againe to draw, with so great a force, more then hee was well able to doe, that with extreame labour hee burst and fell downe starke dead in the place. At such time as I was to make my voyage fro Cochin to Portingall, the Rudder of our ship was out of order, so that it must of force be brought on land to make it fit againe, and so it was drawn to the river side at the sterne of the boat, which the Elephant should draw on land uppon two bordes, that it might slide up, and because it was heavie, (as the Rudder of a ship of 1400. or 1600. tunnes requireth) as also that the Elephant was as yet but yong, and not growne to his ful strength, so that he could not draw it out alone, yet he did the best hee could: but seeing hee could not doe it, he fell on his fore legges, and began to crie and weepe, that the teares ran out of his eyes, and because many of us stoode upon the shore to behold this sight, the kéeper began to chide him, and with hard words to curse him, because he shamed him thus in presence of so many men, not to be able to draw up such a thing: but what strength or labour soever the Elephant used, he could not doe it alone, but when they brought another Elephant to help him, they both together drewe it halfe out of the water, so that it lay partly uppon the bordes. The first Elephant, perceiving that with his head and teeth thrust the other Elephant away, and would have no more helpe, but drew it out himselfe: whereby it may bee considered, that they are in understanding, and desire of commendation like unto men.

[Page 88]

67. The 48. Chapter. Of the Fishes and other beastes in the Seas of India.

Fish in India is verie plentifull, and some very pleasant and swéete. The best Fish is called Mordexiin, Pampano, and Tatiingo. There is a fish called Piexe Serra, which is cut in round péeces as we cut Salmon, and salt it. It is very good, and wil indure long to carie over sea in ships for victuals. Most of their fish is eaten with rice, that they séeth in broth which they put upon the rice, and is somewhat sowre, as if it were sodden in gooseberries, or unripe grapes, but it tasteth well, and is called Cariil, which is their dayly meat, the rice is in stead of bread: there are also good Shads, Soles, and other sortes of fishes. The Garnaten is the best & greatest that ever I saw any, for that with a dozen of them a man may make a good meale. The Crabs and Crevishes are verie good and marvellous great, that it is a wonder to tell, and that which is more wonderful, when the moone is in the full, here with us it is a common saying, that then Crabbes, and crevishes are at the best, but there it is cleane contrarie: for with a full moone they are emptie and out of season, and with a new moone good and full. There are also Muskles and such like shelfishes of many sorts, oysters very many, specially at Cochin; & from thence to the cape de Comoriin. Fish in India is very good cheape, for ye with the valew of a sivers of their money, a man may buy as much fish and rice to it, as will serve five or sixe men for a good meale, after the Spanish manner, which is very good cheape, in respect of their victuals in Spaine and Portingall. There is in the rivers and also in the Sea along the coast of India great store of fishes, which the Portingalls call Tubaron or Hayen. This fish doth great mischiefe, and devoureth many men that fish for pearles, and therefore they dare not swimme in the rivers for feare of these fishes, but doe use to bath themselves in cesternes, made for the same purpose, as I said before. As our ship lay in the River of Cochin, readie to sayle from thence to Portingall, it hapned that as we were to hang on our rutter, which as then was mended, the master of the ship, with 4 or 5. saylers, went with the Boat to put it on, and an other Sayler beeing made fast with a corde about his middle, and tied to the Ship, hung downe with halfe his body into the water to place the same upon the hookes, and while he hung in the water, there came one of those Hayens, and bit one of his legs, to the middle of his thigh, cleane off at a bit, notwithstanding that the Master stroke at him with an oare, and as the pore man was putting downe his arme to feele his wound, the same Fish at the second time for another bit did bite off his hand and arme above the elbow, and also a péece of his buttucke. The Master and all the Saylers in the Boate not being able to help him, although they both stroke and flang at it with staves and oares, and in that miserable case the pore man was carried into the Hospitall, where we left him with small hope of life, and how he sped after that, God knoweth, for the next day we set sayle and put to Sea. These and such like chances happen dayly by those fishes in India, as well in the sea, as in the Rivers, specially among the Fishers for Pearles, whereof many loose their lives. In the River of Goa in Winter time when the mouth of the River was shut up, as commonly at that time it is, the fishermen tooke a fish of a most wonderfull and strange forme, such as I thinke was never seene eyther in India, or in any other place, which for the strangenes therof was presented to my Lord the Archbishop, the picture whereof by his commandement was painted, and for a wonder sent to the King of Spaine. It was in bignes as great as a middle sized Dogge with a snout like a hogge, small eies, no eares, but two holes where his eares should bee, it had foure féet like an Elephant, the tayle beginning somewhat uppon the backe broad, and then flatte, and at the verie end round and somewhat sharpe. It ranne a a long the hall uppon the flore, and in everie place of the house snorting like a hogge. The whole body, head, taile, & legs being covered with sales of a thumb breadth, harder than Iron, or steele: Wee hewed and layd uppon them with weapons, as if men should beate upon an Anuill, and when wee stroke uppon him, hee rouled himselfe in a heape, head and féete altogether, so that hee lay like a round ball, wee not beeing able to judge where hee closed himselfe together, neyther could wee with anie instrument or strength of hands open him againe, but letting him alone and not touching him, hee opened himselfe and ranne away as I said before. [Page 90] There are many other fishes in those seas and rivers. In the River of Bengala called G a , and by Malacca there are Crocodiles, and other sea Serpents of an unspeakeable greatnes, which often times doe overturne smal fisher boates and other sentes, and devoure the men that are therein: and some of them creeping out of the water unto the lande do snatch uppe divers men, which they hale after them, and then kill them and eate them, as it dayly happeneth in those Countries. There are by Malacca certaine fish shelles found on the shore, much like Scalop shelles, so great and so heavie that two strong men have enough to doe with a Leaver to draw one of them after them. Within them there is a fish which they of Malacca do eate. There were some of those shelles in the ballast of the shippe that came from Malacca, & kept company with us from the Island of S. H len , to the Islande of Tercera, where the shippe was cast away, and some of the shelles taken out of her, which the Jesuites of Malacca had sent unto Lisbone, to set in the wals of their church and Cloyster, which they there had caused to bee made, and most sumptuously built. The like happened to a shippe called S. Peter, that sayled from Co towardes Portingall, that fell upon a sande, which at this day is called after the same ships name S. Peters sande lying from Goa South Southeast under 6. degrees upon the South side, where it was cast away, but all the men saved themselves, and of the woode of the shippe that was cast away, they made a small Barke or Carvell, wherewith they all arrived in India: & while they were busied about building of their ship, they found such great Crabbes upon that sand, and in so great numbers, that they were constrained to make a sconce, and by good watch to defend themselves from the, for that they were of an unreasonable greatnes, so that whomsoever they got under their claws, it cost him his life: this is most true and not long since done, for that in the same shippe wherein I came out of India into Portingal, there were two of the Saylors that had beene in the same shippe called S. Peter, and affirmed it for a truth, as it is likewise paynted in divers places in Goa, for a perpetual memory, which I thought good to set downe, to shewe the strangenesse of those fishes: and it is to be thought that there are many other fishes and sea monsters, as yet to us not known, which are dayly found by such as continually use to sea, and doo often meete with them. And this shall be sufficient for the fishes & sea monsters of India.

68. The 49. Chapter Of all fruits, trees, plants, and common hearbs in India, and first of a certain fruit called Ananas.

ANanas by the Canarijns called Ananasa, by the Brasilians Nana, and by others in Hispaniola Iaiama: by the Spaniards in Brasilia Pinas, because of a certain resemblance which the fruite hath with the Pineapple. It commeth out of the Province of Sancta Croce, first brought into Brasilia, the~ to the Spanish Indies, and afterwardes into the East Indies, where nowe they grow in great abundance, of the bignes of Citrones, or of a common Melon. They are of a faire colour, of a yellow greene, which greennes when it is ripe vadeth away. It is sweet in taste, & pleasant in smell, like to an Abricot, so that by the very smell of them a man may know the houses wherein these fruites are kept. A far off they shew likeArtich [...]kes, but they have no such sharpe prickes on their leaves: the plants or stalkes whereon they grow are as bigge as a Thistle, and have a roote also like a Thistle, wheron groweth but one Nut in the middle of the stalke, and rounde about it certaine small stalkes whereon some fruite likewise doeth often times grow. I have had some of the Slips here [Page 91] in my garden, that were brought mee out of Brasilia, but our colde countrey could not brooke them. This fruite is hot and moist, and is eaten out of wine like a Peach, light of disgesture, but superfluous in nourishing: It inflameth and heateth, and consumeth the gums; by reason of the small threedes that run through it. There are many sortes of this fruite among the Brasilians, which according to the difference of their speeches have likewise differet names, whereof three kindes are specially named and written of. The first called Jaiama, which is the longest & the best of taste, and the substance of it yellow. The second Bomama, that is white within, and not very sweet of taste. The thirde Jaiagna, which is whitish within, and tasteth like Renish Wine. These fruites likewise do grow some of themselves as if they were planted, and are called wilde Ananasses, and some growe in gardens, whereof we now make mention. The wilde growe uppon stalkes of the length of a pike or Speare, rounde, and of the bignesse of an Orange, ful of thorns: the leaves likewise have sharpe pricks, and round about full of soft the fruite is little eaten, although they are of an indifferent pleasant taste. The whole plantes with the rootes are ful of juyce, which being taken about seve~ or eight of the clocke in a morning, and drunke with Sugar, is holden for a most certaine remedie against the heate of the liver and the kidneyes, against exulcerated kidneyes, mattery water and excoriation of the yarde. The Arabians commend it to be good against Saynt Anthonies fire, and call it Queura. He that is desirous to reade more hereof, let him reade Costa in the proper Chapter ofAnanas, and Oviedius in the eight booke, and eighteenth Chapter: and Thevetius in his observations of America, in the six and fortieth Chapter. Ananas preserved in Sugar are like Cocumbers, whereof I have had many.

Ananas is one of the best fruites, and of best taste in allIndia, but it is not a proper fruit of India it selfe, but a fruite, for it was first brought by the ortingalles out of Brasill , so that at the it is sold for a noveltie, at a , and sometimes more, but now there are so many growen in the Countrey, that they are very good cheape. The time when they are rype is in Lent, for then they are best and sweetest of taste. They are as bigge as a Melon, and in forme like the heade of a Distaffe, without like a Pine apple, but softe in cutting: of colour redde and greenish: They growe about halfe a fadome high from the grounde not much more or lesse. the leaves are like the Hearbe that is brought out of Spayne,called Aloe, or Semper viva, because it is alwayes greene, and therefore it is hanged on the beames of houses, but somewhat smaller, and at the endes somewhat sharpe, as if they were cut out. When they eate them, they pull off the shell, and cutte them into shees or peeces, as men desire to have them drest. Some have small kernelles within them, like the kernelles of Apples or Peares. They are of colour within like a Peach, that is ripe, and almost of the same taste, but in sweetenesse they surpasse all fruites. The juyce thereof is like swéete Muste, or newe Renish Wyne: a man can never satisfie himselfe therewith. It is very hotte of nature, for if you let a knife sticke in it but halfe an houre long, when you draw it forth again, it will bee halfe eaten uppe, yet it doeth no particular hurte, unlesse a man shoulde eate so much thereof, that hee surfet upon them, as many such greedie and unreasonable men there are, which eate all thinges without any measure or discretion. The sicke are forbidden to use them. The common way to dresse the common Ananasses, is to cut them in broad round cakes or slyces, and so being stooped in wine, it is a very pleasant meat.

69. The 50. Chapter. O Jaqua or Jaacca.

THis fruite groweth in Calecut, and in some other places of India, neere to the Sea, and upon ryvers or waters sides. It is a certaine fruite that in Malabar is calledJaca, inCanara and Gusurate, Panar and Panasa, by the Arabians, Panax, by the Persians, Fanax. This fruite groweth upon great trees, not out of the branches like other fruites, but out of the body of the tree, above the earth, and under the leaves. The leaves are as bigge as a mans hand, greenish, with a thick hard veine that goeth cleane thorough the length of them. The smallest of this fruite, specially that which groweth in Malabar, and is the best of all, is greater then our greatest Pumpians, (I meane of Portingall.) They are without covered with a hard shell, of colour greene, otherwise it is much like the Pine apple, save onely that the shell or huske seemeth to be set ful of pointed Diamants, which have certaine greene and short hookes at the endes, but at the verie points are blackish, and yet are neither sharpe not pricking although they seeme so to be. These fruites are like Melons, and sometimes greater, outwardly greene, and inwardly Yelow, with many soft prickles, apparrelled (as it were) like a Hedgehog. Those that grow in Goa are not so good, nor of so good a taste as those in Malabar. This fruit being ripe, which is commonly in December, smelleth very sweete, and is of two sorts, wherof the best is called Barca, the other Papa, which is not so good, and yet in handling it is soft like the other. The best cost about 40. Marvedies, which is somewhat more then a Ryall of plate, and being ripe they are of a blackish colour, and with a hard huske, the outward part thereof which compasseth the Nut, is of many tastes, some times it tasteth like a Melon, somtimes like a Peach, and somewhat pleasanter, (but in taste it is most like unto the Peach) somtimes like a Hony Combe, sometimes like a Citron, but they are hard to digest, & doe commonly come up againe out of the stomacke undigested, even as they were eaten. This fruit being cut up and opened longwise in the middle, is white within, and full of meate, with many partitions ful of long Nuts, thicker and greater then Dates, with a graye sl [...] n, the Nut white, like our Chesnuts. Being greene they eate earthy, and sharpe of taste, and ingender much Wine, but being rosted or soden they are like our Chesnuts & are verie pleasant they increase lust, for the which cause they are most used to bee eaten: They stop the Flux of the belly, the skin about them is heavie for the maw, and corrupting therein, doth breed many evil and pestilent humors, wherof such as eate much of this fruit, doe easily get the Plague, which the Indians call Morxi. He that desireth to see more hereof, let him ReadeLodouicus Romanus, in his fifth Booke and fifteene Chapter of his Navigations, and Christopherus a Costa in his Cap. of Jaca, & Gracia ab Horto, in the second booke and fourth Chapter.

Jaaca grow on great trées like Nut trees, & onely on the sea shores, that is to say, in such countries as border on the seas, cleane contrarie unto al other fruites, for they grow above the earth, upon the trunkes or bodies of the trees, & upon the great thick branches, but where the branches spread abroad, being small and full of leaves, there groweth none: they are as big as a great Melon, and much like it of fashion, although some of them are as great as a man can well lift up, and outwardlie are like the Ananas, but smoother, and of a darke gréene colour, the fruit within is in huskes, like Chesnuttes, but of an other forme, and everie huske hath a Nutte, which is half white, the rest yealowish, and sticketh to a mans handes like honnie, when it is in the beehyves among the waxe, and for toughnesse & in taste for sweetnes not much unlike. The fruite is on the out side like a Chesnutte, and in forme or fashion like an Acorne, when the gréene knob that groweth under it is taken away, and of that bignesse and some what bigger: this fruite that is outmost [Page 93] being eaten, the rest is good to be rosted or sodden, and are not much unlike in taste to the Chesnuts of Europa. There are of these huskes in every Jaacca a hundreth and more, according to the greatnes thereof. There are two sorts of them, the best are called Girasal, and the common and least estéemed,Chambasal, although in fashion and trées there is no difference, save that the Girasals have a swéeter taste. By this name Girasal & Chabasal, the Indians doe make difference of their Ryce, and other things: they call the best Girasal and the worst Chambasal, after the which names they have their prices: the Jaaccas continue all the yeare.

70. The 51. Chapter. Of Mangas.

MAngas growe uppon great trees like Jaca trees, they have many branches, and are of quantitie as bigge as a great Goose Egge, and in some places of India doe weigh two pounds, and more the peece. And many times there are of severall colours upon one tree, some being a light green, others Yelow, & some a reddish green, and for smel and taste pleasant, and not being perished, are of better tast then any Peach. As touching their name, they are commonly called Mangas, in Canarijn Ambo, of the Turkes and Persians,Amba. They beare fruit upon the trees, from Aprill to November, according to the situation of the place, they growe in many places, but the best in Ormus, where before all other fruites they are desired, next unto them are those that grow in Gusarate, which for their goodnes are called Gusarates, they are smaller then the other, but of better taste & savor, within they have a small Nut, or kernell. A thirde sort there is that groweth inBalagatte, and those are the greatest, for there are of them that waigh two pound & a quarter, of a verie pleasant taste. Even so are those that grow in Charanna, Quindor, Madanagor, and Dultabado, being the chiefe townes in the kingdome of Nisamoxa, and like unto them are the Mangas of Bengala, Pegu, and Malacca. The shel of them being taken off, is eate in slices with wine and also without Wine, as wee eate Peaches, they are also preserved; the better to keepe them, either in Suger, Vineger, Oyle, or Salt, like Olives in Spaine, and being a little opened with a Knife, they are stuffed with greene Ginger, headed Garlike, Mustard or such like, they are sometimes eaten only with Salt, and somtimes sodden with Rice, as we doe Olives, and being thus conserved and sodden, are brought to sell in the market. This fruite is colde and moyst, although commonly they esteeme it to bee hotte, & say, it ingendereth a paine and griping in the maw, of such as eate it, and more over the Heathen Physitians say, it is hotte, and rejecte, or refuse it, because it ingendereth Saint Anthonies fire, Carbuncles, hotte burning Feavers, and swellings, with scabbes and scurvines: which I thinke happeneth to men that eate this fruite, and being eaten, lyeth corrupted in their Mawes, or rather by reason of the great heate and season of the yeare. At the time when this fruite is ripe, many doe fall into the forenamed diseases, although they eate none of this fruite. Before this fruite is fully ripe, it is somewhat hard of taste, specially the inner part next to the Nut, but being ripe, verie sweete and savorie. The Nut that is within it, hath a hard huske or shell, with hard threeds about it, wherein groweth a long Nut, as big as an Acorne, white within, and outwardly covered with a thin white skin. Being raw it is bitter of tast, therefore it is good against wormes, and loosenes of the belly: against wormes when it is eaten raw, and against loosenesse of the belly when it is rosted, and then it tasteth like a rosted Acorne. There is an other kinde of this fruite without stones which is very pleasant. There is also a third sorte, which is wilde, called Mangas Bravas, and is verie poyson, wher-with they poyson each other, for whosoever eateth but a small quantitie thereof, dyeth presently. They doe [Page 94] sometime mingle Oyle with it, to make it stronger, and being taken in that sort, howsoever it be, it killeth very quickly, and as yet there was never any remedie found against it. This fruite is light greene, and somewhat bright, full of white milky Juice, and but a litle meate. The Nut is covered with a hard shel as bigge as a Quince.

Mangas groweth upon trées like Jaaca trées: they are as big as a great Peach, but somewhat long, and a little crooked, of colour cleere, gréen, somewhat yealowish, and some times reddish: it hath within it a stone bigger then a Peach stone, but it is not good to be eaten: the Mangas is inwardly yealowish, but in cutting it is waterish, yet some not so much: they have a verie pleasant taste, better then a Peach, and like the Annanas, which is ye best & ye most profitable fruit in al India, for it yeeldeth a great quatity for food & sustenance of the countrie people, as Olives do in Spaine and Portingale: they are gathered when they are gréene, and conserved, and for the most part salted in pots, and commonlie used to be eaten with Rice, sodden in pure water, the huske being whole, and so eaten with salt Mangas, which is the continuall food for their slaves and comon people, or else salt dryed fish in stéed ofMangas, without bread, for Rice is in divers places in stéed of bread. These salted Mangas are in cutting like the white Spanish Olives, and almost of the same taste, but somewhat savorie and not so bitter, yet a little sowre, and are in so great abundance, that it is wonderful: there are others that are salted and stuffed with small péeces of gréene Ginger, and Garlike sodden: those they call Mangas Recheadas or Machar:they are likewise much used, but not so common as the other, for they are costlie and more esteemed: these are kept in pots with Oyle and Vineger salted. The season when Mangas are ripe is in Lent, and continueth till the Moneth of August.

71. The 52. Chapter. Of Cajons.

THis fruite groweth on great trees, not much unlike Apple trees (but the yong trees have leaves, like Lawrell or Bayleaves) they are of a pale greene and thicke, with white blossoms like Oringe trees, but thicker of leaves, yet not so sweete of smell. The fruit is in greatnesse and forme like a Goose Egge, or a great Apple, verie yellow & of good savor, moyst or spungie within, and ful of Juice, like Lemmons, but without kernels: sweete of taste, but yet harsh in a mans throate, they seeme not to have beene common in EastIndia, but brought thether fromBrasillia, where those Nuts are much eaten, although Thevet in his description of America (61. Chapter) writeth otherwise. At the end of this fruit groweth a Nut, of forme like the Kydney of a Hare, whereof I had many brought me by a Pylot of Portingall of an Ash colour, or when they are ripe of a reddish Ash colour. These Nuts have two partitions, betweene which two partitions, there is a certain spongious fattie matter like Oyle, hotte and sharpe, but in the innermost part thereof is a white kernell very pleasant to eate, like Pistaccios, with a gray skin over it, which is pulled off. These Nuts being a little rosted are eaten in that sort, & used to provoke lust. The fruit and also the Nuts are used in bankets, being eaten with wine & without wine, because of their good taste. They are good for the weaknesse of the Maw, and against perbreaking, and loathing of meate, but such as will not use them to that ende, doe eate them only dipped or steeped in a little water, the sharpe Oyle betweene both the partitions is verie good for Saint Anthonies fire, and flashing in mens faces. The Brasilians use it against scurffes, this tree was at the first planted of the very Nut but the first and greatest fruite, had neither seede nor kernell, some thinke it to bee a kind of Anacardy, because it is very like it, for the sharpe juyce that is betweene the partitions. Reade more hereafter in Carolus Clusius his observations uppon Graciam. (first Booke and third Chapter.)

Cajus groweth on trées like apple trées, and are of the bignes of a Peare, at one end by the stalk somewhat sharp, and at the head thicker, of a yelowish colour, being ripe they [Page 95] are soft in hadling: they grow very like aples, for wher the apples have a stalke, theseCajus have a Chesnut, as big as the fore joynt of a mans thumb: they have an other colour and fashion then the Chesnuts of Jaqua, and are better & more savorie to eate, but they must be rosted: within they are white like ye Chesnuts of Europa, but have thicker shelles, which are of colour blewish and dark gréene. When they are raw and unrosted, you must not open them with your mouth, for as soone as you put them to your mouth, they make both your tongue and your lippes to smart, whereby such as know it not are deceived: wherefore you must open their shelles with a knife, or rost them, and then they wil péele. This fruite at the end wher the stalke groweth, in the eating doth worke in a mans throate, and maketh it swel, yet it is of a fyne taste, for it is moyst and full of juice, they are commonlie cut in round slices, and layd in a dish with water or wyne, and salt throwne upon them, for so they do not worke so stroglie, but are verie good and savorie to eate: the time when they are ripe is in Lent, and in Winter time, likeMangas, but not so good as Mangas or Ananas, and of lesse account. They are likewise in great numbers over all India.

72. The 53. Chapter. Of Jambos.

IN India ther is an other fruit that for the beautie, pleasant taste, smell, and medicinable vertue thereof, is worthie to bee written of, and is of great account in India, being first brought out of Malacca into India. The tree whereon this fruite groweth, is as great as the greatest Orange tree in all Spaine, with manye branches which spread verie broade, and make much shadow, and is faire to behold. The bodie and great branches thereof have an ash colour-gray barke, the leaves are faire & soft, longer then the breadth of a hand, they are somewhat like the point of a Speare or Pike, with a thicke threed or veine in the midle, and many small veines or branches in the sides: outwardly verie greene; and inwardly somewhat bleaker, with blossomes of a lively darke Purple colour, with many streekes in the middle, verie pleasant to beholde, and of taste like the twynings or tendrels of a Vine. The fruite is as bigge as a Peare, or (as some are of opinion) of the bignesse and colour of a great Spanish Wal-nut, they tooke their name of a King. Ther are two sorts of this fruit, one a browne red, seeming as though it were blacke, most part without stones, and more savory then the other which is a palered, or a pale Purple colour, with a lively smell of Roses, and within it hath a little white hard stone not verie rounde, much like a Peach stone, white, and covered with a rough skin. This is not ful so great as the other, yet are they both fit for such as have daintie and licorous mouthes. They smel like sweete Roses they are colde and moyst, and altogether soft, covered with a thinne Rinde, which cannot be taken off with a knife [...]

[Page 96]

73. The 54. Chapter. Of other fruites in India.

THere is a fruite called Iangomas, which groweth on trées like Cherrie trées: they are in bignes like smal roud plumes of a darke red colour, they have no stones in them, but some small kernels: they are of taste much like plumes, whereof there are very many, but not much esteemed of.

The fruitJangomas groweth on a tree not unlike in greatnesse and fashion to our Plum trees, as also in leaves and white blossoms, save onely that these trees are ful of Prickles or thornes, they grow of them selves in everie place, & also in gardens at Bachaim, Chaul and Balequala, the fruits are like Sorben smal and round, they are harsh in the throat like Slowes or unripe Plums, and have no stone within them, but some small kernels, when they come first out, they are like Pistaccios. The fruit being ripe, must first bee brused and crushed with mens fingers, before it can bee eaten, yet it looseth thereby none of his vertue of binding, and therefore they are thought good to stop the Flux withall, although they are but little esteemed by the Indians. They say, that this fruite is eaten by certaine foules, and being voyded out againe & set in the ground together with the same Birdes dung, it wil grow the sooner and be the fruitfuller.

There is an other fruite called Carambolas, which hath 8 corners, as bigge as a smal aple, sower in eating, like unripe plums, and most used to make Conserves.

The fruite which the Malabares and Portingales call Carambolas, is in Decan called Camarix, in Canar, Camarix and Carabeli: in Malaio,Bolumba, and the Persians Chamaroch [...] There are yet other fruites, as Brindoijns, Durijndois, Iamboloe , Mangestains, and other such like fruites

[Page 97]

74. Of the fruit called Iambolijns.

The trees that beare this fruit, have a barke like Lentiscus or the Mastick tree to the shew much like a Mirtle, but in leaves, like the Arbutus of Italy. It groweth of it self in the wilde fields, the fruit is like great ripe Olives of Cordova, and harsh in a mans throate. This fruite is little used by Physitions, but is much kept in pickle, and eaten with sodden Ryce, for they procure an appetite to meate, but this fruit (as also Iaka) is by the Indians not accounted among wholesome fruits. There is also a fruite that came out of the Spanish Indies, brought from beyond ye Philippinas or Lusons to Malacca, & fro~ thence to India, it is called Papaios, and is very like a Mellon, as bigge as a mans fist, and will not grow, but alwaies two together, that is male and female: the male trée never yéeldeth any fruite, but onely the female, and when they are devided, & set apart one from the other, then they yéeld no fruite at all.

[Page 98]

75. The 55. Chapter. Of the Indian Figges.

INdian Figges there are manie & of divers sorts, one better the the other, some small, some great, some thicke, some thin, &c. but in generall they are all of one forme and colour, little more or lesse, but the trées are all one, and of the height of a ma: the leaves are of a fadome long, and about 3 spannes broad, which the Turkes use in stéed of browne paper, to put pepper in. In the trée there is no wood, but it may rather be called a réed then a trée. The bodie of the trée (I meane that which covereth the outwardpart when it beginneth somewhat to grow) is in a manner verie like the inner part of a syve made of hayre, but in shew somewhat thicker, and is (as it were) the barke of it: but when you open it, it is ful of leaves, closed and rouled up together, of the hight of half a mans length, and somewhat higher. These leaves do open and spread abroad on the top of the trée, and when those that are within the bodie doe in their time thrust themselves forth upwardes out of the innermost part of the trée, then doe the outmost leaves begin to drie, and fall off, untill the trée be come to his full growth, and the fruite to their perfect ripenesse. The bodie of the trée may be a span thicke at the most. The leaves have in ye middle of them a very thick & gray vein which runeth clean through them, and devideth them out of the middest of the leaves, which are in the innermost part of the trée at their springing up, there cometh forth a flower, as big as an Estrige egge, of colour russet, which in time groweth to be long, with a long stalke, and it is no wood, but rather like a Coleworte stalk: This stalke groweth full of figges, close one by the other, which at the first are in fashion like gréene beanes, when they are yet in the huskes, but after growe to half a span in length, and 3 or 4 inches broad, as thicke as Cucumbers, which stalke beareth at the least, some two hundreth figges, little more or lesse, and grow as close together as grapes: the clusters are so great as two men can scarcely beare upon a staffe, they are cut off when they are but half ripe, that is to say, when they are as yet half gréene, and half yealow, and hanged up in their houses upon beames, and so within 4 or 5 dayes they will be fullie ripe and al yealow. The trée or plant yéeldeth but one bunch at a time, which being ripe, they cut the whole trée down to the ground, leaving only the roote, out of the which presently groweth an other, and within a Moneth after beareth fruite, and so continueth all the yeare long, and never leaveth bearing: they are in all places in so great abundance, and so common throughout all India, that it is wonderfull, being the greatest meat and sustenance of the countrie: they are of a marvellous good taste: when they eate them, they pul off the shelles, for that they have shelles somewhat like the coddes of beanes, but thynner and softer, within whitish, and soft in byting, as if it were meale and butter mixed together, and swéetish, so that in bréef, they are very good and pleasant of taste: they may serve both for bread & butter, and a man may verie wel live thereon, without other meate, if néed were, as manie in India doe live therewith, & have but little other things to eate. The most and commonest sort are by the Portingals called Figos dorta, that is, garden figges, those are somewhat thicke, there are others which are smaller, and thyn without, and are called Senoriins, which are of the best sort: they smell well, and are very good of taste. There is an other sort called Cadoliins, which are likewise well esteemed, but the best of all are called Chincapoloyns, and are most in the countrie of Malabar: these are but a little yealow, but they continue commonlie on the outside gréene, and are small and long, with a speciall swéet smell, as if they were full of rose water. There are yet manie other sorts, some that are verie great, about a span long, and in thicknes correspondent: these grow much in Cananor, and in the coast of Malabar, and are by the Portingales called figges ofCananor: and by reason of the great quantitie thereof are dried, their shelles being taken off, and so being drie are caryed over all India to be sold. These when they are ripe are most roasted, for they are but seldome eaten raw, as other figges are, they are some what harsh in swallowing, and inwardly red of colour, and being roasted they are shalled or pille like the others, and so cut in slices, which done, they cast some beaten Sinamon upon them, stéeping them in wine, & the they taste better then roasted Quinces, they are cut up in the middle, as all the other kynde of figges use to be, and then boyled or fryed in Suger, which is a very daintie meat, and very common in India: to conclude, it is one of the best and necessaryest fruites in all India, and one of the principallest sustenances of the common people, they are found in all places of the Indies & Oriental countries, as also in Mosambique, Ormus, on the coast of Abex, Malabar, Malacca, Bengala, &c. The Gusurates, Decanijns, Canarijns [...]


[Page 99]

Indian Figges are by theArabians called Moris and not Musa, not Amusa, and the tree Daracht Moris, by the Brasilians Pacona, and the tree Paquover, by Brocardus in his description of the holy land, Paradise Apples, byOv [...]edus in the Historie of India, in his eight Booke and first ChapterPlatanus, in Guinea Bananas, in Malavar Patan, in Malayen Pican, in Canara, Decan, Gusurate, and Bengala, Quelli, Avicenna, Serapio, and Rhasis have likewise written certaine Chapters heereof. Avicenna in his second Booke and 491. Chapter, writing of the properties and qualities of this fruite, sayeth, that it yeeldeth but small sustenaunce, that it ingendereth Choller and Flegme, and that it spoyleth the stomake, wherefore he counselleth such as are of a hotte constitution, after they have eaten these Figges, to take some Honie and Vinegar, sodden together with cold seeds. They are good against heate in the stomake, Lungs, and Kydnies, and provoke Urine.Rhasis, of the same in his thirde Booke of Physicke, and twentie Chapter, sayth also, that they are hurtfull for the maw, which I also found being in Syrie, when I used them, they make men to have an evill appetite to their meate, & a desire to ease their bodies, and doe qualifie the rawnesse of the throate. Serapio in his Booke of Phisicke in the 84. Chapter sayth, that this fruit is in the ende of the first degree warming, and moystning, and that they are good against the heate of the stomake and Lungs, but for him which eateth many of them, they breede a heavinesse in his Mawe, but by meanes of their haste ripening, they are good for the Kidnies, provoke Urine, and make men apt for leacherie. The Indian Phisitians doe use this fruit in medicines for Feavers and other diseases. The opinion, (as I thinke) why this fruite is called Paradise Apples, is partly for the pleasantnes of taste, smell and colour, for the taste is betweene sweete & sower, the smell somwhat like Roses, and the colour a faire yelow and green: & partly also because this fruit being cut in the middle, have certaine veines like a crosse, whereon the Christians inSiria doe make many speculations and discourses, which many strangers that have travelled in those countries doe verifie. He which desireth to reade more heereof, let him reade the worthie and learned Commentaries of Carolus Clusius upo Garsia ab horto, wher he shall receive good contentment and satisfaction [...]

[Page 100]

77. The 56. Chapter. Of the Palme trees, whereon the Indian Nuts called Cocus doe grow.

[...]This is the most profitable tree of all India, as in order I will declare unto you the profit that ariseth thereby, they grow most in the Islands of Maldiva, and inGoa, and the countries round about them, as also through the whole coast of Malabar, whereby they traffique with them into all places, as to Cambaia, Ormus, &c. The tree wareth very high and straight, of the thickenes of a small spanne little more or lesse, it hath no branches but in the uppermost part thereof, & in the top grow the leaves, which spread like unto Date trées, and under the leaves close to the tree grow the Coquos together, commonly ten or twelve one close by another, but you shall seldome finde one of them growing alone by it self. The blossome of this fruite is very like the blossome of a Chestnut. The wood of the tree is very sappy like a spunge, and is not firme, they doe not grow but on the sea sides, or bankes of rivers close by the strand, and in sandie grounds, for there groweth none within the land. They have no great rootes, so that a man would thinke it were impossible for them to have any fast hold within the earth, and yet they stand so fast and grow so high, that it maketh men scare to see men clime uppon them, least they should fall downe. The Canarijns clime as nimbly and as fast upon them, as if they were Apes, for they make small steppes in the trées like staires, whereon they step, and so clime up which the Portingales dare not beter, their planting is in this manner [...]

[Page 102]

78. The 57. Chapter. Of the Duryoens, a fruit of Malacca.

DUryoen is a fruit yt only groweth in Malacca, and is so much comeded by those which have proved ye same, that there is no fruite in the world to bee compared with it: for they affirme, that in taste and goodnes it excelleth all kind of fruits, and yet when it is first opened, it smelleth like rotten onions, but in the taste the swéetnes and daintinesse thereof is tryed. It is as great as a Mellon, outwardly like the Jaacka, wherof I have spoken, but somewhat sharper or pricking, and much like the huskes of Chesnuttes. It hath within it certaine partitions like theJaacka, wherein the fruit groweth, being of the greatnesse of a little Hennes egge, and therein are the Nuttes as great as Peache stones. The fruite is for colour and taste like an excellent meat, much used in Spaine, called Mangar Blanco, which is made of Hennes flesh, distilled with Sugar: The trees are like the Jaacka trées, the blossoms white, and somewhat yellowish: the leaves about halfe a spanne broad, somewhat sharpe at the end, within light gréene, and without darke gréene.

In Malacca there is a fruit so pleasant both for taste and smell, that it excelleth all other fruites both of India, & Malacca, although there are many both excellent and very good. This fruit is called in Malayo (which is the Province wherein it groweth) Duriaoen, and the blossomes Buaa, and the tree Batan: It is a very great tree, of solide and firme wood, with a gray barke, having many braunches, and excessive great store of fruit: the blossome is white and somewhat yellow: the leaves halfe a handfull long, & two or three fingers broad,[Page 103] rounde and somewhat hollowe: outwardly darke greene, and inwardly light greene, and somewhat after a red colour. It beareth a fruit of the bignes of a Mellon, covered with a harde husk, with many smal and thicke sharpe prickles: outwardly greene, & with strikes downe along the sides like theMellon. They have within them foure holes or partitions according to the length thereof, in each of the which holes are yet three or foure cases: in each case or shell a fruite as white as milke, and as great as a Hennes egge, but better of taste and savour, like the white meat, which the Spaniardes make of Ryce, Capons flesh, and Rose water, called Mangiar Blanco, yet not so soft nor slymie, for the other that are yellow, and not white within, are either spoyled, or rotten, by evill aire or moysture: they are accounted the best which have but three Nuttes in each hole, next them those that have foure, but those of five are not good, & such as have any cracks or cliftes in them. There are likewise (very seldome) more then twenty nuts in one apple, and in every Nutte is a stone like a Peach stone, not rounde, but somewhat long, not over sweet of taste, but making the throat harsh, like unripe Medlers, and for that cause are not eaten.

This fruit is hot and moist, and such as will eat them, must first treade upon them softly with his foote, and breake the prickes that are about them: Such as never eate of it before, when they smell it at the first, thinke it senteth like a rotten Onyon, but having tasted it, they esteeme it above all other fruites, both for taste and savour. This fruite is also in such account with the learned Doctors, that they think a man can never be satisfied therwith, and therefore they give this fruite an honourable name, and write certaine Epigrammes thereof, & yet there is great abundance of the in Malacca: & the apples cost not above four Mervedies the peece, specially in the Monthes of June, July and August, at other times the price is higher. Here you must note a wonderful contrarietie, that is betweene this fruit Duriaoen, and the hearbe Bettele, which in truth is so great, that if there were a whole shippe, shoppe or house full of Duriaoens, wherein there lay certayne leaves of Bettele, all the Duriaoens wold presently rotte and bee spoyled. And likewise by eating over many of those Duriaoens, they heat the Maw, & make it swell, and one leafe of Bettele, to the contrarie, being laide colde uppon the hart, will presently cease the inflamation, rising or swelling of the Maw. And so if after you have eaten Duriaoens, you chance to eat a leafe or two of Bettele, you can receyve no hurt by the Duriaoens, although you have eaten never so many. Hereupon, and because they are of so pleasant a taste, the common saying is, that men can never be satisfied with them.

[Page 103]

79. The 58. Chapter Of the tree Arbore de Rays, that is, root tree, and the Bambus or reede of India.

THere is a trée in India called Arbore de Rays, that is to say, a Trée of rootes: this trée is very wonderfull to beholde, for that whe it groweth first up like all other trées and spreadeth the branches: the ye branches grow ful of roots, & grow downwards again towards the earth, where they take roote againe, and so are fast againe within the ground, and in length of time, the broader the trée is, and that the branches doe spreade themselves, the more roots doe hang upon the branches and séeme a farre off to bée cordes of Hempe, so that in the ende the trée covereth a great peece of ground, and crosseth one roote within the other like a Mase [...]

[Page 105]

80. The 59. Chapter. Of the tree called Arbore Triste.

THe Tree called Arbore Triste, that is, the sorrowfull tree, is so called, because it never beareth blossoms but in the night time, and so it doeth and continueth all the yeare long: it is a thing to be wondred at: for that so soone as the Sunne setteth, there is not one blossome seene uppon the tree, but presently within halfe an houre after, there are as many blossomes uppon it, as the Tree can beare: they are very pleasant to behold, and smell very sweet, and so soone as the day commeth on, and the Sunne is rising, presently all the blossomes fall off, and cover all the ground, so that there remayneth not one to be seene upon the tree: the leaves shut themselves close together, so that it seemeth as though it were dead, untill evening commeth againe, and then it beginneth to blossome as it did before: the tree is as great as a Plum tree, and is commonly planted behinde mens houses, in their gardens for a pleasure, and for the sweet smel [...]l

[Page 106]

81. The 60. Chapter. Of the Bettele leaves, & the fruit Arecca.

THe leaves called Bett e e or Bettre, which is very common in India, and dayly eaten by the Indians, doe grow in all places of India, where the Portingals have discoverd, not with in the countrie, but only on the sea coast, unlesse it bee some small quantitie [...]

82. The 63. Chapter. Of Cinamom.

the trees are as great as Olive trees, and some lesser, with leaves of Colmi like Baye leaves, but of fashion like Citron leaves, though somewhat smaller. They have white blossomes, and a certaine fruite of the greatnes of black Portingall Olives, whereof also Oyle is made, which is used for manie thinges. The tree hath two barkes, but the second bark is the Cinamon, it is cut off in foure square péeces, and so laid to dry at the first it is ashe colour, after as it beginneth to dry, it roulleth together of it self, and looketh of the colour as it commeth hether, which procéedeth of the heate of the Sunne. The trée from whence the barke is taken they let it stand, & within 3 yeres after it hath an other barke, as it had before. These trees are in great abundance, for they grow of themselves without planting, in the open fields like bushes: the roote of this tree yeeldeth a water, which smelleth like Camphora, it is forbidden to be drawn forth, for spoyling the trees. The Cinamon that is not wel dried is of ashe colour, & that which is over much dryed, blackish, but the best dryed is reddish: there is much and excellent water distilled out of Cinamo while it is half gréen, which is much used in India, & manie times caryed intoPortingal, and other places: it is very pleasant both to drinke and to smell, but very hote and strong: it is used against the Colicke and other diseases procéeding of cold, it is likewise good against a stincking breath, and evill savor of the mouth. There is likewise a water made of the blossomes of this tree, but not so good, nor so well esteemed as that of Cinamon it self. The places where Cinamon groweth, is most and best in the Ilad of Seylon, wherin there is whole woods full of Cinamon trees: in the coast of Malabar there groweth likewise great store and some woods of Cinamon, but not half so good and lesser trees, the barke being grayer and thicker, and of smal vertue. The Cinamon of the Iland of Seylon is the best and finest, and is at the least three times dearer in the price. The Cinamon of Malabar is called Canella de Mato or wilde Cinamon, and is forbidden to be carried into Portingale: yet there is great quantity shipped, but all under the name of Cinamon of Seylon, whereby it passeth, and the King hath his full custome as well for the good as for the bad. When the on of Seylon is worth in India 50 or 60 Pardawes the Quintale, the wilde Cinamon is worth but 10 or 12 Pardawes: but it is all registred in India, for Seylons Cinamon, and payeth custome in Lisbon, each Quintale 15 or 16 Milreyes, as well the good as the bad, and all other spices after the rate: and there may be nothing shipped in India, no not so much as the slaves, but it must all be registred in Cochin: and if there be any thing found, to be brought into Porti [...]l and not registred there it is forfait to the King. There groweth Cinamon also in the Ilands of Java, and by Malacca, but very little, and not so good as that ofSeylon. The trees which they burne in India, for wood, some of them are like Cinamon in burning, and smell.

83. The 64. Chapter. Of Ginger.

GInger groweth in manie places of India, yet the best, & most caryed abroad, is that which groweth in the coast of Malabar: it groweth like thin and young Netherland reedes of two or thrée spannes high, the roote whereof is the Ginger, being greene, it is much eaten inIndia, for sallets, as also sodden in Vineger, which they call Achar, as I said of pepper, and other fruites that are used in that maner throughout al India: the time whe they are most gathered and begun to be dried, is in December and Januarie: they drie it in this sort, that is, they cover it with pot-earth, which they doe to stop and fill up the holes, and thereby to make it continue the fresher, for the potearth preserveth it from wormes, without the which it is presentlie consumed by them it is little estéemed in India notwithstanding there is much shipped as well to the red sea as toOrmus, Arabia and Asia, but little for Portingal because it will not save ye fraught and custome: onlie the gunner of the Indian shippes may lade and bring certaine Quintals without paying any custome, which by the King of Portingale was of long tyme granted unto them, and is yet observed: and this they may fel to marchants and so by this meanes there is some brought, otherwise but very little, for that the most part of Ginger brought into Spain, cometh from Cabo verde, the Ilands of S. Thomas, Brasili , and the[Page 113] Ilad of S. Domingo in ye spanish Indies, which is much trafficked withall in Spaine: wherefore that of the Portingall Indies is little brought out of the coutry, because of the log way & great charges & yet it is better the other Ginger: as also all other spices, mettals, and stones, that are brought out of the Orientall Indies, that is out of the Portingales Indies, are for goodnesse and vertue better then any other, which the continuall traffique hath sufficiently made knowne. There is likewise much Ginger conserved in Suger which commeth out of the countrie of Bengala, but the best commeth from China, it is verie good to eate, and much used in India, & broght out of Portingal into these countries.

Ginger by the Arabians, Persians, and Turkes is called Gengibil, in Gusurate, Decan, and Bengala, when it is freshe and greene, Adrac, and when it is dryedSucte, inMalabar both dryed & greenImgi, in Malayo Aliaa. It groweth like water Lillies, or Sword-hearbe, but somewhat blacker, with a stalke aboute two or three handfuls high, and with a roote like a Lillie, not spreading forth as Antonius Musa writeth, and is not so sharpe, specially that which groweth in Bacaim, because of the over great moysture.

84. The 65. Chapter Of Cloves.

CLoves are by the Turkes, Persians Arabians and most part of the Indians called Ca a [...] r, and in the Ilands of Maluco, where they are only found and do growChamke. These Ilands are fine, lying under the Equinoctiall line, as in the descriptions therof is declared. They have nothing else but Cloves, which are caried fro thence, through out the world, the trees whereon they grow, are like Bay-trées, the blossomes at the first white, then greene, and at the last red and hard, which are the Cloves, and when the blossomes are gréene, they have the pleasantest smell in all the world. The Cloves grow verie thicke together and in great numbers, they are gathered and then dried, their right colour, when they are drie, is a darke yelow, and to give them a blacke colour, they are commonly smoked. The Cloves that stay on the trée ungathered are thicke, and stay on till the next yeare, which are those that are called the mother of the Cloves. And in the place where the trées stand, there groweth not any grasse or gréene Hearbe at all, but it is wholly drie, for that those trees draw all the moysture unto them. That which the Portingals call Baston or with us the stocke of the Clove, and is the stalke whereby they hang on the trees is gathered with the Cloves and so they are mingled together: for that inMaluco they never garble their Cloves, but in India they are many times parted, though verie little: for they are most part sold and used with dust, and stalkes and all together, but such as are to bee sent to Portingall are severed and clensed The Cloves are so hotte of nature, that whensoever them are made cleane, and seperated from their Garbish, if there chance to stand either Tubbe or Payle of water in the Chamber where they clense them, or any other vessell with wine or any kind of moysture, it will within two dayes at the furthest be wholly soken out and dryed up, although it stand not néere them, by reason of the great heate of the Cloves, that draw all moysture unto them, as by experience I have often séene. The same nature is in the unspunne Silke of China, so that whensoever the Silke lyeth any where in a house upon the flowre, that is to say, uppon boordes, a foote or two above the ground, and that the flowre is sprinkled and covered with water,[Page 114] although it toucheth not the Silke, in the Morning all that water will bee in the Silke, for that it draweth it all unto it. And this tricke the Indians often times use to make their Silke weigh heavie, when they sel it for it can neither be séen nor found in the Silke. But returning to our matter, the Cloves grow about the length of a great shot from the Sea side, and are neither planted nor set, and nothing else is done unto them, but only when they plucke and gather them, they make the place under the trées verie cleane. The trée will not grow verie close to the Sea side, nor farre from it, for these Ilands are altogether compassed about with the Sea. When it is a fruitfull yeare, then the Cloves are in greater abundance then the leaves. When they gather them, they do not pluck them with their hands, but with ropes which they fasten about the branches, and by force they shake them off, and by that meanes the trées are so spoyled, that the next yeare after they yeelde but little fruite: but the second yeare then after ensuing, there grow up trées of the Cloves that fell upon the ground, when they gathered them two yeares before, like Chesnut trées, and they growe verie sound, because of the great rayne that falleth in those places: for those Ilandes lye under the Equinoctiall line, and yéelde fruite within eight yeares, and so continue above a hundreth yeares. The time when they are gathered and dried, is from September to Januarie. When the Cloves are gréene, they make good conserves in Sugar, and are likewise salted in Vineger & so kept in pots, and made of Achar, in which manner they are carried into Malacca and India.They likewise distill water out of the gréen Cloves which is verie cordiall and used in many Medecines. TheIndian women use much to chawe Cloves, thereby to have a swéete breath, which the Portingales wives that dwell there, doe now begin to use, the leaves of the Clove-trees, are altogether like Bayleaves.

[Page 115]

85. The 67. Chapter. Of Cardamomum

CArdamomum is a kinde of spice which they use much in India to dresse with their meates, and commonly they have it in their mouthes to chaw upon. It is very good against a stincking breath and evill humors in the head, and serveth also for other things in medecines: it groweth like other graynes and is verie like to Panyke, but of a white colour drawing somewhat towards yealow. The huskes are as great as the huskes of Panyke graines, but somewhat smal: within there is about 10 or 12 graines of berryes, which is the Cardamomum. There are two sorts of Cardamomum, that is to say, great and small, and called by theMalabares, Etremilly: the Gusurates, Decaniins & Bengalers cal it Hil, and the Mores inhabiting among them, call it Hilachij. This is much used in India, and is a marchandise which is caryed into all places of India: most of it groweth in Calecut and Cananor, places on the coast ofMalabar: it is likewise in other places of Malabar, and in the Iland of Java, and from the countries aforesaid it is most caryed into other places, but little brought into Portingal, because of the great charges, and long way: yet many times the Saylers and other travellers bring it. They sieth no flesh in India,but commonly they put Cardomomum into the pot, it maketh the mea to have as good a savor and a taste as any of the other spices of India.

[Page 124]

86. The 78. Chapter. Of Amsion alias Opium.

[...]It commeth out of Cairo in Egypt, and out of Aden, upon the coast of Arabia, which is the point of the land, entring into the red Sea, sometimes belonging to the Portingales, but most part out of Cambaia, & from Decan, that of Ca [...]o is whitish, and is called Mece , that of Aden and the places bordering upon the mouth of the red sea, is blackish & hard. That which commeth from Cambaia andDecan is softer and reddish. Amsion is made of sleepe balles or Poppie, and is the gumme which commeth forth of the same, to ye which end it is cut up and opened. The Indians use much to eat Amsion, specially theMalabares, and thether it is brought by those ofCambaia and other places, in great aboundance. Hee that useth to eate it, must eate it daylie, otherwise he dieth and consumeth himselfe, when they begin to eate it, and are used unto it, they heate at the least twenty or thirty graines in waight everie day, sometimes more: but if for foure or five dayes hee chanceth to leave it, he dieth without faile: likewise he that hath never eaten it, and will venture at the first to eate as much as those that dayly use it, it will surely kill him: for I certainely beleeve it is a kinde of poyson. Such as use it goe alwaies as if they were halfe a sleepe, they eate much of it because they would not feele any great labour or unquietnes when they are at worke, but they use it most for lecherie: for it maketh a man to hold his féede long before he sheddeth it, which the Indian women much desire, that they may shed their nature likewise with the man: although such as eate much thereof, are in time altogether unable to company with a woman, & whollie dried up, for it drieth and wholly cooleth mans nature that useth it, as the Indians themselves doe witnes: wherefore it is not much used by the Nobilitie, but onely for the cause aforesaid.

[Page 128]

87. The 83. Chapter. Of other Spices and Hearbes in India

[...]Aloe, by the Arabians called Sebar, by theDecaners Area, by the Canarijns Cate Comer, and by the Portingales Azeure, is made of the Juyce of an Hearbe, when it is dried, the Herbe is called by the Portingales Herba Baboza, that is Quil hearbe. There is much of it in Cambaia, Bengala, and other places, but in the Iland calledSacotora (which [Page 129]lyeth on the mouth of the redde Sea, or the strength ofMecca) there is great quantitie, and the best. It is a marchandise that is carried into Turkie, Persia, Arabia, and also into Europe, whereby the Iland is much esteemed, and the Aloes called after the name of the Iland, Aloes Socotrino, or Aloes of Sacotora.

Aloes purgeth the stomacke from choler, and tough fleagme, specially a watrie and weake stomake: it taketh away all stopping, and consumeth rawe moystures, preserving it from foulenesse: besides this, it strengthneth the stomake, it is made stronger & of more force by adding to it Cinamon, Mace, or Nutmegges. Aloes is good specially against Kooren and rawnesse, and for such persons as have their stomakes ful of raw moysture, it is also used outwardly against sores that breake forth of the body, and for the eyes [...]

[Page 130]

Cubebus is a fruit like Pepper, about the same bignesse, the best are such as are close, full, heavie and sharpe, although they be lesse then Pepper, but [...] s mewhat bitter and smell well, being i [...] a manner sweete. They warme and comfort the stomacke, which is weake by rea [...] n of superfluous or windie matter, they cleanse the breast from tough fleagme, they strengthen the Milt, breake winde, and helpe colde diseases of the mother, beeing chawed, with Masticke, they cleanse the from leagm, & strengthe them.

Galanga is a roote with many nots, being red both inwardly & outwardly the knottes running about it, smelling well, and sharpe of taste, for savor and fashion like the Cyperus roote, wherefore by some men it is esteemed for Cyperus of Babylon.

[Page 163]

88. The 93. Chapter. Of my voyage and departure from India to Portingale

The 12 of May, in the morning betimes we discovered the Ilad of S. Helena, whereat there was so great joy in the ship, as if we had bene in heaven: & as then we were about 2 miles from ye land, the Iland lying from us West, south west: whereunto we sayled so close, that with a caliver shot we might reach unto the shore: being hard by it, we sayled about a corner of the land, that from us lay Northwest, which having compassed wee sayled close by the land. West, North west: the land on that side beeing so high and still, that it séemed to be a wall that reached unto the skyes. And in that sort we sayled about a mile and a half, and compassed about ye other corner that lay westward from us, which corner béeing compassed, we presentlie perceived the shippes that lay in the road, which were those ships that set sayle before us out of India, lying about a small half mile from the foresaid corner, close under the land, so that the land as then lieth South east from them: and by reason of the high land the shippes lie there as safe, as if they were in a haven: for they may well heare the wind whistle on the top of their maine yards, but lower it can not come: and they lie so close under the land, that they may almost cast a stone upon the shore. There is good ground there, at 25 and 30 fadomes deep, but if they chance to put further out, or to passe beyond it, they must goe forward, for they can get no more unto ye land: and for this cause we kept so close to the shore, that the height of the lad took the wind fro us, & the ship wold not steer without wind, so that it drave upon the land, wherby our horesprit touched ye shore, & therwith we thought that shippe & goods had all beene cast away: but by reason of the great depth, being 1[...]. fadomes water, and with the help of the Boats, and men off the other ships that came unto us, we put off from the land, without any hurt, and by those Boates wee were brought to a place wher the other ships lay at Anker, which is right against a valley, that lyeth betwéene two high hilles, wherein there standeth a little Church called Saint Helena. There we found five shippes, which were, the ship that came from Malacca, and the S. Mary that had béene there about 15. daies, which came both together to the Cape de Bona Speranza, the S. Anthonie, and the S. Christopher being Admiral, that had arrived there [...]0. daies before, and the Conception, which came thether but the day before us, so that ther wanted none of the Fléet but the S. Thomas, and by the signes and tokens, that we and the other ships had séene at Sea, we presumed it to be lost, as after we understoode (for it was never seene after) for the other shippes had seene Mastes, Deales, Fattes, Chestes, & many dead men that had bound themselves upon boards, with a thousand other such like signs. Our Admiral likewise had béene in great danger of casting away: for although it was a new ship, & this the first Viage it had made, yet it was so eaten with Wormes, that it had at the least 20 handfuls déepe of water within it, and at the Cape was forced to throw halfe the goods over bord, into the Sea, and were constrained continually to Pumpe with two Pumpes, both night and day, and never holde still: and being before the Iland of S. Helena, had ther also sunke to the ground, if the other ships had no[...] holpen her. The rest of the shippes coulde likewise tell what dangers and miseries they had indured.

This is a selection from the original text


fish, food, fruit, health, herbs, plague, religion, sickness, spices, trade, travel, vice, worms

Source text

Title: John Huighen van Linschoten. His Discours of Voyages into ye Easte & West Indies

Author: John Huighen van Linschoten

Publisher: John Wolfe

Publication date: 1598

Edition: 1st Edition

Place of publication: London

Provenance/location: This text was transcribed from images available at Early English Books Online at Copy from Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery Bib name / number: STC (2nd ed.) / 15691

Digital edition

Original author(s): Jan Huygen van Linschoten

Language: English


Texts collected by: Ayesha Mukherjee, Amlan Das Gupta, Azarmi Dukht Safavi

Texts transcribed by: Muhammad Irshad Alam, Bonisha Bhattacharya, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Muhammad Ehteshamuddin, Kahkashan Khalil, Sarbajit Mitra

Texts encoded by: Bonisha Bhattacharya, Shreya Bose, Lucy Corley, Kinshuk Das, Bedbyas Datta, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Sarbajit Mitra, Josh Monk, Reesoom Pal

Encoding checking by: Hannah Petrie, Gary Stringer, Charlotte Tupman

Genre: India > non-fiction prose > travel narratives and reports

For more information about the project, contact Dr Ayesha Mukherjee at the University of Exeter.