A Voyage to East-India
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Written by Edward Terry and Printed by T.W. for J. Martin, and J. Allestrye, at the Bell in St. Pauls Chutch-Yard [sic], 1655; A voyage to East-India is a rich account of the great Mughal and his empire. Terry's Voyage- an expanded version from a manuscript first published in Purchas his Pilgrimes (1625), was a popular work which was translated into other languages and was included into the Travels of Pietro della Valle. Edward Terry (1590–1660), Chaplain to the Right Hon. Sir Thomas Roe [sic], Knt. Lord Ambassador to the Great Mogul, and afterwards Rector of the Church at Greenford, in Middlesex, was one of the first writers to describe vegetarianism (in India) to Early Modern England. The selections throw light on varied experiences of the traveller, and his observations on the flora and and fauna of the country. Terry describes climate, provisions, food and eating at some length, in different contexts. Examples of these discussions have been selected to clarify wider attitudes to consumption practices against which famine conditions may be viewed. Primary Source Edward Terry (1655). A voyage to East-India wherein some things are taken notice of, in our passage thither, but many more in our abode there, within that rich and most spacious empire of the Great Mogul: mixt with some Parallel Observations and Inferences upon the Story, to profit as well as delight the Reader. London: J. Martin, and J. Allestrye, at the Bell in St. Pauls Chutch-Yard [sic]. Suggested Reading William Foster, ed. (1921). "1616-1619 Edward Terry". Early Travels in India, 1583-1619. Oxford University Press.
A Voyage to EAST-INDIA. Wherein Some things are taken notice of in our passage thither, but many more in our abode there, within that rich and most spacious Empire Of the Great Mogol. Mix't with some Parallel Observations and inferences upon the storie, to profit as well as delight the Reader. Observed by Edward Terry (then Chaplain to the Right Honorable Sr. Thomas Row Knight, Lord Ambassa- dour to the great Mogol) now Rector of the Church at Greenford, in the County of Middlesex. In journeying often, in perils of waters, in perils of Rob- bers, in perils by the Heathen, in perils in the Sea. I Cor. II. 26. The Lord on high is mightier than the noise of many wa- ters; yea, than the mighty waves of the Sea, Psal. 93. 4. ---Digitis a morte remotus Quatuor, aut Septem.--- Ju. Sat. 12. Qui Nescit orare, discat navigare ubique Naufragium. London, Printed by T. W. for J. Martin, and J. Alle- strye, at the Bell in St. Pauls Church-Yard, 1655.
To the Reader
READER, THere was never age more guilty than this present, of the great expence, and waste of paper: whose fair innocence hath been extreamly stubber'd by Errors, Heresies, Blasphemies, and what not, in these bold times: which like so many (the foulest of all) blots, & blurs, hath defiled very much of it, so true is that of the Poet, ---Tenet insanabile multos Scribendi Cacoëthes.---Juv. Certainly there hath been of late abundantly more printed than ought, than should: & if what follows in this discourse lay under the guilt of any such just exception, it should feel the fire, not the press.
The summe & substance of what here follows (as a description of that Empire) I long since composed, shortly after my return from East-India, and then presented it in writing unto the late King, when he was Prince of Wales, in the year 1622. with this short following Epistle.
Most Renowned Prince, I Have nothing to plead for this high presumption, but the Novelty of my subject, in which I confesse some few have prevented me, who by traveling India in England, or Europe, have written somewhat of those remotest parts, but like unto poor Tradesmen, who take up Wares on trust, have been deceived themselves, and do deceive of others.
For my self I was an eye-witnesse of much here related, living more than two years at the Court of that mighty Monarch the great Mogol, (who prides himself very much in his most famous Ancestor Tamberlane) in the description of whose Empire, your Highnesse may meet with large Territories, a numerous Court, most populous, pleasant, and rich Provinces, but when all these shall be laid in the Balance against his miserable blindnesse, your Highnesse shall have more cause to pity, than envy his greatnesse.
I am not ambitious to make this my Relation publick, and therefore if it consume more paper, it shall not be my fault: As it is, in a fearfull boldnesse 'tis offered to your Princely hands, and if it may be any way pleasing and usefull, I have my reward; if not, my most humble desires to have ministred something this way unto your Highnesse, shall be my comfort.
Thus (Reader) thou hearest when this Relation was first written, and into what hands it was then put: And although there be now a very great space of time 'twixt the particulars then observed, and their publication now; which may make thee look upon that which is here brought forth as an untimely birth, or as a thing born out of due time. Therefore know (which may give thee some satisfaction herein) that for the commodities, and discommodities of those remote parts; for the customes and manners of that people; for their Religion and policie, with every thing beside (wherein thou mayest desire information) which lies within the vast compasse of that huge Monarchy expressed in the Map, and further described in this following discourse (time not making that people at all to varie from themselves) thou mayest look upon it now, as if it hath been taken notice of, but immediately before it was here communicated; and if it prove usefull now, I shall be very glad that it was reserved even for this present time, wherein it might do some good.
Yet not-withstanding this, it should never have been brought by me into this more open view, (especially in such a scribling writing age as this) where there is no end of making many books; (and many of those written to no end, but what is evil and mischievous) but that the Printer, who had gotten my Original Copie, presented as before, desired to publish it. And because so, I have revised, and in some particulars by pertinent, though in some places very long digressions (which I would intreat the Reader to improve) so enlarged it; that it may, (if it reach my aim) contain matter for instruction and use, as well as for relation and novelty. So that they, who fly from a Sermon, and will not touch sound, and wholesom, and excellent treatises in Divinity, may happily (if God so please) be taken before they are aware, and overcome by some Divine truths that lie scattered up and down in manie places of this Narrative. To which end I have endeavoured so to contrive it for every one (who shall please to read it through) that it may be like a well form'd picture, that seems to look stedfastly upon everie heholder, who so looks upon it.
But here Reader, let us sit down and wonder that in these dayes (which are called times of Reformation) manie choise books are often published, which contain in themselves, and declare unto others very much of the minde of God: yet are laid aside, as if they were not worth the looking into, and in their stead Romances, and other Pamphlets, ejusdem farinae, of the like kinde, which do not inform, but corrupt rather the mindes of those, which look so much into them, teaching wickednesse while they seem to reprove it, are the books (O times!) which are generally call'd for, bought up, read, and liked.
When a Traveller sometimes observed the women in Rome to please themselves in, and over-much to play with their Curs, and Monkeys; he asked whether or no the women of Rome did not bear Children to delight themselves withall. The storie is so parallel to what I before observed; that he who runs may make Application, and therefore I forbear to do it.
As for that I have here published I know, habent sua fata libelli, that books have their Fates, as well as their Authors; and therefore this Relation now it is got into the World, must take its chance, whatsoever its successe, or acceptance be: But however I shall never be of their minde, who think those books best, which best sell, when certain it is that they are not to be valued by their good sale, but good use.
Which while some may make of this; others who love to carp, and censure, and quarrel (so as to make a man an offender for a word) may put harsh interpretation upon some passages they may find in this following discourse. Mala mens, malus animus, an evil minde in it self, is an evil minde to all others. 'Twas said of Diogenes that he was tuba convitiorum; the Trumpet of reproaches; and that when he accused Plato of pride, he beat it down with greater pride. The Gramarians were laughed at for taking so much pains to find out the faults of Ulysses, and would not take notice of any of their own. They are the worst of the Creatures that breed in, and delight to be ever stirring up and down in corruption. But I would have all, who have an eye standing too far out of their heads, and are therefore apt to see more in others than themselves, and consequently may observe more than is meant, from some passages of this book, to bound all their conceivings a [...] to what they may finde here within the compasse of it, by that rule, which holds good in charity and law, and is true in Divinity likewise, in dubiis benigniora, that when any thing delivered may bear two interpretations, to take the fairest. And now that this following relation may not appear to be a losse, either of time or paper, he that shall please to read it, in our passage to East-India may observe very large foot-steps of the Almighty in his works of Creation & Providence. And when I have brought him thither on shore he may finde that there is not one question (as before) of any consequence concerning those parts I have undertaken to write of, but it findes satisfaction in one part or other of this discourse. For the Court there, there is so much riches and splendour sometimes to be seen in it, that it may draw up the meditations of those which behold it, as the thoughts of Fulgentius sometimes were, (when he beheld the glorie of the Court of Rome) raised up seriously to consider of the glorie of Heaven. And for the soil it is exceeding pleasant, rich, and good, as in some other parts of the world, where the inhabitants are meer strangers to God; and if Almighty God hath given such sweet places of abode here on the earth to very many whom he owns not; how transcendently glorious is that place which he hath prepared for them that love him.
Yet for the Inhabitants there, a man may clearly see, the law of Nature to be so ingraved upon the hearts of very many, both Pagans and Mahometans: as that it may make multitudes, who professe themselves Christians (if they would but turn their eyes inward) extreamly to wonder, how it comes to be so much wor [...] out of theirs.
And then he may further behold, such Temperance, Justice, unwearied devotion (but in a wrong way) with many other excellent Moralitics so to shine its them; that by this very light, he may see thousands of those (whom before I nam'd) that have means to know, and therefore should do better, in many things to come exceeding short of them, who (themselves are ready to conclude) come short of Heaven. But I shall not further anticipate my discourse, in being like a vain-glorious entertainer, who fills the ears of his guests with his dishes, before they see, or taste them. Which if thou shall please to do, read on, and thou art very welcome however.
Farewell Edward Terry.
To his worthy friend Mr. Edward Terry, on his Voyage to East-India.
To my ancient friend Mr. Edward Terry. On his Indian Voyage.
The third of February 1615. Our Fleet consisting of six good Ships, three great, viz. the Charles, Admirall of that Companie, then a New-built goodly Ship of a Thousand Tuns, (in which I sayled;) the Unicorn; a new Ship likewise, and almost of as great a burden; the James, a great Ship too; Three lesser, viz. the Globe, the Swan, the Rose, (all under the Command of Captain Benjamin Joseph) fell down from Graves-end into Tilbury Hope. where we continued till the eighth day following, when we weighed Anchor, and by a slow, that we might have the safer passage, the twelfth came into the Downs, where an adverse wind forced our abode till the ninth of March, on which day it pleased God to send us, what wee had much desired, a North-East wind, which made us leave that weary Road, and set sayl for East-India; and the eleventh about night, we were in the height of the Lizard in Cornwall, and that day, for that time took our last sight of our Country.
The 28. day we had sight of the Grand Canaries, and of that Mou [...]tain in the Island of Teneriffa, commonly called the Peake.
The 31. being Easter day, we passed under the Tropick of Cancer; and the seventh of April the Sun was our Zenith or Verticall, at noon day directly over our heads, which we found by this infallible Demonstration made by a slender knife, or long Needle, set upright, and did cast no shadow. The Sun in this course like the Equinoctiall, divides the Globe of the Heavens in two equall parts; and in this Motion ariseth so directly or upright, that there is but a very little time 'twixt the darkness and the appearance of the body of the Sun in the morning for 'tis dark [Page 5] immediatly before the Sun then appears; and so 'tis in the Evening presently after the Sun hath left the Hemisphere. Here wee were becalmed fourteen dayes, enduring extreme heat.
Those self-opposing blasts we there had, were so variable and uncertain, that sometimes within the space of one hour, all the thirty two severall winds, (which are observed in so many points of the Compasse) will blow, so that if there be many Ships in company, you may observe them all to sayl so many severall wayes, and every one of them seem to goe directly before the wind. Now that it should be so here, and not known so to be in any part of the world beside I ever heard of, if not in those winds, which they say are sometimes sold by the Lapland Witches, I can give no reason for it, unlesse Satan (who is most Tyrannicall where he is most obeyed) that Prince of the Ayr seems to rule more here, than hee doth in other parts. And most certain it is that he rules very much in the Inhabitants on that Main, the poor, ignorant, and most miserable Negroes, born for sale and slavery, and slaughter. These strange Gusts were accompanied with much Thunder and Lightning and with extreme rain, so noysome, that it made their cloths who stir'd much in it presently to stink upon their backs; the water likewise of [Page 7] those slimy, unwholsome, hot, and unsavorie showres, wheresoever it stood, would presently bring forth many little offensive Creatures. These Turnadoes met with us when we were about 12. Degrees of North Latitude, and kept us company ere they quitted us, two Degrees Southward of the Equinoctial, under which we passed the 28. of April.
Between the Tropicks wee saw (almost every day) different kinds of fishes, in greater abundance than else-where, as the great Leviathan whom God hath made to take his pastime in the Sea; Granpisces, or lesser whales, Sharkes, Turtles or Torteises, Dolphins, Bonitoes, Albicores, Porpisces, Flying fishes, with many others. Some Whales we saw of an exceeding greatnesse, who in calm weather often arise and shew themselves on the top of the water, where they appear like unto great Rocks, in their rise, spouting up into the Ayr with noyse, a great quantity of water which falls down again about them like a showr. The Whale may well challenge the Principalitie of the Sea, yet I suppose that he hath many enemies in this his large Dominion; for instance, a little long Fish called a Thresher often encounters with him, who by his agilitie vexeth him as much in the Sea, as a little Bee in Summer, [Page 8] doth a great Beast on the shore.
The Shark hath not this name for nothing; for he will make a morsell of any thing he can catch, master and devour. These Shark are most ravenous fishes; fo [...] I have many times observed that when they have been swimming about our Ships (as oftentimes they doe) and we have cast over-board an iron hook made strong for this purpose, fastned to a roap strong like it, bayted with a piece of beese of five pounds weight this bayt hath been presently taken by one of them and if by chance the weight of the fish, thus taken, in haling him up, hath broken out the Hooks hold, not well fastned (as sometimes it did) so that he fell again into the Sea, he would presently bite at an other Bayt, and so bite till he was taken. Not much unlike many vile men, who think they may safely take any thing they can finger and get, and having been fastned in, and escaped out of many Snares will take no warning but be still nibling and biting at what they like not once considering that there is an hook within the bayt, that will take them at last, and hamper them to their unavoydable destruction. This Sea-shark is a Fish as bad in eating, as he is in qual [...]y a very moyst watery fish, yet eaten at Sea (because any f [...]esh thing will there down) but no good food. This Fish turns himself on his back to take his prey by which he gives warning to many other little fishes, who ever [Page 9] swim about him, to avoyd his swollow. Those Fishes that thus keep him company, are called by the Mariners, Pilate-fishes, who alwayes shape their course the same way the Shark takes, and by consequence (nature having made them so wary) he becomes their guard, they not his food. And there are other fishes too they call Sucking-fish, that stick as close to the body of the Shark, as a Tike on the shore doth to the body of a Beast, and so receive their nourishment from him and he must be contented, for while he is swimming up and down, he cannot possibly free himself of them. Many of these Sharks grow to a very large greatness; they have a broad roundhead, in which are three rowes of teeth very strong and sharp, by which they are able to take off the leg of a man at one bite, as some have found by woefull experience, while they have been carelesly swimming in these hot Seas, where these Sharks most use and certainly were they as nimble as they are mischievous, would doe very much hurt.
The Turtle or Torteis is one of those creatures we call Amphibia, that lives sometimes in the Sea and sometimes on the shore, he is marvellously fortified by Nature dwelling (as it were) continually under a strong roof, which moves with him, and covers (when he will) his whole body; therefore Testudo which signifies a Torteise, signifies also the roof or vault of [Page 10] an house, which covers all within it. Those concave backs (like bucklets, but of an Oval shape) that cover these creatures, are many of them so exceeding strong, that they will bear off the weight of a Cart-wheel. These Torteises increase by eggs (as I have been often told) are very good to eat, the substance within them (whether you will call it flesh or fish) first boyled, and after minced with butter, tastes like buttered Veal, Their shell makes (as is very commonly known) excellent good Combes, Cups, or Boxes, and further it is used by them in East-India, to make or adorn little or great Cabinets.
The Dolphin is a fish called for his swiftnesse the Arrow of the Sea differing in this one particular from all other fishes I ever observed, in that he hath many little teeth upon the top of his tongue. Hee is very pleasing to the eye, smell and taste, of a changeable colour, finn'd like a Roach, covered with many small scales, having a fresh delightsome sent above other fishes, and in taste as good as any; these Dolphins are wont often to follow our ships, not so much I think for the love they bear unto man, (as some write,) as to feed themselves with what they find cast over board, whence it comes to pass, that many times they feed us, for when they swim close to our ships wee often strike them with a broad instrument, full of barbs, called an Harping-iron, [Page 11] fastned to a roap, by which we hale them in; This Dolphin may be a fit Embleme of an ill race of people, who under sweet countenances, carry sharp tongues. Bonitoes and Albicores, are in colour, shape, and taste, much like unto Mackrels, and as good fish as they, but they grow to be very exceeding large.
The Porpisces or Hog-fish, are like the former; very large and great, but better to look upon than to taste; they usually appear at Sea in very great sholes or companies, and are (as if they came of the race of the Gadaren Swine, that ran violently into the Sea) very swift in their motion, and like a company matching in rank and file; They leap or mount very nimbly over th [...] waves and so down and up again, making a melancholy noyse, when they are above the water. These are usually, when they thus appear, certain presagers of very foul weather.
The Flying fishes have skinny wings like unto Batts, but larger they are stifned and strengthned with many little bones, such as are in the back finns of Pearches, by which they fly but a little way at a time; they have small bodyes like unto Pilchers, and appear when they fly, in marvellous great companies, and some of them often fly into our ships, by which we have tasted that they are excellent good fish. Of all other, these flying Fishes live the most miserable lives, [Page 12] for being in the water, the Dolphins, Bonitoes, Albicores, and Porpisces, chase persecute and take them, and when they would escape by their flight, are often-times caught by ravenous Fowls, somewhat like our Kites, which hover over the water. These flying Fishes are like men professing two trades and thrive at neither.
This remotest part of Africa, is very mountainous, over-run with wild beasts, as Lions, Tygres, Wolves, and many other beasts of prey, which in the silent night discover themselves by [Page 16] their noyse and roaring; to the Teeth and Jawes of which cruell Beasts, the Natives here expose their old people, if death prevent it not, when once they grow very old and trouble-some, laying them forth in some open place in the dark night, When the wild beasts (as David observes, Psal. 104. 20, 21.) doe creep forth, and the young lyons roar after their prey. One miserable poor old wretch was thus exposed when we were there, who by his pittifull cryes, was discovered by our Court of Guard, there on shore, and not far off from him, and by them relieved and delivered for that present time, out of the jawes of Death; And wee asking Coorce one of the Natives (whose story you shall have by and by) why they did so, he told us, it was their custome, when their people had lived so long, that they knew not what to doe with them, thus to be rid of them.
Wee saw in this Bay of Souldania many Whales, and about the shore divers party-coloured Fowles; And here are Ostriches to be seen. For the soyl about the Bay, it seems to be very good, but the Sun shines not upon a people in the whole world, more barbarous than those which possesse it; Beasts in the skins of men, rather than men in the skins of beasts, as may appear by their ignorance, habit, language, diet, with other things, which make them most brutish.
First for God, the great God of Heaven and Earth, whom generally all the people in the world, Heathen, as well as Christians doe confess, they (as this Cooree told us) acknowledge none. For their speech it seemed to us inarticulate noyse rather than Language, like the clucking of Hens, or gabling of Turkeys; and thus making a very strange confused noyse, when they walk here or there: if there be two or three, or five, or ten, or twenty, or very many more in company, it is their manner to walk in rank one after the other, in small paths they have made by their thus walking, as Kine in Summer many times doe, when they come home to the Payl; or as wild-geese who fly in ranks, and as they fly make a noyse; so these walking together thus gabble from the first to the last in company, as if all spake, but none answered. Their Habits are their sheeps skins undrest, thonged together, which cover their bodies to the middle, with a little flap of the same skin tyed before them, being naked downward, and when tis cold keep the woolly, when hotter weather, the fleshy side of those skins next to their bodies. Their ornaments and Jewels. Bullocks or sheeps-guts full of excrement, about their necks, and therefore when we bought their Cattell they would take (and we were content they should) their skins, guts, and garbage, which plentifully furnished them with that rich attire, and gay ornaments; and when they [Page 18] were hungry, they would sit down upon some hillock, first shaking out some of that filthy pudding out of the guts they wore about their necks, then bowing and bringing their mouths to their hands, almost as low as their knees, like hungry doggs would gnaw, and eat the raw guts, when you may conceive their mouths full of sweet green sawce. The women as the men are thus adorned, thus habited, and thus dieted only they wear more about their lower parts than the men. And (by the way) these carry their sucking infants under their skins upon their backs, and their brests hanging down like Bag-pipes, they put up with their hands to their children, that they may suck them over their shoulders. Both sexes make coverings for their heads like to skull caps, with Cow-dung, and such like filth mingled with a little stinking grease, with which they likewise besmear their faces, which makes their company unsufferable, if they get the wind of you. I observed, that some of the rest of their dyet was agreeable to the former, for they would eat any refuse thing, as rotten and mouldy Biskets, which we have given them, fit indeed for nothing but to be cast away; yea, they will eat that which a ravenous dog in England will refuse. I once tooke notice of a Couple of them, who had found on the neighbouring shore a large piece of a dead fish the Sea had cast up, which did most sufficiently stink, they presently made a [Page 19] little fire with dry Cow-dung, and with this they warm'd it, and then they eat it, with as much seeming appetite, as an hungry man with us, would feed upon a very choyse and savoury dish, which makes me almost to believe, that those wretched creatures have but three senses, wanting the benefit both of Smelling and Tasting. They lodge upon the earth in Hovels, so ill covered, that they keep not out the weather, made like to those we call Summer-houses, with Boughs and sticks.
These Brutes devote themselves to idlenesse, for they neither dig nor spin. For their stature and making they are very straight, and well lim'd, though not very tall but in their faces very ill-favoured, for the noses of most of them are flat. They have little or no beard; the hair on their heads short black and curled; their skins very tawny; swift they are of foot, and will throw Darts, and shoot Arrows, which are their weapons very dangerously.
Me thinks when I have seriously considered, the Dresses the Habitations, and the Diet of this people, with other things, and how these beasts [Page 20] of Mankind live all like Brutes, nay worse, I have thought that if they had the accommodations wee enjoy (to make our lives more comfortable) by good dwelling, warm clothing, sweet lodging, and wholsome food, they would be abundantly pleased with such a change of their condition; For as Love proceeds from Knowledge, and liking; and we can neither love nor like any thing we cannot know: so when we come to a sensible understanding of things wee knew not before; when the Belly teaches, and the Back instructs a man would believe that these should work some strong convictions.
In the year 1614 ten English men having received the sentence of death for their severall crimes at the Sessions house in the old-Baily at London, had their Execution respited by the intreaty of the East-India Merchants, upon condition that they should be all banished to this place, to the end (if they could find any peaceable abode there) they might discover something advantagious to their trade; And this was accordingly done. But two of them when they came thither were taken thence, and carried on the voyage. One whose sirname was Duffield by Sir Thomas Row, that year sent Ambassadour to the Great Mogol; that fellow thus redeemed [Page 26] from a most sad Banishment, was afterward brought back again into England by that noble Gentleman, and here being intrusted by him, stole some of his Plate and ran away; another was carried on the Voyage likewise, but what became of him afterward I know not. So that there remained eight which were there left with some Ammunition and victual, with a small [...]oat to carry them to and from a very little uninhabited Island lying in the very mouth of that Bay, a place for their retreat and safety from the Natives on the Main. The Island called Penguin Island, probably so named at first by some Welshman, in whose language Penguin signifies a white head and there are very many great lazy fowls upon, and about this Island, with great coleblack bodies, and very white heads, called Penguins. The chief man of the eight there left was sirnamed Cross, who took the Name upon him of Captain Cross, He was formerly a Yeoman of the Guard unto King James; But having had his hand in blood twice, or thrice, by men [...]by him in severall Duels, and now being condemned to die with the rest, upon very great fute made for him, he was hither banished with them, whither the justice of Almighty God was dispatched after him, as it were in a Whirlwind, and followed him close at the very heels, and overtook him, and left him not till he had payd dear for that blood he had formerly spilt. This [Page 27] Cross was a very stout, and a very resolute man who quarrelling with, and abusing the Natives; and engaging himself farre amongst them, immediatly after himself with the rest were left in that place, many of these Salvages being go [...]together, fell upon him, and with their Darts thrown, and Arrows shot at him, stuck his body so full of them, as if he had been Larded with Darts and Arrows, making him look like the Figure of the man in the Almanack, that seems to be wounded in every part, or like that man described by Lucan, totum pro vulnere corpus, Who was all wound, where blood touched blood. The retaliations of the Lord are sure and just; Hee that is mercy it self abhorrs cruelty above all other sins; Hee cannot endure that one man should devour another, as the Beasts of the field, Birds of the ayr, Fishes of the Sea doe, and therefore usually shewes, exemplary, signall revenges for that sin of Blood, selling it at a dear rate unto them that shed it. Every sin hath a tongue, but that of blood our-cryes; and drowns the rest; Blood being a clamorous, and a restless suter, whose mouth will not be stopt till it receive an answer, as it did here. The other seven, the rest of these miserable Bandi [...]i, who were there with Cross, recovered their Boat, and go [...] off the shore, without any great hurt, and so rowing to their Island, the waves running high, they split their boat at their landing, which engaged them to keep in that place, they having now no [Page 28] possible means left to stirre thence. And which made their condition while they were in it most extremely miserable, it is a place wherein growes never a tree, either for sustenance or shelter, or shade, nor any thing beside (I ever heard of) to help sustein nature; a place that hath never a drop of fresh water in it, but what the showrs leave in the holes of the rocks. And besides all this, there are a very great number of Snakes in that Island (as I have been told by many that have been upon it) so many of those venemous worms that a man cannot tread safely in the long grasse which growes in it, for fear of them; And all these put together must needs make that place beyond measure uncomfortable to these most wretched men. To this may be added their want of provision having nothing but dry Bisket, and no great quantity of that; so that they lived with hungry bellies, without any place fit for repose, without any quiet rest, for they could not choose but sleep in fear continually; And what outward condition could make men more miserable than this? Yet not-withstanding all they suffered, these seven vile wretches, all live to be made examples afterward of Divine Justice. For after they had continued in, and endured this sad place for the space of five or six moneths, and they were grown all even almost mad by reason of their several pressing wants and extremities, it pleased [Page 29] God by providence, to bring an English Ship into that road, returning for England; four of these 7 men being impatient of anymore hours staythere, immediatly after that ship was come in, made a float with the ruines of their split boat, which they had saved together, and with other wood which they had gotten thither, and with raveld and untwisted boat-roapes, fastned as well as they could all together (for there are no such sudden teachers and instructers as extremities are). These four got upon the Float, which they had thus prepared, and poysing it as well as they could by their severall weight, hoped by the benefit of their Oares, and strength of the tyde, (that then ran quick toward the ship newly arrived) they might recover it; but this their expectation failed them, for it being late in the day when they made this attempt, and they not discovered by the ship, which then road a good way up in the Bay, before they could come up neer unto her, the tyde return'd, and so carried them back into the main Sea where they all perished miserably. The day following, the ship sent a boat to the Island, which took those three yet surviving into her, as the other four might have been, if they could but have exercised their patience for one night longer; these survivers came aboard the ship, related all that had befallen to their fellows; But these three not-withstanding all their former miseries, when they were taken into the ship, behaved [Page 30] themselves so l [...]wdly, as they returned homewar [...], that they were very often put into the Bilbowes, or ship-stocks, in the way returning, and otherwise many times punished for their great and severall misdemenours at last the ship being safely returned into the Downes, she had not been there at an anchor above three hours, but these three Willains got on shore, and they had not been ashore above three hours, but they took a Purse, and a very few hours after were apprehended and all taken for that fact, and suddenly after that, their very foul storie being related to the Lord chief Justice, and they looked upon as men altogether incorrigible, and uncapable of amendment by lesser corrections, by his speciall Warrant were executed upon their former Condemnation (for which they were banished, not to return hither again, but never pardoned) neer Sandwich in Kent, where they committed the robbery; from whose example wee may learn, that it is not in the power of any affliction, how heavy soever it light, and how long soever it lye, if it be not sanctified, to do any man good. That when the rod is upon a man, if he be not taught as well as chastned; all the stripes bestowed on him are cast away. A man might have hoped that these wretched fellowes had been long enough in the fire to have purged away their dross. But afflictions, like fire, harden as well as soften; and experience teaches us, that [Page 31] the winds and waves though they beat with their greatest violence upon the rocks, yet leave them as they found them unmovable; It being a most tryed truth recorded by Solomon, Prov. 27. 22.
That bray or beat a fool in a morter, he will not leave his foolishness; But as he was put in, so will he come out a fool. The year following we carried three more condemned persons to be left in this place, but they hearing of the ill successe of their predecessors, and that it was very unlikely for them to find any safe footing here, when we were ready to depart thence, and to leave them on the shore, they all came and presented themselves on their knees, with many tears in their eyes unto our chief Commander Captain Joseph, most humbly beseeching him, that he would give order that they might be hanged before he departed, in that place, which they much rather chose, than to be there left; wee thought it was a very sad sight to behold three men in such a condition, that made them esteem hanging to be mercy. Our Commander told them, that he had no Commission to execute them, but to leave them there, and so he must doe, and so believed he had done; But our fift ship the Swan staying in this place after us a day or two, took these poor men into her, and then took her course for Bantam whither she was bound. And the Rose our last ship, whose sight and company we lost in that most violent [Page 32] storm (before mentioned) at the beginning of our voyage was safely preserved, and happily afterward found her way to Bantam likewise.
Wee made our abode in this Harbour till the 28th following, on which day we being well watered, and refreshed, departed. And the 29th we doubled the Cape of good Hope, whose Latitude is 35 Degree South. Off this Cape there setteth continually a most violent Current Westward, whence it comes to pass, that when a strong contrary wind meets it (as often-times it doth) their impetuons opposition makes the Sea so to rage, as that some ships have been swallowed, but many more very much endangered amongst those huge mountains of water, and very few ships pass that way without a storm. We kept on in a circular course, to gain a South-west wind; for yee must know, that the wind in those parts, and so in East-India, blows (and but with a very little variation) half the year South-west, and the other half North-East; we sayled here Southerly, till we had raised the South-Pole almost forty degrees above the Horizon. This Pole is a Constellation of four starrs, the Mariners call the Crosiers, these starrs appear neer one another like a Cross, and almost equidistant. And while we had the view of this Pole, the Sun (as it must needs be) was North at Noon unto us.
The 22. of July we discovered the great [Page 33] M [...]dagascar, Commonly called St. Laurence, we being then betwixt it and the African Shore, which Iland lies almost every part of it unde [...], or within the Southern Tropick: we touched not at it, but this I dare say, from the Credit of others who have been upon it, that as it is an exceeding great Iland (if not the greatest in the known world) So is it stored with abundance of very excellent good Provisions, though inhabited by a barbarous and heathenish people, but stout, and warlike, and very numerous. [Page 34] From the Iland Madagascar we proceeded on in our Course, and the 5 of August following approached neer the little Ilands of Mohilia, Gazidia, St. John de Castro, with some others, whose Names I have not, called in general [Page 35] the Ilands of Comora, lying about 12. Degrees South of the Equator.
And now, Reader, if thou shalt be pleased to accompany me further, I shall carry thee from this sad discourse, where we may be both refreshed upon a near rich and pleasant Iland; And to make way for our entertainment there, take further notice, that after we saw the Carr [...]que in a flame (which was about midnight) we stood off and on till morning, to see if any thing might be found in her Ashes; of which [Page 53] when we despaired, we sought about to succour and comfort our wounded and sick men on the shore. The Land there was very high, against which the Sea is alwaies deep; so that it was the tenth day of that month [...]re we could be possessed of a good Harbour; which enjoyed, we found the Iland called Moh [...]l [...]a, very pleasant, full of Trees, and exceeding fruitful, abounding in Beeves, Kids, Poultrey of divers kinds, Rice, Sugar-Canes, Plantens (of which Fruit more shall be spoken hereafter) Oranges, Coquer-nuts, as with many other wholsome things, of all which we had sufficient to relieve our whole Company, for little quantities of White Paper, Glass Beads, low prized Looking-Glasses, and cheap Knives. For instance we bought as many good Oranges as would fill an Hat for one quarter of a shee [...] of white writing-Paper, and so in proportion all other Provisions. Here we had the best Oranges that ever I tasted, which were little round ones exceeding sweet and juicie, having but a little sting [...]e skin within them, and the rinde on them almost as thin as the paring of an Apple: We eat all together, Rinde and Juice, and found them a Fruit that was extraordinary well pleasing to the Tast.
Much of their Fruits the Ilanders brought unto [...]s in their little Canoos (which are long narrow [Page 54] boats, but like troughs out of firm trees) but their Cattel we bought on the shore; Where I observed the people to be streight, well limm'd, stout, able men, their colour very tawney; most of the men, but all the women, I saw uncloathed, having nothing about them but a Covering for their shame. Such as were cloathed had long Garments like unto the Arabians, whose Language they speak, and of whose Religion they are, Mahumetans, very strict (as it should seem) for they would not endure us to come near their Churches. They have good convenient Houses for their Living, and fair Sepulchres for their Dead.
They seemed to live strictly under the Obedience of a King, whose place of residence was some miles up in the Countrey; His leave by Messengers they first craved, before they would sell unto us any of their better Provisions. Their King hearing of our arrival, bad us welcome by a Present of Be [...]ves, and Goats, and Poultrey, and the chief and choyce Fruits of his Countrey, and was highly recompenced as he thought again, by a Quire or two of white Paper, a pair of low prized Looking-Glasses, some strings of Glass Beads, some cheap Knives, and with some other English toyes.
We saw some Spanish Money amongst them, of which they seemed to make so little reckoning, that some of our men had from them many [Page 55] Royals of Eight in exchange for a little of those very low and very cheap Commodities which before I named.
The Coquer-nu [...]tree (of which this Iland hath abundance) of all other Trees may challenge the preheminence: for, meerly with these Trees, without the least help of any other Timber, or any other thing (unless a little Iron-work) a man may build, and furnish, and fit and victual a small Ship to Sea. For the Heart of this Tree (being very tough, firm and fast wood) growing up streight and high, will make Timber, and Planks, and Pins, and Musts and Yards; a strong Gum that issues out of it, with the Rinde that grows about it, will serve to calk the Ship; and that spongie Rinde (that looks like our Hemp when it is a little bruised) will make Cordage and Sails, and the very large Nuts that grow upon it (of which are made many excellent drinking Cups) when it is newly gathered hath a milk-white substance that is tender (tasting like an Almond) round about of a good substance within it; and within that a very pleasant Liquor, that is wholsom, as well as savoury, which may for a need serve those which sail in this Ship for meat and drink.
Now well-stored with these Nuts and other good Provisions, after six daies abode there; the breaches our Ship had lately received in fight [Page 56] being repaired, and our men well refreshed, we put again to Sea the sixteenth day, and a prosperous gale following us, were carried happily a second time under the Aequinoctial, without the le [...]st heat to offend us, the 24 day of the same Month. Our Course was for the Iland of Zocotora near the mouth of the Red Sea, from whence comes our Aloes Zocotrina; but an adverse gale from the Arabian shore kept us so off that we could by no means recover it. We passed by it the first of September.
Missing that Fort we proceeded on our Voyage, and the fourth of September made a solemn Funeral in memory of our late slain Commander, when after Sermon the small Shot and great Ordinance made a large Peal to his Remembrance.
And now, Reader. I would have thee to suppose me setting my foot upon the East-Indian shore at Swally before named. On the banks whereof, amongst many more English that lye [Page 58] there interred, is laid up the body of Mr. Thomas Coryat, a man in his time, not us nimis omnibus, very sufficiently known.
HE most spacious Monarchy under the subjection of the Great Mogol divides it self into thirty and seven several and large Provinces, which antiently were particular Kingdomes, whose true Names (which we there had out of the Mogol's own Records) with their Principal Cities and Rivers, their Situation and Borders, their Extent in length and bredth, I shall first set down very briefly, beginning at the North-west. Yet as I name these several Provinces, I shall by the way take notice of some particulars in them which are most remarkable.
1. Candahore, the chief City so called; it lyes from the heart of the Mogol's Territories North-west; it confines with the King of Persia, and was antiently a Province belonging to him.
2. Cabut, the chief City so called, the extremest part North of this Emperours Dominions; it confineth with [...]artaria; the River Nilob hath its beginning in it, whose Current is Southerly till it dischargeth it self into Indus.
3. Multan, the chief City so called; it lyeth South from Cabut and Candahore, and to the West joyns with Persia. This Province is fam'd for many excellent Bowes and Arrowes made in it: The Bowes made of Horn; excellently glued and put together; the Arrows of small Canes or Reeds, both of them curiously set off by rich Paint and Varnish: They which are made here are more neat and good than in any part of East-India besides.
4. Haiacan, the Province of the Baloches, who are a very stout and warlike people that dare fight. I insert this, because there are infinite multitudes of people in the Mogol's Territories who appear as likely as these, but so low-spirited (as I shall after observe) that they dare not sight. This Province hath no renowned City. The famous River Indus (called by the Inhabitants Skind) borders it on the East; [Page 80] and Lar, a Province belonging to the King of Persia, meets it on the West.
5. Buckor, the chief City called Buckor-Succor; that famous River Indus makes its way through it, and gently enricheth it.
6. Tatta, the chief City so called; the River Indus makes many Islands in it exceeding fruitful and pleasant, the Main Current whereof meets with the Sea at Sinde, a place very famous for many curious Handicrafts.
7. Soret, the chief City is called Janagar; it is but a little Province yet very rich; it lyes upon Guzarat; it hath the Ocean to the South.
8. Jesselmure, the chief City so called; it joyneth with Soret; but Buckor and Tatta lye to the West thereof.
9. [...]ttack, the chief City so called; it lyeth on the East side of Indus, which parts it from Hai [...]can.
10. Penjab, which signifieth five Waters, for that it is seated amongst five Rivers, all Tributaries to Indus; which, somewhat South of Labore, make but one Current:
It is a large Province; and most fruitful. Lahore is the chief City thereof, built very large, and abounds both in people and riches, one of the most principal Cities for Trade in all India.
11. Chishm [...]ere, the chief City called Siranakar; the River Bhat finds a way through it, [Page 81] though it be very mountainous, and so creeps to the Sea.
12. Banchish, the chief City is called Bishur; it lyeth East, somewhat Southerly from Chishmeere, from which it is divided by the River Indus.
13. Jangapore, the chief City so called; it lyeth upon the River Kaul, one of those five Rivers which water Penjab.
14. Jenba, the chief City so called; it lyeth East of Penjab.
15. Dellee (which signifies an Heart, and is seated in the heart of the Mogol's Territories) the chief City so called; it lyeth between Jenba and Agra; the River Jemni (which runneth through Agra, and after falleth into Ganges) begins in it. This Dellee is both an antient and a great City, the Seat of the Mogol's Ancestors, where most of them lye interred. It was once the City and Seat of King Porus, who was conquered about this place by Alexander the Great, and here he encountering with huge Elephants as well as with a mighty Hoast of Men, said, as Curtius reports, Tandem par animo meo inveni periculum, That he had met with dangers to equal his great mind. I was told by [...]om: Cor [...]at (who took special notice of this place) that he being in the City of Dellee, observed a very great Pillar of Marble, with a Greek inscription upon it, which time hath almost quite [Page 82] worn out, erected (as he supposed) there, and then, by Great Alexander, to preserve the memory of that famous Victory.
16. Bando, the chief City so called; it confineth Agra to the West.
17. Malway, a very fruitful Province; Rantipore is its chief City.
18. Chitor, an antient great Kingdome, the chief City so called, which standeth upon a mighty high Hill flat on the top, walled about at the least ten English miles. There appear to this day above an hundred ruin'd Churches, and divers fair Palaces, which are lodged in like manner among their Ruins, besides many exquisite Pillars of Carved Stone, and the Ruins likewise at the least of an hundred thousand stone houses, as many English by their observation have ghessed. There is but one ascent unto it, cut out of a firm Rock, to which a man must pass through four (sometimes very magnificent) Gates. Its chief Inhabitants at this day are Ziim and Ohim, Birds and Wild Beasts; but the stately Ruins thereof give a shadow of its Beauty while it flourished in its Pride. It was won from Ranas, an antient Indian Prince, who was forc'd to live himself ever after in high mountainous places adjoyning to that Province, and his Posterity to live there ever since. Taken from him it was by Achabar Padsha (the Father of that King who lived and reigned [Page 83] when I was in those parts) after a very long sieg [...]; which famished the besieged, without which it could never have been gotten. Let me digress here a little; and put my Reader in mind of a sad truth which he must needs know already, how that this Hunger is the most powerful Commander, the most absolute Conquerour in the World; for though Nature may be content, and in extremi [...]ies can make shift with a little, yet something must be had; Bread being the Staff of Life, the Prop, the Pillar which next under the Giver hereof keeps up these Houses of Gla [...]. Earthly Enemies, be they never so many, never so mighty, may be long opposed, but Famine is irresistible. A man may flee from a Sword, the Arrow of Pestilence may misshim; but there is no defence nor resistance against Hunger, against Thirst; which sometimes made the besieged Bethulians (as their Story relates) to faint and dye in the streets of their City for want of water. The Widdow of Zarepthah was in a very low condition (in a time of a most miserable Famine) when she told the Prophet Elias, that she had left for her sustenance but an handful of Meal in a Barrel, and a little Oyl in a Cruse, and she was gathering two sticks to dress it for her self and son, that they might eat and dye, 1 Kings 17. 12. For when that Provision was gone, all was gone: O how great is the extremity of Famine! in which some have been [Page 84] threatned to eat their own dung, and to drink their own piss. In what a sad case were the people in the siege of Samaria, when one woman said unto another, Give me thy son and we will eat him to day, and we will eat my son to morrow. So in the siege and streightness of Jerusalem, when the Women did eat the fruit of their own bodies, their Children of a span long, Lam. 2. 20. when by reason of Famine the visages of these men were made blacker than coles, and the hands of pitiful women were forc'd, by reason of the most grievous extremities, by the want of all bodily provisions, to boyl their own children to be their meat. Lam. 4. 8. It were well if people in the enjoyment of spread Tables, and full Cups, would be often thinking of such sad stories, which indeed are much better apprehended by the empty, than by full and pampered bellies: Ingens telum necessitas: there is no such strong prevailing weapon as want, as want of food is; the loss (as it hath been of many other places) so of this (sometimes most famous) City: And thus, gained, as it was, by the command of the Conquerour, so, now, it is demolished.
19. Guzarat, a very goodly, and large, and an exceeding rich Province; it encloseth the Bay of Cambaya; its chief City is Amadavaz; besides, it hath in it Cambaya, Brodera, Baroch and Surat, fair Cities; but the first of those I [Page 85] named, more spacious, and populous, and rich, than any of the other. It is watered with many goodly Rivers, as that of Cambaya (falsly supposed to be Indus) with the River Narbodah (passing by Baroch, and so to the Sea) with the River Taplee, which watereth Surat. The Merchants which are the Natives of this Province trade to the Red Sea, to Achin, and to divers other places.
20. Chandis, the chief City called Brampore, which is very great, and rich, and full of people. Adjoyning to this Province lived a petty Prince, called Partapsha, tributary to the Mogol; and this is the most Southern-most part of all his Territories.
21. Berar, the chief City is called Shapore, the Southernmost part whereof doth likewise bound this Empire.
22. Narvar, the chief City is called Gehud; it is watered by a fair River that much enricheth it, and dischargeth it self into Ganges.
23. Gwaliar, the chief City so called, where the Mogol hath a very rich Treasury of Gold and Silver kept in this City, within an exceeding strong Castle, wherein the King's Prisoners are likewise kept. The Castle is continually guarded by a very strong Company of Armed Souldiers.
24. Agra, a principal and very rich Province, the chief City so called, this great Emperours [Page 86] Metropolis, in North Latitude about twenty eight Degrees and an half. It is very well watered by the River Jemni. This and Lahore are the two principal and choyce Cities of this Empire, betwixt whom is that Long Walk (I made mention of before) of four hundred miles in length, shaded by great Trees on both sides: This is looked upon by Travellers, who have found the comfort of that cool shade, as one of the rarest and most beneficial Works in the whole World.
25. Sanbat, the chief City so called: the River Jemni parts it from Narvar; and after at the City Hellabass fals into that most famous River Ganges, which is called by the Inhabitants of East-India, Ganga.
26. Bakar, the chief City called Bikaneer; it lyeth on the West side of the River Ganges.
27. Nagracot, the chief City so called in which there is a Chapel most richly set forth, being seeled and paved with Plate of pure Silver, most curiously imbossed over head in several Figures, which they keep exceeding bright by often rubbing and burnishing it; and all this cost those poor seduced Indians are at, to do honour to an Idol they keep in that Chapel. What charge can Heathenish Idolaters be content to bear for their gross Idolatry! nothing is too rich, too pretious, or too dear for their Idol. And what cost the Superstitious Israelites [Page 87] were content to bear for their leud devotion, we may further see, Exod. 32. 2. they are ready to give their Gold, not out of their Purses onely, but from their Ears too to further their mis-devotion; most willing they were to part with their Jewels to their Molten God. O how do these Heathens and these Israelites condemn thousands, which call themselves Christians, who cannot abide to be at any cost for Religion! That service of God which is most cheap and chargeless, they like best. Those I first named were ready to give freely to their false Gods, these to take all they can from the true God, being very Prodigals for their Lusts, very Niggards for their Souls. The Idol thus kept in that so Richly adorned Chapel, they call Matta, and it is continually visited by those poor blinded Infidels, who, out of the officiousness of their Devotion, cut off some part of their Tongues to offer unto it as a Sacrifice; which (they say) grow out again as before: but in this I shall leave my Reader to a belief as much suspensive as is my own in this particular. In this Province likewise there is another famous Pilgrimage to a place called Jallamakee, where, out of cold Springs that issue out from amongst hard Rocks, are daily to be seen continued Eruptions of Fire, before which the Idolatrous People fall down and worship. Both these places were seen, and strictly observed by Mr. Coryat.
28. Siba, the chief City is called Hardware, where the famous River Ganges passing through or amongst large Rocks, makes presently after a pretty full Current: but both this and that other great River Indus have their Rise and Original out of the Mountain Caucasus, from whence they both first issue. That principal Rock, through which this River Ganges there makes a Current, is indeed, or (if not) according to the fancy of the Superstitious Indians, like a Cowes Head, which of all sensible Creatures they love best (of which more hereafter) thither they assemble themselvs daily in Troops to wash their bodies, ascribing a certain Divinity to Waters, but more especially to the Water in the River Ganges. And thither our famous Coryat went likewise to view this place.
29. Kakares, the principal Cities are called Dekal [...]e and Purhola; it is a large Province, but exceeding mountainous; divided it is from Tartaria by the Mountain Caucasus; it is the extremest part North under the Mogol's subjection.
30. Gor, the chief City so called; it is full of Mountains; the River Sersily, a tributary unto Ganges, hath its beginning in it.
31. Pitan, the chief City so called; the River Canda waters it, and fals into Ganges in the Confines thereof.
32. Kanduana, the chief City is called Karhakatenka; [Page 89] the River Sersily parts it from Pitan: This and Gor are the North-east bounds of this Monarchy.
33. Patna, the chief City so called; the River Ganges bounds it on the West. Sersily on the East; it is a very fertile Province. 34. Jesuat, the chief City is called Ra [...]apore; it lyeth East of Patna.
35. Mevat, the chief City is called Narnol; it is very mountaino [...]s.
36. Udessa, the chief City called Jikanat; it is the most remote part East of this Empire.
37. Bengala, a most spacious and fruitful Province, but more properly to be called a Kingdome, which hath two very large Provinces within it, Purb and Patan, the one lying on the East, the other on the West-side of the River Ganges: It is limited by the Golph of the same name, whereinto the River Ganges (which at last comes to be divided into four great Currents) dischargeth it self, after it hath found a way through the Mogol's Territories more than fifteen hundred miles in length The chief Cities in it are Ragamahat and Dekaka. It hath many Havens and Ports belonging unto it, which are places of very great trade.
Now these are the several Provinces belonging to the Great Mogol, and all of them under his subjection, which may be beheld all together at one view in this most exact affixed Map, first [Page 90] made by the-especial observation & direction of that most able and honourable Gentleman Sir Thomas Row, here contracted into a less compass; yet large enough to demonstrate, that this great Empire is bounded on the East with the Kingdome of Maug; West, with Persia; and with the Main Ocean Southerly; North with the Mountain Caucasus and Tartaria, South with Decan and the Gulph of Bengala. Decan, lying in the skirts of Asia, is divided betwixt three Mahumeran Princes, and some other Indian Rhaiaes, which are Princes likewise. The length of these Provinces is North-west to South-west more than two thousand English miles; North and South the extent thereof is about fourteen hundred miles; the Southermost part lying in twenty, and the Northernmost in forty and three degrees of North Latitude.
The breadth of this much enlarged and far extended Empire is North-east to South-west about fifteen hundred of the same miles.
And here a great errour in Geographers must not escape my notice, who in their Globes and Maps make East-India and China near Neighbours, when as many large Countries are interposed betwixt them; which great distance may appear by the long travel of the Indian Merchants, who are usually (they going and returning all the way by Land) in their journey, and return, and some stay there, two full years from Agra to China.
Now to give an exact account of all those forenamed Provinces, were more than I am able to undertake; yet out of that which I have observed in some of them (by travelling many miles up into that Countrey and then up and down with my Lord Embassadour unto many places there in progress with that King) I shall adventure to ghess at all, and think for my particular, that the Great Mogol, considering his most large Territories, his full and great Treasures, with the many rich Commodities his Provinces afford, is the greatest and richest known King of the East, if not of the whole World.
THis most spacious and fertile Monarchy (called by the Inhabitants Indostan) so much abounds in all necessaries for the use and service of man, to feed, and cloath, and enrich him, as that it is able to subsist and flourish of it self, without the least help from any Neighbour-Prince or Nation.
Here I shall speak first of that which Nature requires most, Food, which this Empire brings forth in abundance; as, singular good Wheat, Rice, Barley, with divers more kinds of good Grain to make Bread (the staff of life) and all these sorts of Corn in their kinds, very good and exceeding cheap. For their Wheat, it is more full and more white than ours, of which the Inhabitants make such pure, well-relished Bread, that I may say of it, as one sometimes spake of the Bread made in the Bishoprick of Leige, it is Panis Pane melior, Bread better than Bread.
The ordinary sort of people eat Bread made of a coarser Grain, but both toothsome, and wholsome, and hearty; they make it up in broad Cakes, thick like our Oaten-cakes; and then bake it upon small round iron hearths, which [Page 93] they carry with them when they journey from place to place, making use of them in their Tents. It should seem to be an antient Custome in the East, as may appear by that president of Sarah when she entertained the Angels, who found her in her Tent; She took fine meal, and did knead it, and made Cakes thereof upon the hearth, Gen. 18. 6.
To their Bread they have great abundance of all other good Provision, as of Butter (beating their Cream into a substance like unto a thick Oyl, for in that hot Climate they can never make it hard) which though soft, yet it is very sweet and good. They have Cheese likewise in plenty, by reason of their great number of Kine, and Sheep, and Goats. Besides, they have a Beast very large, having a smooth thick skin without hair, called a Buffelo, which gives good milk; the flesh of them is like Beef, but neither so toothsome nor wholsome. These Buffeloes are much employed in carrying large skins of water (for they are very strong Beasts) which hang on both sides of them, unto Families that want it: their Hides make the most firm and excellent Buff.
They have no want of Venison of divers kinds, as Red-Deer, Fallow-Deer, Elks (which are very large, and strong, and fierce Creatures) Antilops, Kids, &c. but their Deer are no where imparked, the whole Empire being (as [Page 94] it were) a Forrest for them; for a man can travel no way but he shall here and there see of them. But because they are every mans Game that will make them so, they do not multiply to do them much hurt, either in their Corn, or other places.
To these, they have great store of Hares, and they have plenty of Fowls wild and tame, as abundance of Hens, Geese, Ducks, Pigeons, Turtle-Doves, Partriches, Peacocks, Quails, and many other singular good Fowl. They have variety of Fish; all which, by reason of their Plenty and because many of the Natives eat no kind of Flesh at all nor of any thing that hath or may have life, and those that feed on such things eat not freely of any of those living Creatures they are all bought there at such easy rates, as if they were not worth the valuing. They do not cut their Chickens when they be little to make Capons, and therefore they have no Creatures of that name, but men, their Eunuchs called there Cogees or Capons in their Language: so made, when they be very young, and then deprived of all that might after provoke jealousie; and therefore they are put to be attendants on their women, the great men of that Nation keeping many of them, a soft, tender people, tener Spado, as Juvenal cals one of them, that never come to have any Hair on their Faces.
But to return again to their Provisions, the Beeves of that Countrey differ from ours, in that there are none of them very large; and those they have, have each of them a great bunch of grisly flesh which grows upon the meeting of their shoulders. The flesh of their Beeves is much whiter than the flesh of ours, and very sweet, tender and good. Their Sheep differ from ours by their great fleshy Bob-tails, which severed from their bodies are very ponderous. Their Wool is generally coarse, but their flesh is not so.
Now to season all their good Provisions, there is great store of Salt; and to sweeten all, abundance of Sugar growing in that Countrey; which, after it is well refined, may be there had at a very low rate; out of which they make very pure white Sugar-Candy, which may be had there at a small easy Price likewise.
Their Fruits are every way answerable to the rest, the Countrey abounding in Musk-Melons (very much better, because they are better digested there by the heat of the Sun, than these with us). They have many Water-Melons, a very choyce good Fruit, and some of them as big as our ordinary Pompions, and in shape like them; the substance within this Fruit is spongie, but exceeding tender and well tasted, of a colour within equally mixed with red & white, [Page 96] and within that an excellent cooling and pleasing liquor. Here are likewise store of Pome-granats, Pome-citrons; here are Limons and Oranges, but I never found any there so good as I have seen elsewhere. Here are Dates, Figs, Grapes, Prunelloes, Almonds, Coquernuts (of which I observed something before) and here they have those most excellent Plums called Mirabolans, the stone of which Fruit differs very much from others in its shape, whereon Nature hath curiously quartered several strakes equally divided, very pretty to behold; many of which choyce Plums (they write) are very cordial, and therefore worth the prizing, are there well preserved, and sent for England.
They have to these another Fruit we English there call a Planten, of which many of them grow in Clusters together; long they are in shape, made like unto slender Cucumbers, and very yellow when they are Ripe, and then tast like unto a Norwich Pear, but much better. Another most excellent Fruit they have, called a Manggo, growing upon Trees as big as our Walnut-trees; and as these here, so those Trees there, will be very full of that most excellent Fruit, in shape and colour like unto our Apricocks, but much bigger; which taken and rolled in a mans hands when they are through ripe, the substance within them becomes like the pap of a roasted Apple, which then suck'd [Page 97] out from about a large stone they have within them, is delicately pleasing unto every Palate that tasts it. And to conclude with the best of all other their choyce Fruits, the An [...]anas, like unto our Pine-Apples, which seems to the Taster to be a most pleasing Compound made of Strawberies, Claret-wine, Rose-water and Sugar well tempered together. In the Northernmost parts of this Empire they have variety of Pears and Apples, every where good Roots, as Carrets, Potatoes, and others like them. They have Onions and Garlick, and some Herbs and small Roots for Salads; and in the Southern-most parts, Ginger growing almost in every place: the large Races whereof are there very excellently well preserved, as we may know by our tasting them in England. And all these things I have last named may be there likewise bought at very low rates And lastly, some one kind or other of their very good and choyce Fruits may be there had at every time or season of the Year.
And here I cannot chuse but take notice of a very pleasant and clear liquor, called Toddie issuing from a Spongie Tree, that grows strait and tall without Bowes to the top, and there spreads out in tender branches, very like unto those that grow from the Roots of our rank and rich Artichokes, but much bigger and longer. This Toddie-tree is not so big, but that it may [Page 98] be very easily embraced, and the nimble people of that Countrey will climb up as fast to the top thereof (the stem of the Tree being rough and crusty) as if they had the advantage of Ladders to help them up. In the top tender branches of those Trees they make incisions, which they open and stop again as they please, under which they hang Pots made of large and light Gourds, to preserve the influence which issues out of them in a large quantity in the night season, they stopping up those vents in the heat of the day. That which thus distils forth in the night, if it be taken very early in the morning, is as pleasing to the tast as any new White-wine, and much clearer than it. It is a very piercing, and medicinable, and moffensive drink, if taken betimes in the day, onely it is a little windy: but if it be kept till the heat of the day, the Sun alters it so, as if it made it another kind of liquor, for it becomes then very heady, not so well relished, and un-wholsome; and when it is so not a few of our drunken Sea-men chuse to drink it; and I think they so do, because it will then presently turn their brains; for there are too too many of the common sort of those men who use the Sea, who love those brutish distempers too much, which turn a man out of himself, and leave a Beast in the skin of a man. But for that drink, if it be taken in its best, and most proper season, I conceive it to be [Page 99] of it self very wholsome, because it provokes urine exceedingly; the further benefit whereof some there have found by happy experience, thereby eased from their torture inflicted, by that shame of Physicians, and Tyran of all Maladies, the Stone. And so cheap too is this most pleasing Wine, that a man may there have more than enough for a very little money.
At Surat, and so to Agra, and beyond, it seldome or never rains, but one season of the year; but yet there is a refreshing Dew during all that time the Heavens there are thus shut up, which every night fals, and cools, and comforts, and refresheth the face of the earth. Those general Rains begin near the time that the Sun comes to the Northern Tropick, and so continue till his return back to the Line. These showers at their beginning most extremely violent are usher'd in and usually take their leave with most fearful Tempests of Thunder. Lightning, more terrible than I can express, yet seldome do harm; the reason in Nature may be, the subtilty of the Air in those parts wherein there are fewer Thunder-stones made, than in such Climates where the Air is thick, gross, and cloudy. During those three months it rains usually every day more or less, sometimes one whole quarter of the Moon together, scarce without any intermission; which abundance of moysture, with the heat of the Sun, doth so [Page 100] enrich their Land, which they never force (if I observed right) by Soyling of it, as that, like Egypt, by the inundation of Nilus, it makes it fruitful all the year after. When the time of this Rain is passed over, the face of the Skye there is presently so serene and clear, as that scarcely one Cloud appears in their Hemisphere the nine months after.
And here a strong Argument that may further, and most infallibly shew the goodness of their Soyl, shall not escape my Pen, most apparent in this, That when the Ground there hath been destitute of Rain nine months together, and looks all of it like the barren Sands in the Deserts of Arabia, where there is not one spire of green Grass to be found, within a few daies after those fat enriching showers begin to fall, the face of the Earth there (as it were by a new Resurrection) is so revived, and throughout so renewed, as that it is presently covered all over with a pure green Mantle. And moreover, to confirm that which before I observed concerning the goodness of that Soyl, amongst many hundred Acres of Corn of divers kinds I have there beheld, I never saw any but what was very rich and good, standing as thick on the Ground as the Land could well bear it.
They till their Ground with Oxen and Foot-Ploughs, their Seed-time in May, and the beginning of June, they taking their time to dispatch [Page 101] all that work before that long Rainy season comes; and though the Ground then hath been all the time we named before without any sufficient moysture by showers, or otherwise, to supple and make it more fit for tilliage, yet the Soyl there is such a brittle fat mould (which they sow year after year) as that they can very easily till it. Their Harvest is in November and December, the most temperate months of all that year.
Their Ground is not enclosed, unless some small quanty near Towns and Villages, which stand scattered up and down this vast Empire very thick, though, for want of the true names, not inserted in the Map.
They mow not their Grass (as we) to make Hay, but cut it off the ground, either green, or withered, as they have occasion to use it.
They sow Tobacco in abundance, and they take it too very much, but after a strange way much different from us; for first, they have little Earthen Pots, shaped like our small Flower-pots, having a narrow neck, and an open round top, out of the belly of which comes a small spout, to the lower part of which spout they fill the Pot with water, then putting their Tobacco loose in the top, and a burning coal upon it, they having first fastned a very small strait hollow Cane or Reed (not bigger than a small Arrow) within that spout, a yard or ell [Page 102] long, the Pot standing on the ground, draw that smoak into their mouths, which first falls upon the Superficies of the water, and much discolours it. And this way of taking their Tobacco, they believe, makes it much more cool and wholsome. The Tobacco which grows there is doubtless in the Plant as good as in any other place of the world, but they know not how to cure and order it, like those in the West-Indies, to make it so rich and strong.
The Countrey is beautified with many Woods and Groves of Trees, in which those winged Choristers make sweet Musick. In those Woods some excellent Hawks make their nests, and there are very often to be seen great flocks of Parakeetoes, or little Parrats, who have their breeding and lodging amongst those Melancholy Shades. And (in the number of many other Creatures covered with Feathers) there are some very little Birds less than our Wrens, who are exceeding pretty, for their neat shape, and their covering, with most curious parti-colour'd Feathers, full of variety of little spots. I have seen there many of those rare Creatures kept together in large Cages, who please the Eye with their curious Colours, and the Ear with their variety of pleasant Notes. The Woods and Groves in the Southernmost parts of Indostan, have great store of wild Apes, and Monkeys, and Baboons in them, some of which I have seen [Page 103] as high as our tallest Greyhounds, which live among the Trees, and climbe them at pleasure. Those Apes, &c. are very terrible to those little Birds, which make their Nests in those Woods; and therefore Nature hath taught them this subtilty (to preserve their young ones from those Creatures which would otherwise destroy them) to build their Nests in the twigs, and the utmost boughs of those Trees, where some of them hang like little Purse-nets, to which those Apes and Monkeys, be they never so little and light, cannot come to hurt them. Besides their Woods, they have great variety of fair goodly Trees that stand here and there single, but I never saw any there of those kinds of Trees which England affords. They have very many firm and strong Timber-trees for building, and other uses; but much of their brush, or small wood, I observed to be very sappie, so that when we brake a twig of it, there would come a substance out of some of it, like unto Milk, and the sappiness of that underwood may (as I apprehend it) be ascribed in part to the fatness of that Soyl. Some of their Trees have Leaves upon them broad as Bucklers, others are parted small like out Fern or Brakes, as the Tamerine Tree, which bears Gods somewhat like our Beans, in which when the Fruit is ripe, there is a very well tasted pulp, though it [Page 104] be sowr, most wholsome to open the body, and to cool and cleanse the blood.
There is one very great and fair Tree growing in that Soyl, of special observation, out of whose Branches or great Arms grow little Sprigs downward till they take Root (as they will certainly do if they be let alone) and taking Root, at length prove strong supporters unto those large Branches that yield them. Whence it comes to pass, that those Trees in time (their strong and far-extended Arms being in many places thus supported) grow to a very great height, and extend themselves to such an incredible breadth, they growing round every way, as that hundreds of men may shade themselves under one of them at any time; the rather, because these, as all other Trees in those Southern parts of East-India (as particularly I observed before) still keep on their green Coats.
For their Flowers, they are for the generality like unto painted Weeds, which, though their colour be excellent, they rather delight the eye than affect the smell; for not many of them, except Roses, and some few kinds more; are any whit fragrant: Amongst them that are, there is one white Flower, like to Spanish Jessamin (if it be not the same) which is exceedingly well sented, of which they make a most excellent [Page 105] pure sweet Oyl, with which they anoynt their heads, and other parts of their bodies; which makes the company of those that do so very savoury and sweet. This Empire is watered with many goodly Rivers (as they are expressed in the Map) the two principal are Indus and Ganges; where this thing is very observable (for they say there that it is very true) that one pint of the water of Ganges weigheth less by one ounce than any other water in that whole great Monarchy. And therefore (they say) that the Mogol, wheresoever he is, hath water brought him from that River, that he may drink thereof, by some appointed for that service, who are continually either going to it, or coming from it: The water is brought unto the King in fine Copper Jars, excellently well tin'd on the inside, and sealed up when they are delivered to the Water-bearers for the King's use; two of which Jars every one carries, hanging upon Slings fitted for the Porter's shoulders.
Besides their Rivers, they have store of Wels fed with Springs; and to these, they have many Ponds, which they call Tanques, some of them exceeding large, fill'd with water when that abundance of Rain fals (of which more hereafter.)
That most antient and innocent Drink of the World, Water, is the common drink of [Page 106] East-India; it is far more pleasant and sweet than our water; and must needs be so, because in all hot Countries it is more rarified better digested, and freed from its rawne [...]s by the heat of the Sun, and therefore in those parts it is more desired of all that come thither, though they never made it their drink before, than any other liquor and agreeth better with mens bodies. Sometimes we boyl the water there with some wholsome seeds and after drink it cold, and then it is by much more cold after an heat. (Like unto some men, who have shewed formerly much zeal and heat for good, and afterward become more chill and cold than ever they were before) Sometimes we mingle our water there with the juice of Limons and Sugar, which makes an exceeding pleasant drink, which we call there Sherbet. Some small quantity of Wine, but not common, is made amongst them; they call it Ra [...]k, distilled from Sugar, and a spicy rinde of a Tree called Jagra; it is very wholsome, if taken very moderately.
Many of the people there, who are strict in their Religion, drink no Wine at all; but they use a Liquor more wholsome than pleasant, they call Coffee, made by a black seed boyled in water, which turns it almost into the same colour, but doth very little alter the tast of the water; notwithstanding it is very good to [Page 107] help digestion, to quicken the spirits, and to cleanse the blood.
There is yet another help for those that forbear Wine, by an Herb they have, called Beetle, or Paune, in shape somewhat like an Ivy-leaf, but more tender; they chew it with an hard Nut, somewhat like a Nutmeg (but not in tast like that) and a very little pure white-lime amongst the leaves, and when they have sucked down the juice, put forth the rest. It hath (as they say and I believe very much of it) many rare qualities, for it preserves the Teeth, strengthens the Stomack, comforts the Brain, and it cures or prevents a tainted Breath. This I am sure of that such is the pleasing smell of this Beetle, being chewed in a close room, that the breath of him so chewing it fils it with a very pleasing savour.
This Empire further affords very excellent good Horse, curiously made, high mettled, and well managed by the Natives. Besides their own, they have many of the Persian, Tartarian, and Arabian breed, which have the name to be the choyce ones of the World. But of these more when I come to speak of the Inhabitants.
Here are a great number of Camels, Dromedaries, Mules and Asses, imployed for the carriage of burthens, or the carrying of the people, to which use also they employ many [Page 108] of their Oxen, and their Buffeloes likewise. (which before I spake of) The Camels, as I oft observed there, have one strange quality, who cry and make a very piteous noyse at night, when they take off their burthens; but in the morning, when they are laid on, the poor Creatures are very still and quiet, making no noyse at all. Many wicked men, who are most fitly called by the Psalmist, the Beasts of the people, P [...]al. 68. [...]0. (for so it is in the Vulgar Translation, Beast [...] for want of Reason, and for not using Reason well, worse than Brutes) may be most fitly resembled by those dull Camels, who being burthen'd and clogg'd with a great load of sin already, enough to press them down into that bottomless pit, seem to feel nothing, nor to complain at all, but with much quiet and content keep on their burthens and take up, more still; as if that wickedness, which the Prophet Zachary, 5. 7. compares to a Talent of Lead, were as light as a Feather. But when we go about by our Exhortations, Intreaties, Perswasions of them, and by the strongest Arguments besides we can invent, press them to suffer God through Christ Jesus to save their souls, and consequently to get themselves freed from that most intollerable burthen, which will unavoydably sink them into Hell at last, if they be not freed from it; then these, like those stupid Creatures, cry and complain, and seem to [Page 109] be much disquieted, as if we did them much wrong, while we labour to do them the greatest right. The reason is, because their Pride (as every beloved sin besides) compasseth them as a Chain, Psal. 73. 6. it is their Jewel, their Ornament (as they think) and therefore they will keep it, they will not part from it, though it be their greatest shame, because they esteem it their chiefest Glory. I would intreat my Reader, when he comes to this digression, to read it over and over again.
The Dromedary is called by the Prophet Jeremy, 2. 23. the swift Dromedary; the reason may be, because these, like the Camels, have very long legs, and consequently make long steps, and so travelling rid ground apace; or because at a pinch, or time of need, they will carry a man exceeding far without rest, and but with a very little food.
They have some Rhynocerots, but they are not common, which are very large square Beasts, bigger than the largest Oxen England affords; their skins, without hair, lye in great wrinkles upon their necks, breasts and backs, which doth not make them seem lovely unto the beholders. They have very strong, but short Horns, growing upon very firm bones, that lye over their Nostrils; they grow upwards, towards the top of their head, every one of these Creatures being fortified with one of them, and that enough [Page 110] to make them so terrible, that they are shunn'd by other, though very large Creatures. With these Horns (from which those Creatures have their Names) are made very excellent Cups, which (as is conceived) give some virtue unto the liquor put into them, if it stand any whit long in those Cups.
And now to conclude with the largest and the most intelligent (as we shall hereafter shew) of all the sensible Creatures the Earth produceth, the Elephant, of which this vast Monarchy hath abundance; and of them, the Mogol is Master of many thousands; and his Nobles, and all men of quality besides, in those large Territories, have more or less of them. But of these much shall be spoken in my sixt Section.
I observed before, that the Inhabitants of this Empire did carry most of their burthens upon the backs of their Beasts, and in a special manner this people employ their Camels and Dromedaries for this use, to carry their Merchandizes from place to place, and therefore I shall let my Reader see
THE most Staple Commodities of this Empire are Indico and Cotten-Wool; of that Wool they make divers sorts of Callico, which had that name (as I suppose) from Callicute, not far from Goa, where that kind of Cloth was first bought by the Portugals.
For the Spices brought hither by the East-India Fleet they are had more Southerly; from the Islands of Sumatra, from Java major and minor, from the Moluccoes, and from other places thereabout: In which, as in the Molucco Islands, and those other parts too from whence the richest Spices come, the Low-Countrey Merchants have got such footing, and such a particular interest, that our English Factors there (for the present) buy those Commodities, as we sometimes do buy Provisions and Commodities here at home, out of the engrossing Hucksters hands: So that our English in those parts have a free Trade for no kind of Spice, but for that, which is one of the lowest prized, namely Pepper, which they fetch from Bant [...]. Which more general Trade of the Dutch, they have [Page 112] formerly gained, at a very vast expence, by fortifying themselves there, i [...] the places whereever they settle; and then standing upon their Guard, put a kind of force upon the Natives to fell them their Commodities.
What the carriage of that people hath formerly been in those parts towards our English, (where th [...]Sword hath been longest) is sufficiently made known by other Pens: This I may conclude from their example (and I would that they were singular and alone in it) that when a people will not be ordered by that Royal Law, which commands us, Mat. 7. 12. to do nothing, but what we would be content to suffer: as to do nothing unto other's, but what we would be well content to suffer from others: But on the contrary when they measure things, not by the strait and even Rule of Equity, but by the crooked and oblique Line of Power arming their In justice to do what they please, because they can do what they will; This causeth many to make very bold with God in cases that seem to give advantage unto their high Thoughts and Commodities: for what evil cannot Ambition and Covetousness do, when they are back [...] with an arbitrary and unlimited power here below, if they be not ch [...]by a stronger Arm from above? Whence we se [...] it often come to pass, that when the Laws of Nature and Nations, yea of God himself, lye in the way of their profit, [Page 113] or earthly advantages (whatever their sufferings or loss be afterward) they either spurn them thence, or else tread and trample upon them at pleasure, to compass their ends for the present. This I can say of the Dutch (something from my own knowledge, but more from the report of others) that when I lived in those parts, and we English there were more for number than they, and consequently could receive no hurt from them, we there used them as Neighbours and Brethren; but in other places, where they had the like advantage of us, they dealt with us neither like Christians, nor Men. But I will not here any longer digress, but return to speak further of the Commodities to be had in East-India. The Indico we bring thence, is a good, and a rich Commodity. It is there made of little leaves, not bigger than those on our Gooseberry bushes, and the shrubs that bear those leaves are about their bigness. These leaves they slip off from the small branches of those bushes, which grow with round and full heads without pricks. The leaves thus stripp'd off, are laid in great heaps together certain daies, till they have been in a hot sweat; then are they removed, and put into very great and deep Ve [...]sels fill'd with a sufficient quantity of water to sleep them in, where they leave their blew tincture, with their substance! this done, the water is drain'd out [Page 114] into other exceeding broad, but very shallow Vessels or Vats, made of Plaister (like to that we call Plaister of Paris) which will keep in all the Liquor till the hot Sun in short time extracts the moysture from it; and then what remains in the bottom, is a Cream about one quarter of an inch thick, which suddenly becomes hard, and dry, and that is our Indico; the best sort whereof comes from Biana, near unto Agra, and a coarser sort is made at Cirkeese, not far from Amadanaz; about which two places are a very great number of those shrubs planted which bear those leaves.
For their Cotton-wool, they sow seed, and very large quantities of Ground in East-India are thus seeded. It grows up like small Rose-b [...]shes; and then puts forth many yellow blossoms; those afterward falling off, there remain little Gods, about the bigness of a Man's thumb, in which the substance at first is moyst, and yellow; but as they ripen, they swell bigger, till they break their Covering, and after, in short time, that within them becomes Wool, as white as Snow, and then they gather it. Amongst that Wool they find seeds to sow again as they have occasion; but those shrubs bear that Wool three or four years e're they supplant them. Of this Cotton-wool they make divers sorts of white Cloth (as before I observed) some broad, some narrow, some coarse, some sine, and very fine indeed, [Page 115] for some that I have seen there I believe was as fine as our purest Lawn. Much of the coarser sort of that Cloth they dye into Colours, or else stain in it variety of well-shaped and well-coloured Flowers or Figures, which are so fixed in the Cloth, that no water can wash them out. That pretty art of staining, or printing and fixing those variety of Colours in that white Cloth, the People of Asia have engrossed to themselves, where the most curious Pint [...]daes are made; whither neighbouring, as well as more remote Nations, bring their Monies to fetch them thence.
In Decan, which bounds upon the Mogol's Territories South (the Princes whereof are Tributaries unto him) there are many Diamond Rocks, in which are found those most pretious of all other Stones; and they are to be sold in this Empire; and consequently to be had by those who have skill to buy them and Money to pay for them. But as all the Stones in East-India are not pretious so those that are, the Natives know very well how to value.
But further, for the Merchandizing Commodities the Mogol's Provinces afford, there is Musk (by reason of their abundance of Musk-Cats) to be had in good quantity; and there are Bezar-stones, which are not so called from any Beast of that name, but they grow in the maws of Goats, which when they observe to [Page 116] grow exceeding lean, they kill them, and find those Stones in them; and if they did not so, that Stone in them would make an end of them; by which we may observe, how that pretious Bezar-stone, that proves, many times, such a Cordial, and Preservative to the Life of Man, is destructive and mortal unto the poor Creature from whence it is taken: Like that pretious Word of God, that may proceed from the lips of him that hath a lean soul, and may do others good, but himself nothing but mischief. The greatest number of those Goats, from whence those Bezars are taken, feed on the Mountains of Lar in the Persian's Territories, the West bound (as before) of the Mogol's great Empire.
They have some store of Silk here; but the greatest quantity of that rich Commodity, that any place in the whole World affords, comes out of Georgia, a Province belonging unto the King of Persia. Those Georgians and Armenians, (both under the Command of the Persian King) are by profession Christians, like those of the Greek Church. And the Abissins, under the Command of Prester John, are in profession Christians likewise, but these Abissins circumcise their Males before they baptize them. Alas poor People! who for want of better instruction cannot know what they should, and therefore know not what they do. All those Armenians, [Page 117] Georgians, and Abissins (as I have it from others, but can relate something of it out of my own knowledge) even all of them see Christ but in the dark, and by reason of the general ignorance that is in them, cannot know God as they ought in Jesus Christ. These are the different cases of many which profess Christ in the World; some cannot know him, some care not to know him, and some will not know him; Amongst the first of these, they all may be ranked whom I but now named, as many others of the Greek, and those that profess Christianity in Russian Churches, with many-many others of the Romish, who have the Truths of God sealed up in an unknown tongue, to keep, and to continue them in ignorance; who instead of the two Breasts of the Church, the Law, and the Gospel, are fed with mouldy and finnowed Traditions; and their case being so, our Charity towards them may lead us thus far, to believe, that they would do better, if they knew better; and this may speak much in their excuse. But what plea may be made for us of this Nation, that do not what we know; or if we be ignorant, it is because we will be so; not because we cannot know, but because we care not for knowledge, and will not know?
But to return to the place where I began my last digression; I told you that the People there have some store of Silk, of which they [Page 118] make Velvets, Settins, Taffat [...]es, either plain, or mingled, or striped in party-colours; but the best of them for richness and goodness come not near those which are made in the parts of Italy.
Many curious Boxes, Trunks, Standishes, Car [...]ets, with other excellent Manufactures, may be there had. They have medicinable Drugs, and amongst them very much Cassia growing there in Canes. They have Gums well sented, and much Lignum Aloes, which burnt, yields a perfume better than any one thing in the World that I ever smelled. They have great store of Gum-lac, of which they make their hard Wax, and that Gum likewise they there imploy for many other [...]eat usis. The Earth there yields good Minerals of Lead Iron, Copper, Brass; and (they say) that they have Silver-Mines too, which (if true) they need not open, being so enriched from other Nations of Europe, and other parts [...]who yearly bring thither great Quantities of Silver to purchase their Com [...]modities. Which I collect from our English Trade there; for though we [...]ent some quantity of our Woollen Cloth, with some other things we carry thithe [...], yet the greatest part by far of Commodities brought thence [...] are caught by the Silver hook. And this is the way to make any Nation of the World rich to bring, and leave Silver in it, and to take away Commodities.
And, as all Rivers run into the Sea: so many Silver Streams run into this Monarchy, and there stay; the People of any Nation being there very welcome that bring in their Bull [...]on, and carry away the others Merchandizes, but it is look'd on as a Crime that is not easily answered, to transport any quantity of Silver thence.
The Coyn, or Bullion brought thither from any place, is presently melted, and refined, and the Mogol's Stamp (which is his Name, and Titles, in Persian Characters) put upon it. The Coyn there is more pure than in any other part of the World, being (as they report) made of pure Silver without any Allay; so that in the Spanish Money, the purest of all Eur [...]pe, there is some loss.
They call their pieces of Money Roopees, of which there are [...]ome of dive [...]s values, the meanest worth two shillings and three pence, and the best two shillings and nine pence sterling. By these they account their Estates and Payments. They have another Coyn of inferiour value in Guzarat, called Mamoodies, about twelve pence sterling; both the former, and these, are made in halfs, and some few in quarters; so that three pence is the least piece of Silver current in those Countryes, and very few of them to be seen. That which passeth up and down for exchange under this rate, is Brass or Copper [Page 120] money, which they call Pices; whereof three, or thereabouts, countervail a Penny. Those pices are made so massie, and thick, as that the baser-metal of which they are made, put to other uses, is well-nigh worth the Silver they are rated at. Their Silver Coyn is made either round or square, but so thick, as that it never breaks, nor wears out. They have pure Gold Coyn likewise, some pieces of great value; but these are not very ordinarily seen amongst them.
I have now done with this Section, wherein I have related much of the Commodities, Riches, as before of the Provisions and Pleasures which are to be found in that vast Monarchy, and I conceive nothing but what Truth will justifie. And now, lest that place I have describ'd, should seem to be an Earthly Paradise, I must acquaint my Reader, that the Contents there found by such as have lived in those parts; are sour'd and sauc'd with many unpleasing things, which he must needs know, when he takes notice
THe Inhabitants in generall of Indostan were all antiently Gentiles, called in generall Hindoes, belonging to that very great number of those which are called Heathens, which take up almost two thirds of the number of the people who Inhabit the face of the whole earth: But of this [Page 128] more hereafter. There are some Jewes (but they are not many) here and there scattered and lost as it were, in those other great numbers of people; the greatest company of Jewes now to be found together in any one place of the world (as I have been made to believe from the observation of others) are to be seen at Grand Cairo in Egypt, whither they are returned, and where setled, to take their fill of their fore-fathers Flesh-pots. For the Inhabitants of East-India, ever since they were subdued by Tamberlain, they have been mixed with Mahumetans, which though they be by far in respect of their number less than those Pagans, yet they bear all the sway, and command all in those Countreys.
There are besides these, (now become as it were natives there) a great number of Persians and Tartars (who are Mahumetans by Religion) that there inhabit, very many of which the Mogol keeps for Souldiers to serve on hors-back called there Haddees: There are of both these many daring, stout, hardy and valiant men. For the Persians there are of them many comely persons, not so swart as those of East-India. But for the Tartars I have there seen, (and I have seen many of them) they are more to be commended for their valour than beauty, a square, stout, strong people, having pla [...]ter faces, and flat Noses. There are many Armentans and some Abissins amongst them, who wear the [Page 129] Livery of Christ in being called Christians, the greatest part of whose Christianity lyes in their Name. Those Armenians there make some wine to sell, of Reysons, Sugar, and other ingredients, that is strong and heady, and luscious, tasted too much by many Christians that Come thither, as by those too that make it. Of the green grapes there, though they have abundance and they great, and sweet, and good, yet they make no wine at all: The Mahumetans (in obedience to a precept of Mahumets which forbids wine) neither make, nor drink it, and others are not suffered there to make it of those green grapes, for fear (as I suppose) they should make, and drink too much of it.
To those I have named of other nations, (that are to be seen in East-India) there are besides some few almost of every people in Asia, and many Europeans of divers parts (that use to stirre from their own fires) to be found amongst them; and among that great variety of people and nations there to be observed, I have taken speciall notice of divers Chinesaas, and Japanesaas there, and those I have seen of them for the generality, are a people of no large stature, with little eyes, and noses something flatted, de tribus Capillis, with a few black hayres that stand scattered on their upper lipps, which make them as handsome beards as are to be seen on our Hares, or Catts.
There are some Jewes here (as before I observed) whose stubbornness and Rebellion, long agoe, caused Almighty God to threaten them, that they should be after sifted, and scattered aamong all the Nations of the world. So the Prophet Jeremy speaks Jer. 24. 9. That God would deliver them, to be removed into all the Kingdomes of the earth, for their hure, to be a reproach, and a Proverb, and a taunt, and a curse, in all places whither he should drive them. And Jer. 42. 18. they were threatned to be made an execration and an astonishment, &c. and so after it came to pass, For, there is no word of the Lord that shall fall to the ground, unfulfilled. And since those prophesies, that antient imprecation of their own spoken against themselves in derision of our Blessed Saviour, Mat. 27. 25. His Blood be on us, and on our Children followes them close all the world over, they beeing every where strangers, but no where beloved, though they be a people that get wealth wheresoever they come, yet this frees them not from being a Proverb (as was long before prophesied) of contempt and reproach.
Those ancient Satyrists Persius, and Juvenal, after that most horrid act committed by them in Crucifying our B. Saviour (though not in respect unto that most cruell action, for they were Heathens) yet they call them Verpos, that is circumcised, Worms, vermin. Tacitus after gives the [Page 131] a most unsavoury Epit [...]ite, calling them foetentes Judaeos, stinking Jewes. Marcus the Emperor observing them well, concluded that they were a generation of men worse than savages or Canibals, to be even the worst of men, as if they were the very refuse and dreggs of mankind.
How usuall is that Proverb, that when men are suspected to do otherwise than they should, to answer, what, am I Jew, that I should do so, and so? I have observed something to this purpose, from the people of East-India, who are very valiant at tongue-fights, though not so with their weapons (as you will hear afterward) that people I say, who have a very nimble but a base quality in rayling at, and miscalling one another, and their language is so full, and significant, that they can call a man in it, two or three base things in one word; But when they come to call him, whom they miscall, Judeo Jew, they believe (as I have been often told) that they can goe no higher, esteeming that, above all other tearms, the heighest name of obloqu [...]. Yet we do believe, (because the Lord hath promised it) that he will finde a time to call home this people again to himself, when they shall receive honour above all the contempt they have been long under, after they shall see with sorrow, and with the eye of faith, Him, [...]their Forefathers, out of ignorance, a [...] and unbelief Pierced.
For the stature of the Natives of East-India they are like us, but generally very streight, for I never observed, nor heard of, any crooked person amongst them. And one reason may be, because they never lace nor g [...]rt in their b [...]dyes, and when they sleep, they accustome themselves to stretch out their bodyes at their full length without any thing to raise up their heads. And further amongst many other things I take speciall notice of there, I never observed any deformed person, nor Idiot, or naturall fool in those parts. Now for the co~plexion of this people, they are all of them of a sad tawney or Olive colour, their hair black as a Raven, very harsh, but not curl'd. They like not a man or woman that is very white or fair, because that (as they say) is the colour of Lepers common amongst them. Most of the Mahumetans except the Moola [...]s (which are their Priests) or those which are very old and retyred, and have (as it were) given the world quite over, keep their chinns continually bare, but suffer the hair on their upper lipp [...] to grow very long; and they keep it in its naturall colour by combing it continually with black-lead combes, till they be of good yeares; but afterward, when time hath so snowed upon them, that they can no longer keep in nor conceal their gray haires, [...] use the Rasor (as they did) no more but let [...]of their chins to grow long and large, [Page 133] which makes many gray-beards amongst them, and I conceive that there are of those, many old men. And further it is the manner of the Mahumetans to shav [...] all the hair from off their heads, reserving only one lock on the crown of them for Mahume [...] to pull them up to heaven (as they fondly conceit). The Hindooes shave their heads likewise, but cut all off, and both of them, shave thus and that very often, but however their baldnes appe [...]res not at all, because their Heads are continually covered with a shash, or a wreath of narrow Callico-cloth many times wrapt about them (usually for the colour white, or red) which they never pull off as we doe our hatts in complements. Their much and often shaving makes many excellent Barbers amongst them, who besides their Sizers and Rasors use a little instrument about the length of a short bodkin, very sharp, made like a chizell, but not broader at the cutting end than the shank of a six-penny nayl, with which they pare and cleanse the nayles on their fingers, and toes. Every Barber carryes alwayes about him, a round looking-glass made of steel, about the compass of a large tr [...]ncherplate, made somewhat hollow, and kept by them exceeding clean and sleek, so that it will represent the face of him that beholds it on the convex side very well. These Babers, as they walk up and down, often present these glasses unto [Page 134] men whom they finde sitting still, which is a tender of their service if they shall please to make use of them. The people there often wash their bodyes, and keep their feet as clean and as sweet as their hands. The better sort annoint themselves very much with sweet oyles, which makes their company (as before I observed) very savoury.
The Natives there (of which there is something before in my third Section) shew very much ingenuity in their curious manifactures; as in their silk stuffs which they most artificially weave, some of them very nearly mingled either with silver or gold, or both. As also in making excellent quilts of their stayned cloth, or of fresh coloured Taffata lined with their Pintado [...]t, or of their satten lined with Taffata, betwixt which they put Cotton wooll, and work them together with silk. Those Taffata or Satten quilts, are excellently stitched by them, being done as evenly, and in as good order, as if they had been drawn out to them, for their direction, the better to work them. They make likewise excellent carpetts of their Cotten-wool, in fine mingled colours, some of them more than three yards broad, and of a great lenghth. Some other Richer Carpets they make all of Silk, so artificially mixed, as that they lively represent those flowers, & figures made in them. The ground of some other o their very Rich Carpets is Silver or Gold, abou [...] [Page 135] which are such silken flowers, and Figures (as before I named) most excellently and orderly disposed throughout the whole worke. Their skill is likewise exquisite in making of Cabinetts, or Boxes, or Trunks, or standishes, curiously wrought, within, and without; inlaid with Elephants tooth, or Mother of Pearl, or Ebony, or [...]ortoyse shell, or wire; they make excellent Cupps, and others things of Agate, and Cornelian, and curious they are in cutting all manner of stones Diamonds as well as others.
They paint staves, or bedsteads or cheasts of Boxes, or Fruit dishes, or large Chargers, extreme neatly, which, when they be not inlayd (as before) they cover the wood (first being handsomely turnd) with a [...]hick Gumme, then put their Paint on, most artificially made of liquid silver, or gold, or other lively colours, which they use, and after make it much more beautifull with a very cleer varnish put upon it.
They are excellent at Limning, and will coppie out any picture they see to the life: for confirmation of which, take this instance; It happened that my Lord Ambassadour visiting the Mogol on a time, as he did often, He presented him with a curious neat small oval Picture done to the life in England. The Mogol was much pleased with it; but told the Ambassadour withall, that happily he supposed that there was never a one in his Countrey that could do so well in that [Page 136] curious Art, and then offered to wager with him a Leck of Roopies (a sum which amounted to no less then 10000 l. sterl.) that in a few dayes he would have two Coppies made by that presented to him, so like, that the Ambassadour should not know his own. He refused the great Wager, but told the King he would adventure his judgment on it: Two Coppies taken from that Originall were within few dayes after made, and brought & laid before the Ambassadour, in the presence of the King; the Ambassadour viewing them long, either out of Courtship to please the King, or else unable to make a difference 'twixt the pictures being all exquisitly done, took one of them which was new made, for that which he had formerly presented, and did after Profess that he did not flatter, but mistake in that choise. The truth is, that the Natives of that Monarchy are the best Apes for imitation in the world, so full of ingenuity that they will make any new thing by pattern, how hard soever it seem to be done, and therefore it is no marvell, if the Natives there make Shooes, and Boots, and Clothes, and Linnen, and Bands and Cuffs of our English Fashion, which are all of them very much different from their fashions and habits, and yet make them all exceeding neatly.
They have Markets, which they call Bazars, to sell and buy their commodities, in all their great Towns twice every day, a little before, and [Page 137] an hour after Sun rising in the morning, and so a little before and a little after Sun-set at night. The other parts of the day being too hot for those great confluences of people to meet together; and those are the seasons we English-men there make use of, to ride abroad and take the air, the rest of the day we usually spend in our houses. The people there [...]ell almost all their provisions, as very many other things, by weight.
For the forein Trade of this people, it is usually once a year into the Red Sea to a City called Moha in Arabia the happy, about thirty leagues from the mouth of it; It is a principall Mart for all Indian commodities, but the staple and most principall there vented is their Cotten-cloth, either white, or steyned, and their Cotten-wooll. Hither they come from grand Cairo in Egypt, as from many other parts of the Turks Dominions to trafique; Hither they come from Prester Johns Countrey which lyes on the other side of the Arabian Golfe (for so the Red Sea is there called) and not above fourteen leagues over at the City Moha.
The Ship or Junk (for so it is called) that usually goes from Surat to Moha is of an exceeding great burden, some of them I believe fourteen or fifteen hundred Tunns, or more, but those huge vessels are bery ill built, like an over-grown Liter, broad and short, but made exceeding big, on purpose to waff passengers forward [Page 138] and backward: which are Mahumetans, who goe on purpose to visit Mahomets sepulcher, at Medina neer Mecha, but many miles beyond Moha. The passengers, and others in that most capacious vessell that went and returned that year I left India, (as we were credibly told) amounted to the number of seventeen hundred. Those Mahumetans that have visited Mahumets Sepulcher, are ever after called Hoggees, or holy men.
This Junk bound from Surat to the Red-Sea, as she hath many people in her, so hath she good Ordinance, but those Navigators know not well how to use them for their defence. She begins her voyage about the twentieth of March, and finisheth it, about the end of September following. The voyage is but short, and might easily be made in less than three moneths, but the ship is very slow, and ill-built to abide foul weather, and in the long season of the rain, and a little before and after it, the winds upon those coasts are commonly so violent that there is no comming but with much hazard into the Indian Sea. This Ship returning is usually worth (as I have heard it faithfully reported and if my credit given to that report make me not to abuse my Readers two hundred thousand pounds ster [...]g, and most of it brought back in good Gold and Silver; some fine Chamlets they bring with them home likewise, but that huge mass of [Page 139] wealth thus brought home into India, is another especiall thing, and might have been added to that I spake of before towards the continuall enriching of this great Monarchy: where, in the next place I shall speak
The Elephants in this vast Monarchy are very numerous, and though they be the largest, and that by far, of all the Creatures the earth brings forth, yet are they so tractable, unless at some times when the Males are mad (of which more afterward) as that a boy of twelve years old is able to rule the biggest of them [Page 142] for the Elephants (I have begun to speak of) they are very huge vast overgrown Creatures, some of whem which I have seen, I conceive [Page 143] at the least twelve foot high, but there are amongst them (as they say) fourteen or fifteen foot in height. The colour of them all is black; their skins thick, and smooth without hair; They have full eyes, but not proportionable to their great bodys, they have eares like our Oxen, but not exceeding large, and those eares edged (as it were) about with a short hair-fringe; and at the end of their tayls (which are slender and not very long) there growes some hair likewise, and a little on their eyelids; but no where els about their bodyes. The feet of the Elephants look like the trunks of small trees cut square off from their roots, round about which there are thick, and short, and broad claws growing.
Their motion is not swift, a walking rather than a pace, about three miles at the most an hour, but of all heasts that carry burdens, they are most sure of foot, for they never fall, nor yet stumble to endanger their Rider.
They are most docile creatures, and of all those we account meerly sensible come neerest unto reason.
Those Trunks of the Elephants are to them as an hand by which they [...]eed themselves, and make great use of them otherwise upon all occasions, for with those Trunks they tear off bowghs [Page 147] from trees, by winding them about them, and after, with them, put boughs into their mouths, and eat the tenderest parts of them. With these they pull up green corn (if they be suffered) and grass by the roots, and then against their leggs beat off the earth and dust that hangs about them, before they eat thereof. Thus they deal with sedgs, or weeds which they find in the water, first washing off the dirt which hangs on the roots thereof, and then down they go into their vast bellyes. The Elephants delight much to bathe themselves in water, in which, when they find depth enough, they swim as well as any other Creatures.
The Mogol hath many of his great Elephants train'd up for the war, who carry each of them one iron gun, about five foot long, lying upon a strong frame of wood, made square that is fitted to a thick broad Pannel fastned about him; with very strong and broad Girses or Girts. The gun like an Harquebush hath a peece of iron like a Musket-rest fastned on the sides thereof, made loose to play up and down. The bottome of that Iron Rest so fixed, is long, to be let through that frame of wood on the foreside, and so to be keyed in at the bottom. At the four corners of this frame are small flags of silk, with sundry devices painted on them, put upon little neat coloured staves; upon the neck of the Elephant sits a man to guide him, and within the frame a Gunner, to make his shot as he finds occasion. The peece thus mounted, carrves a bullet about the bigness of a Tennis Ball.
Some Elephants the King keeps for the execution [Page 152] of Malefactors, the manner how, followes in Section 23. And some he keeps to carry himself, and women; and some Elephants are kept for State (of which more when I shall come to speak more particularly of the great Mogol.) Other Elephants are there imployed for the carrying of burdens their strength being so great as that they will bear a marvailous weight. The Elephants are all governed with a small rod of steel about half a yard long, made sharp on the lower end, and towards that end there is an hook returned, life a fish-hook, that is very sharp likewise, by which their Riders sitting on their necks, pull them back, or prick them forward at their pleasure.
These vast Creatures, though the Countrey be exceeding fruitfull, and all provisions in it cheap, yet by reason of their huge bulk, if they be well kept and fed, are very chargeable in keeping; they are kept usually under the shade of great trees, where by a strong chain of iron upon one of their hinde leggs they fasten them. And as they stand, the abundance of flyes vex them, and therefore with their fore-feet they make dust, (the ground usually being very dry) and with their Trunks cast the dust about their bodyes to drive away those flyes from them.
But to return unto the place from whence I am now digressed. I travelled from Surat with four Englishmen more, and about twenty of the Natives in our Company, we beginning our journey the first of January towards Sir Thomas Row, at the Mogols Court, then above [Page 172] four hundred miles distant from Surat. We had six wagons drawn with Oxen, in our Company, laden with rich English goods (the principal part whereof was English broad cloth) assign'd to an English Merchant at the Court, and some other Carriages we had, of all which we made a ring every night neer some large Town or Village, where we resolved to stay, and pitched our Huts within that Circle, some of us watching, and the Natives with us, every night; we went on that long journey very safely, only in some places where there was any suspicion of danger, we had a guard of horse appointed to go with us for our defence, by the Command of Sultan Caroon the Prince, and now King, (who had his revenue out of those parts we then travelled thorough) who sent a Footman, that continually kept us company, with his letters to command a Company of Souldiers that were horsemen, to guard us where he thought good, who as they did not expect, so they would take no recompence for their paines, though we freely offered it them. But the providence of God did so order it, that though we had their company in several places, we never had need of their help for our defence. The truth is, that the people there in general are very civil, and we never had any affronts or ill usage from them, if we did not first provoke them.
When my Lord Ambassadour at first arrived at Surat, it so was, that an English Cook he carried with him, the very first day of his comming thither, found a way to an Armenian Christians house, who sold wine in that place, they call Armenian Wine. But (by the way) I do believe that there was scarce another in that populous City of that trade; the greater shame for those whosoever they be that suffer so many unnecessary tipling-houses (in the places where they have power to restrain them) which are the Devills nursery, the very Tents wherein Sathan dwells, where Almighty God receives abundance of dishonour, drun keness being a sin which hath hands and fingers to draw all other sins unto it; For a drunkard can [Page 174] do any thing, or be any thing but good. That Armenian Wine I speak of is made of Reysons of the Sun and Sugar, with some other things pur and boyled in water, which Wine, when it is ripe and cleer, is in Colour like to our Muscadels, pleasant enough to the tast, but heavy and heady. The Cook had his head quickly over-freighted with it, and then staggering homeward, in his way met the Governors Brother of Surat, as he was riding to his house, the Cook made a stand, staying himself up upon his sword & scabbard, and cry'd out to the Governours Brother, Now thou Heathen dog. He not understanding his foul language, replyed civilly in his own Ca-ca-ta, which signifies, what sayest thou? the Cook answered him with his sword and scabbard, with which he strook at at him, but was immediatly seised on by his followers, and by them disarm'd and carried to Prison; the Ambassadour had present intelligence of the misbehaviour of his drunken servant, and immediatly sent word unto the Governours Brother, that he was not come thither to patronize any disorderly person, and therefore desir'd him to do with him what he pleased, upon which he presently sent him home, not doing him the least hurt. But before I leave this storie, it will not be amiss to enquire who was the Heathen dog at this time, whether the debaucht drunken Cook who call'd [Page 175] himself a Christian, or that sober and temperate Mahometan who was thus affronted.
I Observed before the Richness of their Soyl, and how those Provinces are watered by many goodly Rivers, fed with abundance of Springs and how their fields are clothed with very much plenty of Corn of divers kind, sold there at such low rates that every one may there eat bread without scarceness.
Now I come to take notice of their buildings; and here I must tell my Reader, that this people are not much taken or infected with that plague of building (as the Italians call it) wishing the love of it as a Curse to posses the thoughts of them they most hate; and therefore, as the stones in India are not all precious, so the houses there are not at all Palaces; the poor there cannot erect for their dwellings fair Piles, and the Grandees do not cover their heads under such curious Roofs, as many of the Europeans doe; the reason, first, because all the [Page 188] great men there live a great part of the year, (in which their Moneths are more temperate, as from the middle of September, to the middest of April) in Tents, Pavilions, or moveable habitations, which, according to their Fancyes, they remoove from place to place, changing their air as often as they please. And secondly, because all the great men there have their Pensions and whole subsistence from the King, which they hold upon very fickle and uncertain tearmes; for as they are setled upon, and continued unto them by the Kings favour, so are they forfeited and lost by his frown. Of which more afterward.
Yet though they make not much use of them, they have in plenty, excellent good materials for building, as Timber, Bricks, stone and marble of divers kinds and colours, of which I have seen some very good Vaults and Arches, well wrought, as in their Mosquits or Churches, so in some of their high erected Tombos, (of which more afterward) and so in some other places likewise.
For their buildings in Cities and Towns, there are some of them handsome, others fair, such as are inhabited by Merchants, and none of them very despicable.
They build their houses low, not above two stories, and many of their topps flat, and thick, which keep off the violence of the heat, and [Page 189] those flat topps supported with strong Timber, and coated over with a plaster (like that we call plaster of Paris) keep them dry in the times of the Raines. Those broad [...]arases, or flat Roofs, some of them loftie, are places where many people may stand (and so they often doe) early in the morning, and in the evening late, like Camelions, to draw, and drink in fresh ayr; and they are made after this fashion, for prospect, as well as pleasure.
After this manner (as it appeares in the sacred storie) the Jewes were wont to build, for David from the Roof of his house, 2 Sam. 11. 2. espies an object, &c. such a one, as if God had not been very mercifull, was sufficient to have undone him for ever, as they write of the Basilisk, that it kills by sight.
By the way, let me here further adde, that Davids eyes thus wandred to fetch home a temptation, immediatly after he had risen from the bed of idlleness and ease; for while he was imployed in business, he was innocent and safe. The industrious have not such leisure to sin, as the idle have, who have neither leisure, nor power to avoid it. Exercise, as it is wholesome for the body, even so for the soul. The remission whereof breeds diseases in both.
David from the roof of his house sees Bathsheba, when probably she saw not him; lust is [Page 190] quick-sighted. David had no sooner seen that object, but his eyes presently betray, and recoyl upon his Heart, smiting it with sinfull desires, which made him to covet her; and presently to send for her, that he might enjoy her.
That which David here did, (and afterward grievously repents for so doing,) shall one day be the wofull song of many a wretched soul; as the Lascivious mans song; the Covetous mans song, the song of Theeves, Idolaters, Gluttons, Drunkards, as of others. I saw, I coveted, I took, for all these receive their death, by their eye.
There Bathsheba was washing herself from her uncleaness, and presently after in an Adulterous bed, became more unclean than ever she was before; never was Bathsheba more foul than when she was newly washed, the worst of nature being cleanliness to the best of Sin. But I proceed.
Those houses of two stories, have many of them very large upper roomes, which have many double doores in the sides of them, like those in our Balconies, to open and let in fresh air, which is likewise conveyed in unto them, by many lesser lights made in the walls of those roomes, which are always free and open; The use of glass windows, or any other shuttings, being not known there, nor in any other very hot Countreyes.
Neither have they any Chimneyes in their [Page 191] buildings, because they never make any use of fire but to dress their food, which fire they make against some firm wall, or without their Tents against some bank of Earth, as remo [...]e as may be from the places where they use to keep, that they may receive no annoyance from the heat thereof. It is their manner in many places, to plant about, and amongst their buildings, trees which grow high and broad, the shadow whereof keeps their houses by far more cool; this I observed in a special manner when we were ready to enter Amadavar, for it appeared to us, as if we had been entring a Wood, rather than a City. That Amadavar is a very large and populous City, entred by many fair Gates girt about with an high and thick Wall of Brick, which mounts above the topps of their houses, without which wall there are no suburbs. Most of the houses within the City are of Brick, and very many of them ridged & covered with tiles.
But for their houses in their Aldeas, or Villages, which stand very thick in that Country, they are generally very poor and base. All those Countrey dwellings are set up close together, for I never observed any house there to stand single, and alone. Some of their houses in those villages are made with earthen walls, mingled with straw, set up immediatly after their Raines, and having a long season after to dry them [Page 192] throughly, stand firm, and so continue; they are built low, and many of them flat: but for the generality of those Countrey Villages, the Cottages in them are miserably poor, little, and base; so that as they are built with a very little charge, set up with sticks rather than Timber, (if they chance to fire, as many times they do) for a very little they may be reedified. Those who inhabit the Countrey Villages, are called Coolees, these till the ground, and breed up Cattel, and other things for provision, as Henns &c. These they who plant the Sugar, the Cotten-wooll, and Indico & for their Trades and manifactures they are kept in Cities and Towns, about which are their choicest fruits planted. In their Cities and Towns, without their dwellings, but fix't to them, are pendhouses where they shew and sell their provisions, as bread, and flower-Cakes made up with Sugar, and fruits, and other things, and there they shew their manifactures, and other Commodities, some of which they carry twice every day to sell in the Bazar or Market.
I saw two houses of the Mogols, one at Mandoa, the other at Amadaver, which appeared large and stately, built of excellent stone well squared and put together, each of them taking up a large compass of ground, but we could never see how they were contrived, within because there are none admitted, strangers or others, to [Page 193] have a sight of those houses, while the Kings wives and women are there, which must not be seen by any but by himself, and his servants the Eunuchs.
The Mogols Palace Royal is at Agra his Metropolis (of which more afterward) but for the present I shall take a little notice of a very curious Gro [...] I saw belonging to his house at Mandoa, which stood a small distance from it, for the building of which there was a way made into a firm Rock, which shewed it self on the side of an Hill, Canopied over with part of that Rock. It was a place that had much beauty in it by reason of the Curious work-manship bestowed on it; and much pleasure by reason of its cooleness.
That City Mandoa I speak of, is situated upon a very high mountain, the to whereof is flat, and plain, and specious. From all parts that lye about it but one, the ascent is very high, and steep; and the way to us seemed exceeding long, for we were two whole dayes Climbing up the Hill, with our Cariages, which we got up with very much difficulty; not far from the bottom of which Hill, we lodged at a great town called Achabar-pore, where we ferried over a broad River (as we did in other places) for I observed no bridges made there, over any of their Rivers where their high-wayes lye. That Hill on which Mandoa stands, is stuckround [Page 194] (as it were) with fair trees, that keep their distance so one from and below the other, that there is much delight in beholding them either from the bottom or top of that Hill. In those vast and far extended woods, there are Lions, Tygres, and other beasts of Prey, and many wild Elephants. We lay one night in that wood with our Carriages, and those Lions came about us discovering themselves by their Roaring, but we keeping a very good fire all night, they came not neer enough to hurt either our selves, or cattel; those Cruel Beasts are night-walkers, for in the day they appear not.
After (when through Gods most gracious assistance) we had overcome those difficulties, and dange [...]s, we came into a plain and even Countrey in which travelling a few dayes more we first met with my Lord Ambassador marching towards Mandoa with that great King, with whom I then setled, and continued with him, till he was returned home.
We were in our journey to the Court from the beginning of January [...]ill the end of March, we resting a while at Brampore, which is a very spacious and populous City, where we had a Factorie. And after that, we were violently deteined in our journey by Sultan Caroon the Prince, whom we met in his march towards Brampore, & a very marvelous great retinue with him. The reason why he interrupted [Page 195] us in our course was, that he might see the presents we had for his Father the King; but we having command from the Ambassador to tell him, that we durst not open them, till we came to the King, we most humbly craved his pardon to spare us in that; so presenting him with a pair of Rich Gloves (though they be things they wear not in those hot Countryes) and a rich embrodered bag for perfume (which amongst many other things of the like kinde were brought from England to be given away for presents, after that he had carried us back three dayes journey, he let us go, taking further order for our safe Convoy.)
And now Reader, thou mayst suppose us almost setled in Mandoa, the place then of the Mogols residence, not much inhabited before we came thither, having more ruines by far about it, than standing houses. But amongst the Piles of building that had held up their heads above Ruin, there were not a few unfrequented Mosquits or Mahometan Churches; yet I observed, that though the people who attended the King there, were marvailously streightned for room, wherein they might dispose of very great numbers of most excellent horses, which were now at that place, they would not make stables of any of those Churches, though before that time, they had been forsaken, and out of use.
One of those deserted Mosquites, with some large Tomb neer it, both vaulted over head (which shall be after described) were the best places there to be gotten for my Lord Ambassadour and his Company to lodge and be in, we carrying our bedding, and all things appertayning thereto, all necessaries belonging to our Kitchin, and every thing beside for bodily use, from place to place, as we occasionally remooved. Here we stayed with the Mogol from the middle of April, till the twentieth of September following and then began our progress with him, towards the City Amadavar.
Our abiding place at Mandoa, was very neer one of the sides of that vast wilderness, out of which, some of those wild beasts ofttimes in the night came about our habitation, and seldom returned back without a Sheep or a Goate, or a Kid, some of which we always kept about us for our provision. And it was a wonderfull great mercy, those furious, and ravening, and and hungerbit Creatures, did not make their prey sometimes, in the dark and silent nights, while we were sleeping, on some of our bodyes, the fore-part of our dwelling standing upon pillars, and there was nothing in those open distances, that had any strength in it to keep them from us.
One night, early in the evening, there was a great Lion which we saw, came into our yard, [Page 197] though our yard was compassed about with a stone-wall, that was not low.) And my Lord Ambassadour having a little white neat shock, that ran out barking at him, the Lion prefently snapt him up, leapt again over the wall, and away he went.
But for a ravening and roaring Lion, as I believe that he cannot be made tame when he is old; yet certainly he may be bred tame, being kept full, and high fed. For the Mogol, at my being there, had a very great Lion (I often saw) which went up and down, amongst the people that frequented his Court, gently as a dog, and never did hurt only he had some Keepers which did continually wayt upon him.
For those wild and Cruell Beasts, one of our English-men watching in a tree by night; (that stood not far from our dwelling) with a fire-lock charged with some small bullets, shot a Tygre, and kill'd him stone dead, as he was comming towards us. It was a large Beast, higher than an Irish-Greyhound, with Grizled hayr, a long head, and sharp and short picked eares, having a mouth filled with cruell teeth; after which (we usually keeping a little fire without our house every night) were not so much troubled with those night-walkers.
Now to return to that from which I am occasionally digressed. I told you before what their buildings are. And now for the furniture [Page 198] that the greatest men have in them, it is Curta supellex, very little; they being not beautified with hangings, nor with any thing besides to line their walls, but where they are best adorned, they are kept very white, and set off with a little neat painting and nothing else; for they have no Chaires, nor stooles, nor couches, nor tables, nor bedds, enclosed with Canopies, or Curtains, in any of their rooms. And the truth is, that if they had them, the extreme heat there would forbid the use of many of them; all their bravery is upon their sloores, all which are made even with fine earth, or plaster, on which they spead their most excellent Carpets in their Tents, as well as in their dwelling houses, laying some Coarse thing under to preserve them; on which they sit as [...]aylors on their shop-boards, when they meet together, putting off their shooes (which they usually wear as slippers and their feet bare in them) when they come to tred upon those soft Pavements, and keeping them off till they remoove thence, this helps to keep cool their feet, and is very pleasant in those hot Countreyes. On those Carpets they sleep in the night time, or else upon an hard quilt, or lying upon a slight and low bed-stead they call a Cot, bottomed with broad girt-web made of Cotten-Wool. But where ever they lye, they stretch themselves out at their full length when they go to sleep, usually upon their backs, without any [Page 199] pillow, or bolster, to raise up their heads. Very many of the meaner sort of people (as I have often observed) lye thus stretched out to take their rest upon the ground, in the dry season of the year, with a white Callico Cloth spread all over them, which makes them to appear like so many dead corps layd forth for burial. This lying so even, and at length with their bodyes thus extended, may be one reason why the people there are all so streight lim'd, having none crooked amongst them, and another, because they never girt, nor lace in their bodies (as before was observed). Some of those slight bedsteads, they call Cotts, in their standing houses hang by rops, a little above ground, which are fastned to the four corners thereof; moved gently up and down, by their servants, to lull them asleep.
They have no Inns in those parts for the entertainment of strangers, but in some great Townes large Houses they call Sarraas very substantially built, with brick, or stone, where any passengers may find house-room and use it without any recompence; but there is nothing to be had beside room, all other things they must provide and bring with them, as when they lodge in Tents.
Amongst their buildings I must take special notice of their Wells and Tankes, upon both which in very many places they bestow exceeding [Page 200] much cost in stone-work; for their Wells which are fed with Springs, they make them round, but very wide and large. They are wrought up with firm stones layd in fine Plaster; they usually cover those Wells with a building over head, and with Oxen draw water out of them, which riseth up in many small Buckets, whereof some are alwayes going down, others continually comming up, and emptying themselves, in troughs, or little rills, made to receive, and Convey the water whither they please.
Their Tanks are made in low places, and many of them very deep and large, one mile, and some of them much more in compass, made round or four square, or in more squares, about which there is a low stone-wall, that hath many doors in it, and within that wall steps, made one below the other round about it, that go down to the bottom thereof, (which is paved likewise) those steps are made of well squared lasting stone, layd firm, and even in very good order, for people that have not plenty of water otherwise, to go down and take it. These great receptacles of water, are made neer places that are very populous, fill'd when that long season of rain (before spoken of) comes, immediatly before which time, they clense them, that the water may be more cleer, and wholsom. They hold water all the dry season of the year.
For their places of pleasure, they are in their [Page 201] Groves, where their curious fruit-trees (before described) grow; but especially in their Gardens, wherein they plant little vineyards that afford marvailous fair & sweet Grapes, which they cut green, for their eating, or make Reisons of them. But for Wine, they make none, because their Mahomet forbids the drinking thereof. In those Gardens likewise, they have many Pome-Granat-trees, with all other of the choysest fruits and flowers their Countrey affords; to which nature daily yields such a supply, as that there is beauty to be seen in those trees, and plants, and that continually. In the middle of those Gardens, they have such Wells (as before are described) the topps whereof stand a good deal higher than the planted ground, which lyes even, and flat below them, from whence water is conveyed in narrow open passages, (they knowing not the use of leaden Pipes) to all the parts of them in the dry season of the year. In those Gardens likewise they have little round Tanks to bath in; whose sides and Bottomes are made firm and smooth with that plaster before named; they are fil'd by aquaducts from those Wells, and they can empty them when they please, as well as fill them. The water that is conveyed into those small Tanks, usually runns down broad stone Tables, that have many Hollowes made in them, like to scollop-shels, with water in its passage, makes [Page 202] such a pretty murmure, as helps to tye their senses with the bonds of sleep, in the hot seasons of the day when they constantly keep their houses, and then they lye down neer them on their Carpetts, to be lul'd asleep. Those Bathing places are within, or very neer their Garden-houses, which usually are by far more neat, than any other of their dwelling.
In such a Garden-house, with all those accommodations about it, my Lord Ambassadour lay with his company at Surat, the last three moneths before he left East India.
And further, in those hot seasons of the day; the people of better quality lying or sitting on their Carpets, or Pallats, have servants standing about them, who continually beat the Air uppon them with Flabellas, or Fanns, of stiffened leather, which keeps off the flyes from annoying them, and cool them as they lye. Thus taking their ease, they call for Barbers, who very gently gripe their armes, and shoulders, and other parts, they can in any measure grasp, and they strike likewise very softly those parts with the sides of their hands; it is very pleasing as they do it, and causeth their blood to stir in their veins, it is therefore very much used in those parts, to such as do not heat their blood by bodily motion.
For their pastimes within doores, they have Cards, but much different from ours in the figures [Page 203] made in them, and in their greater number of suits. Those Cards I have often seen and have been more often told, that they have very good skill in that most innocent and ingenious game we call Chests
They delight themselves sometimes with the Company of Mountebanks, and Juglers; for their Mountebanks, they keep venemous Snakes in baskets, and will suffer themselves to be bitten or stung by them; which part thus bitten, or stung, presently swells, and immediatly after that, they cure themselves again by Oyles and Pouders, which they apply unto the place, and then offer to sell them unto the people standing by.
Their Juglers are the cunningst that ever I saw, to do strange things by sleight of hand; as in this trick I shall here name, where I have observed them to lay down scu [...]tles or broad open wicker Basketts upon the ground, three or four one upon another, all which appeared empty, as they laid them down; but taking them up again one after the other, in the bottom of them there would appear, three or four living Turtle-doves: which they would cover again with the same scuttles, and tossing and turning them as they took them off, and up the second time, none of those pretty creatures were to be seen any more. But how they first conveyed them thither, and how after thence, we could not possibly discover.
For their Pastimes abroad they have Hawks of divers kinds, greater and less, and Partridges, and other choise Fowl grear store to fly at. They have Hares, and Antilops, with other wild Beasts to hunt, and these not a few. Their doggs for chafe are made somewhat like our Greyhounds, but much less, who never open in the pursute of their game. They hunt likewise with Leopards train'd up and made fit for their sport, who by leaping seize on that they pursue; but by reason of the heat of the Countrey, those sports are not there much used. The Mogol when he hunts, carryes Hawks and Doggs, and all things beside with him, to make him Pastime, that if one sport fail, he may be pleased with another.
They say, that they have a curious devise to take wild fouls that use the water, into which a fellowgoes, with a foul of that kinde he desires to catch, whose skin is stussed so artificially, as that with a noyse he counterfets of that foul, it appears to be alive, the man keeps all his body but head under water, on which he fastens that counterfet foul to stand foreright on the top thereof, and thus comming amongst them, he plucks them (as they say) by their leggs under water at his pleasure. But this I have only by tradition.
For other Pastimes abroad, this I am sure of, that when the weather is more temperate, they [Page 205] shoot much in their Bowes, and are very excellent Marks-men, somewhat like those lefthanded men spoken of Judg. 20. 16. And with their Gunns in which they shoot single bullets (for they have not the use of small shot) they are somewhat long in taking their aim, but they will come very neer the mark. Others delight themselves very much in managing their excellent Horses; But so shall not I delight my Reader, if I dwell too long in particulars. And therefore having spoken of their buildings, I shall now invite him, though not to eat, or taste, yet to take notice
AND though this Countrey affords very much variety of excellent good provisions, yet the Mahometans feed not freely on any flesh, but on that which is strange, and forbidden (of the Hindooes diet I shall speak afterwards) but for the Mahometans they are a people, as I conceive, not much given to their Palate, but are very carefull of, and temperate in their diet, [Page 206] as having learn'd by experience, that full bellyes do more oppress, than strengthen the body, that too much of the Creature doth not comfort but destroy Nature. It being a tryed truth, that Gluttony reacheth, and kills those whom swords cannot touch. All diseases of the body for the most part being contracted to it by sur [...]etts, in one kinde or other, and therefore they keep themselves to a thin diet, and eat not to pamper and please their appetite, but to satisfy and support nature, which is contented with a little every where, but with less in hot Countreyes, where mens digestion of food is not so quick and good; this being further a tried truth, that those bodyes are most strong, active, and healthy, which are most temperate.
Therefore though they have abundance of flesh and foul, and have fish too, yet are they temperate in all of them. For Swines flesh it is an abomination unto the Mahometans, and therefore they touch it not. And for other kinde of flesh, they eat very little of them alone, to make their full meals of them, for they dress no kinde of flesh in great peeces, or whole joynts, nor scarce any of their Foules whole.
For boyling of flesh in water, or Baking or Rosting any flesh, are peeces of Cookery (if I observed well) they know not; but they stew all their flesh as their Kid, and other Venison, &c. cut into sippets, or flices, or little parts, to [Page 207] which they put Onions and Herbs and Roots, and Ginger (which they take there Green out of earth) and other Spices, with some Butter, which ingredients when as they are well proportioned, make a food that is exceedingly pleasing to all Palates, at their first tasting thereof most savoury meat, happily that very dish which Jacob made for his Father Isaac, when he got the blessing Gen. 27.
With their flesh and herbs, &c. they sometimes stew Henns and other foul cut in peeces, which is like that the Spaniards call an Olio, but more toothsome.
But their great common standing dish there is Rice, which they boyl with more art than we: for they boyl the grain so as that it is full and plump and tender, but not broken in boyling: they put to it a little green Ginger, and Pepper, and Butter, and this is the ordinary way of their dressing it and so tis very good.
Sometimes they boyl peeces of flesh, or Hens, and other foul cut in peeces in their Rice, which dish they call Pillaw; as they order it, they make it a very excellent, and a very well-tasted food.
Once my Lord Ambassadour had an entertainment there by Asaph Chan, who invited him to dinner (and this was the only respect in that kinde he ever had, while he was in East India) That Asaph Chan was a man made by [Page 208] his great alliances, the greatest subject and favourit in all that Empire; for his sister was the Mogols most beloved wife, and his daughter was married unto Sultan Caroon the Prince, and very much beloved by him, but of all these, more afterward.
This Asaph Chan entertained my Lord Ambassadour in a very spacious and a very beautifull Tent, where none of his followers besides my self, saw, or tasted of that entertainment.
That Tent was kept full of a very pleasant Perfume; in which sents the King and Grandees there take very much delight. The floor of the Tent was first covered all over with very rich and large Carpets, which were covered again in the places where our dinner stood, with other good Carpets, made of stich't Leather, to preserve them which were richer; and these were covered again with pure white and fine Callico Clothes, and all these covered with very many dishes of silver, but for the greater part of those silver dishes they were not larger than our largest trencher-plates, the brimms of all of them gilt.
We sate in that large Room as it were in a Triangle; The Ambassadour on Asaph Chans right hand a good distance from him, and my self below; all of us on the ground, as they there all do when as they eat, with our faces looking each to the other, and every one of us had his [Page 209] several mess. The Ambassadour had more dishes by ten, and I less by ten, than our entertainer had, yet for my part I had fifty dishes. They were all set before us at once, and little paths left betwixt them, that our entertainers servants (for onely they waited) might come and reach them to us one after another, and so they did. So that I tasted of all set before me, and of most did but tast, though all of them tasted very well. Now of the provision it self, for our larger dishes, they were filled with Rice, dressed (as before described) And this Rice was presented to us, some of it white, in its own proper colour, some of it made yellow with Saffron, and some of it was made green, and some of it put into a purple colour, but by what ingredient I know not, but this I am sure, that it all tasted very well; And with Rice thus ordered several of our dishes were furnished; and very many more of them with flesh of several kinds, and with Hens, and with other sorts of foul cut in peeces, as before I observed in their Indian Cookery.
To these we had many Jellie, and Culices; Rice ground to flower, and then boyled, and after sweetned with Sugar-Candy and Rose-water to be eaten cold. The flower of Rice mingled with sweet Almonds, made as small as they could, and with some of the most fleshy [Page 210] parts of Henns, stewed with it, and after, the flesh so beaten into peeces, that it could not be discern'd, all made sweet with Rose-water and Suger-Candy, and sented with Amber-Grec [...]e; this was another of our dishes, and a most luscious one, which the Portugals call Mangee Real, Food for a King. Many other dishes we had, made up in Cakes, of several formes, of the finest of the wheat-flower, mingled with Almonds, and Sugar Candy, whereof some were sented and some not. To these Potatoes excellently well dressed; and to them divers Salads and the curious fruits of that Countrey, some preserved in Sugar, and others raw, and to these many Roots Candied, Almonds blanched, Reysons of the Sun, Prunellas, and I know not what, of all enough to make up that number of dishes before named; and with these quelque chose, was that entertainment made up.
And it was better a great deal, than if it had consisted of full & heaped up dishes, such as are sometimes amongst us provided, for great and profuse entertainments. Our bread was of very good excellent wheat, made up very white and light, in round Cakes; and for our drink, some of it was brew'd for ought I know, ever since Noah his flood, that good innocent water, being all the drink there commonly used (as before) and in those hot Clymates (it being better digested there than in other parts) [Page 211] it is very sweet, and allayes thirst better than any other liquor can, and therefore better pleaseth, and agreeth better with every man, that comes and lives there, than any other drink. At this entertainment we sat long, and much longer than we could with ease cross leg'd, but all considered, our feast in that place was better than Apicius, that famous Epicure of Rome, with all his witty Gluttony (for so Paterculus calls it, ingeniosa Gula,) could have made with all provisions had from the Earth, and Air, and Sea.
My Lord Ambassadour observed not that uneasy way of sitting at his meat, but in his own house had Tables and Chayres &c. served he was altogether in Plate, and had an English, and an Indian Cook to dress his dyer, which was very plentifull, and cheap likewise; so that by reason of the great variety of provisions there, his weekly account for his house-keeping came but to little.
The meaner sort of people there eat Rice boyled with their green-Ginger, and a little Pepper, after which they put Butter into it, which is their principal dish, and but seldom eaten by them: but their ordinary food is made (not of the flowr of wheat) but of a course well tasted grain, made up in round broad and thick Cakes, which they bake upon their thin iron plates (before spoken of) which they carry [Page 212] with them, when as they travell from place to place; when they have bak'd those cakes, they put a little butter on them, and doubtless the poor people find this a very hearty food for they who live most upon it, are as strong as they could be, if they had their diet out of the Kings Kitchin. I shall here say no more of this, but proceed to speak
Now for the Mahometan women; (because I had never sight of those of the greatest qualiquality) [Page 217] I cannot give such an account of them in respect of the Habits; for these, unless they be dishonest, or poor, come not abroad; but for the fashion of their garments, they do not differ much from those the men weare, for they weare Coats, and Breeches one very like the other, onely women bind their long haire with Philets, which hang down behind them. They wear likewise upon their heads Mantles or Vailes (usually made of white Callico, or of their Pintadoes) which hang down over their other garments. Further, the women have their Eares boared, not only in their flapps, but round about them, wherein they weare very little Pendants; those of the richer sort are made of flat, narrow and thin peeces of Gold or Silver; those worn by the poorer sort made of Brass, or Iron kept bright, so that all are in the same fashion; they bestow some work upon the edges and ends of those Pendants. And those women have the lower part of their left nostrils pierced, wherein they weare a Ring (when they please) of Gold, or Silver, or of some other baser metals. Those Rings of Gold have little pearles fastned to one end of them and that Pearle is dril'd through, that both ends of the ring may meet in it. And doubtless, the women of the greatest quality, (though I saw it not) are bedeck't with many rich Jewels. This I have observed in some of those of the better sort I there saw, that they did wea [...]e great [Page 218] broad Hollow Rings of Gold enamel'd; and some made of Silver, or Brass, upon their wrists, and upon the small of their leggs, to take off and on; two or three of them upon each Arm, and Leg, which make a tinkling noyse, very probably such Ornaments as the Jewish women were threatned for, Esaiah 3. where Almighty God tells them, that he would take away their tinkling Ornaments about their feet, the Bracelets, and the Ornaments of their leggs, their Rings, and Nos [...]-Jewels.
HEre are those which pretend unto much skill in Physick, though (for ought I could ever there observe) the people make but little use of them, they fearing more Medicum quam Morbum; and therefore do believe the Physician to be the more dangerous disease.
The common diseases of that Countrey are bloody fluxes, with others that come not to blood, hot-Feavers, Calentures, which ceise on and fire the head and brain, more than other parts. These, many times put our men at Sea into very high distempers, especially while they are under the Torrid Zone, which makes the poor creatures visited with them, sometimes to conceit the spacious Sea and Waves therein to be great Fields full of Heycocks; and if they were not sometimes happily prevented, would leap over-board to tumble in them.
For ordinary Agues, such as are so common among us, and for those two torments rather [Page 242] than diseases (when they are selt in extremity) the Gout and the Stone, they have the happiness to be ignorant of them. But sometimes they are visited with an inflamation, or an extreme burning, such as is spoken of, Deut. 28. 22. or rather with a most grievous Pestilence, which on a sudden sweeps away many thousands when it comes into great Populous Cities. This Pestilence makes the bodyes of men there which are visited with it, like an house, which on a sudden is covered all over wi [...]h fire at once. The City Amadavar (at our being there with the King) was visited with this Pestilence, in the Month of May, and our family was not exempted from that most incomfortable visitation, for within the space of nine dayes, seven persons that were English of our family were taken away by it, and none of those which dyed lay sick above twenty houres, and the major part well, and sick, and dead in twelve houres. As our Surgeon (who was there all the Physician we had) and he led the way, falling, sick at Mid-day, and the following Mid-night dead. And there were three more that followed him, one immediatly after the other, who made as much hast to the grave as he had done, and the rest went after them; within that space of time (I named before.) And (as before I observed) all those that died in our family, of this pestilence, had their bodyes [Page 243] set all on fire by it, so soon as they were first visited; and when they were dying, and dead, broad spots of a black and blew colour appeared on their brests; and their flesh was made so extreme hot by their most high distemper, that we who survived, could scarce endure to keep our hands upon it. It was a most sad time, a siery trial indeed. But such is the goodnes of Almighty God, that he makes the miseries of men here, Aut tolerabiles, aut breves, either sufferable, or short; so that if the thing imposed be extreme heavy to be born, it continues not long, as this most grievous visitation; most violent for the time, like a mighty storm, and then blown away. For here the mercy of God suddenly stept in, betwixt the living and the dead; so that not only in our family, but also in that great City, the Plague was stayed.
All our family [my Lord Ambassadour only excepted] were visited with this sickness; and we all, who through Gods help and goodnes outlived it, had many great blisters, fild with a thick yellow watry substance, that arose upon many parts of our bodyes, which when they brake, did even burn and corrode our skins, as it ran down upon them.
For my part, I had a Calenture before at Mandoa, which brought me even into the very Jawes of Death, from whence it pleased [Page 244] God then to rescue and deliver me, which amongst thousands and millions of mercies more received from him, hath, and shall for ever give me cause to speak good of his Name. There are very few English which come thither, but have some violent sicknes, which if they escape, and live temperately, they usually enjoy very much health afterward. But death made many breaches into my Lord Ambassadors family, for of four and twenty wayters, besides his Secretary and my self, there was not above the fourth man returned home. And he himself by violent Fluxes, was twice brought even to the very brink of the Grave.
The Natives of East India, in all their violent hot diseases, make very little use of Physicians, unless in be to bre [...]th a veine sometimes, after which they use much fasting as their most hopefull remedy.
That foul disease [a most into consequence of filthy incontinency] is too common in those hot climates, where the people that have it are much more affected with the trouble it brings, than with the sin or shame thereof. As many amongst us, who care not for issue, but lust; and after pay dear for their filthines, which many times rotts, or else makes bare the bones of them that are thus filthy. For as vertue and goodnes rewards it self: so to it self wickednes is a punishment, poena peccati peccasse: saith Seneca, [Page 245] this is cleer in the sad consequences of many other sins, cui [...]hu? cui vae? who hath wo? who hath sorrow? Solomon askes the question, and resolves it too, Prov. 23. 29. they that tarry long at the wine, &c. for it will bite like a Serpent, and sting like an Ad [...]er. How many sad diseases are contracted to mens bodyes by this kind of intemperancy? who can recount the hurts that by this means come to the whole body, especially to the Head, Stomack, Liver, and the more noble párts? who can recite the Rheumes, Gouts, Dropsies, Appoplexies, Inflamations, and other distempers hence arising? Drunkennes being like that Serpent Amphisbaena, which hath a sting in the mouth, and a sting in the tail, for it kills two wayes, first the Body, and after that the Soul.
How were the thoughts of Amnon rackt about the compassing of that incestuous, unnatural and brutish lust with his Sister Tamar? for first he is sick for her, and after he had reaped the bitter fruit of his beastly desires, (his lust ending in loathing) he was sick of her, and hated her exceedingly, and said unto her, arise, be gone, 2 Sam. 13. 15.
Brutus, and Cassius were traytors which Julius Caesar fear'd, Macilenti & pallidi, men pal'd with Anger, whose thoughts to do mischief, drank up all their own sap and moisture. Envy ( [...]aith Solomon) is the rottennes [Page 246] of the bones, Prov. 14. 30. hence the heart of the malicious and envious man, is never without torment, for it boyles continually, as it were in Brine; And therefore this sin is said to have much justice in it self, Justius invidia nihil est, because it eateth the heart and marrow of her master, as he desireth to have the heart of another to be eaten up. And thus may it be said of Anger, when it boyles up to rage (as many times it doth) in se s [...]mper armatur furor, that it is always in Armes against it self. The people in East India live up to our greatest ages; but without all question they have more old people than we; a thing not to be wondred at if we consider the great Temperance of that people in general in their eating and drinking.
But to proceed. The Hindooes or Heathens there begin their year the first day of March. The Mahometans begin theirs, the tenth, at the very instant as the Astrologers there ghess that the Sun enters into Aries, their year as ours is divided into twelve Months, or rather into thirteen Moons, for according to them they make many payments. They distinguish their time in a much different manner from us, dividing the day into four, and the night into as many parts, which they call Pores; which again they subdivide each of them into eight parts, which they call Grees; measured according [Page 247] to the ancient custome, by water dropping out of one vessell into another, by which there alwayes stands a man appointed for that service, to turn that vessell up again when it is all dropped out, and then to strike with an hammer (upon the brim of a concave peece of Metal, like the inner part of a large platter, hanging by the brim on a wire) the number of those Pores, and Grees as they pass. It hath a deep sound, and may be heard very far; but these are not common amongst them. Neither have they any Clocks, or Sun-Dials to shew them further how their time passeth.
We lived there some part of our time a little within, or under the Tropick of Cancer, and then the Sun was our Zenith, or Verticle at noon day directly over our heads, at his return to his Northern bounds. (of which I have spoken something before) The Sun-rising there, was about six houres in the Morning before its appearing here, so that it is twelve of the clock with them, when it is but six with us. We had the Sun there above the Horizon in December, when the dayes are shortest neer eleven houres, and in June when they are at their fullest length, somewhat more than thirteen houres; which long absence of the Sun there from the face of the earth, was very advantagious to cool both the Earth, and Air. I proceed to speak.
They keep a solemn Lent, they call the Ram-jan, or Ramdam, which begins the first Newmoon, which happens in September, and so continues during that whole Moon. And all that time, those that are strict in their Religion, forbear their Women: and will not take either Meat or Drink any Day during that time, so long as the Sun is above their Horizon, but after the Sun is set they eat at pleasure. The last day of their Ramjan, they consecrate as a [Page 291] day of mourning to the memory of their deceased friends, when I have observed many of the meanner sort, seeme to make most bitter lamentation. But when that day of their general mourning is ended, & begins to dye into night, they fire an innumerable company of lamps, and other lights; which they hang or fix very thick, and set upon the tops of their houses, and all other most conspicuous places near their great Tanks, that are surrounded with buildings, where those lights are doubled by their Reflection upon the water, and when they are all burnt out; the ceremoy is done, and the people take food.
The day after this Ram-jan is fully ended, the most devout Mahometans in a solemn manner assemble to their? Misquits, where by their Moolaas, (some selected parts of the Alcoran) are publickly read unto them, which book the Moolaas never touch without an expression of much outward reverence.
For their works of charity, there are some rich men that build Sarraes in great Cities, and Towns (spoken of before) where passengers may find house-room and that freely, without a return of any recompence, wherein themselves, and goods may be in safety.
Others make wells and Tanks for the publick benefit; Or maintain servants, which continually attend upon road-wayes that are much [Page 292] travelled, and there offer unto Passengers water for themselves and beasts, which water they bring thither in great skins hanging upon the back, of their Buttelos, which as it is freely given, so it must be freely taken by all those, who desire to refresh themselves by it.
There are some which build rich Monuments to preserve the memories of those whom they have esteemed eminent for their austerity and holiness, these they call Paeres or Saints, amongst whom some of those (before mentioned) help to fill their Number, who sequester themselves from the world (as they think) and spend their life alone upon the tops of Hills, or in other obscure corners.
Those Hindooes are a very laborious, and an industrious people: these are they which till and plant the ground, and breed the Cattle, these are they which make and sell those curious Manufactures, or the Cloath and stuffe which this Empire affords.
For their habits they differ very little from the Mahometans, but are very like them civilly clad, but many of their women were Rings on their Toes, and therefore go bare foot. They we [...]r likewise broad Rings of Brasse, or better Metal upon their Wrists, and small of their Legs, to take of and on.
They have generally (I mean the women) the flaps, or tips of their ears boared when they are young, which holes daily extended and made wider, by things put and kept in them for that purpose, at last become so large, as that they will hold Rings (hollowed on the out-side like Pullies) for their flesh to rest in that are as broad in their circumference, some of them (I [...]dare say) as little Sawcers. But though those fashions of theirs seem very strange at first sight, yet they keep so constantly to them, as to all their other habites without any alteration, that their general and continual wearing of them makes them to seem lesse strange unto others which behold them. And for their Diet very many of them (as the Banians in general (which are a very strict Sect) will eat of nothing that hath had, or may have life. And these live upon Herbs, & Roots, and Bread and Milk, and Butter, and Cheese, and Sweet-meats, of which they have many made very good by reason of their great abundance of Sugar. Others amongst them will eat fish, but of no living thing else. The Rashboots will eat Swines flesh, which is most hatefull to the Mahometans, some will eat one kinde of flesh, some of another (of all very sparingly) but all the Hind[...]os in general abstain from Beef, out of an high and over-excellent esteem they have of Kine, and therefore [Page 322] give the Mogol yearly, besides his other e [...]actions, great sums of money as a ransom for [...]hose Creatures; whence it comes to passe, that amongst other good provisions, we meet there but with little Beef. As the Mahometans Burie [...]o the Hindoos in general (not believing the resurrection of the flesh) burn the bodies of their dead near some Rivers (if they may with convenience) wherein they sow their ashes.
The Widows of these Hindoos who have their Husbands separated from them by death, when they are very young, marry not again, but whither, or no this be generally observed by them all I know not, but this I am sure of, that immediately after their Husbands are dead, they cut their Hair, and spend all their life following as Creatures neglected both by themselves, and others, whence to be free from shame, some of them are ambitious to die with Honour (as they esteem it) when their fiery [Page 323] love carries them to the flames (as they think) of Martyrdom, most willingly following the dead bodies of their Husbands unto the fire, and there imbracing, are burnt with them.
NOw those Mahometans and Gentiles I have named, live under the subjection of the great Mogol, which Name, or rather Title (if my information abuse me not) signifies circumcised, as himself, and the Mahometans are; and therefore for his most general title he is called the great Mogol, as the chief of the circumcised, or the chief of the circumcision.
He is lineally descended from that most famous conqueror, called in our stories Tamberlane, concerning whose birth and original Histories much differ, and therefore I cannot determine it; but in this, all that write of him agree, that he having got together very many huge multitudes of men, made very great conquests in the South-East parts of the World, not onely on Bajazet the Emperour of the Turks, but also in East-India, and elsewhere; for what cannot force by multitudes do? This Tamberlane in their stories is called Amir Timur, or the great Prince and Emperor Timur, who (as they say) towards his end, either by an hurt received in his thigh, or else by an unhappy fall from his Horse, which made him [Page 364] halt to his grave, was ever after that called Timur lang, or Timur the lame, from whence he is corruptly in our stories, named amberlane, the late Mogol, at whose Court we lived, was the ninth in a direct line, from that his great Ancestor.
For Timar-lang, or Tamberlane, he was famous about the year of Christ 1398. in the last year of the Reign of Richard the Second, King of England. And he the first of the Race of those great Monarchs hath a Title, which speaks thus:
1. Amir, Timur, Saheb Ceran, that is the great Conqueror, or Emperor, Timur, or Tamberlane, Lord possessor of the Corners, or of the four Corners of the World.
2. The second his Son was called Mirath-Sha, [Page 366] the King and inheritor of Conquests, [...] the inheritor of his Fathers Conquests.
3. The third his Son was called Mirzae, Sultan, Mahomeds, the Prince and Commander for Mahomet; or the Desender of the Mahometan Religion, for this King (as it should seem) was the first Indostan Emperor that professed Mahometisme, which Tamberlane his Grand-father was a great enemy too, & therefore ever strongly opposed it. But this third Monarch of that line, and all his successors since have been Mahometans.
4. The fourth his son was called Sultan Abusaid, the Prince and Father, or fountain of Beneficence.
5. The fifth his son was called Mirzee Amir Sheick, the Imperial Princely Lord.
6. The sixth his son was called Baba Padsha, the King the Father, or the King, the Father of his Countrey.
7. The seventh his son was called Hamasaon Podsha, the King Invincible.
8. The eight his son was called Achabar Padsha, the great King, or Emperor that is most mighty or the King most mighty.
9. The ninth his son was called Almozaphar, Noor, Dein, Gehangeir, Padsha, Gaze, the most warlike and most victorious King, the Light of Religion, and the Conqueror of the World.
Here are very high titles taken by Tamberlane and his successors, and the lower we go, the greater still they are, but the last of them swels biggest of all, calling himself amongst other phansies the Conqueror of the world, and so he conceits himself to be; As they write of Thrasyllus the Athenian, who believed that all the ships on the Sea were his own, and therefore he would call them, my ships, when ever he saw them floating on the waters; and thus the great Magol imagines all the Kings, Nations, and people of the world to be his Slaves and Vassals.
And therefore when the Grand Signiour, or great Turks sent an Ambassador to the great Mogol, who came unto him attended with a great train and retinue, and after when he was ready to take his leave, desired of the Mogol to know what he should say to his Master when he was returned; tell thy Master said the Mogol that he is my slave, for my Ancestor Conquered him.
The Mogol feeds and feasts himself with this conceit, that he is Conqueror of the world, and therefore (I conceive that he was troubled upon a time, when my Lord-Ambassador, haveing businesse with him, and upon those terms; there is no coming unto that King empty handed without some present, or other (of which more afterward) and having at that [Page 368] time nothing left, which he thought fit to give him, presented him with Mercators great book of Cosmography (which the Ambassador had brought thither for his own use) telling the Mogol that that book described the four parts of the world, and all several Countreys in them contained, the Mogol at the first seem'd to be much taken with it, desiring presently to see his own Territories, which were immediately shewen unto him, he asked where were those Countreys about them, he was told Tartaria, and Persia, as the names of the rest which confine with him, and then causing the book to be turn'd all over, and finding no more to fall to his share, but what he first [...]aw, and he calling himself the Conqueror of the world, and having no greater share in it, seemed to be a little troubled, yet civily told the Ambassadour that neither himself, nor any of his people did understand the language in which that book was written, and because so, he further told him that he would not rob him of such a Jewel, and therefore returned it unto him again. And the truth is, that the great Mogol might very well bring his action against Mercator and others, who describe the world, but streighten him very much in their Maps, not allowing him to be Lord & Commander of those Provinces, which properly belong unto him.
But it is true likewise that he, who hath the greatest share on the face of the earth, if it be compared with the whole world, appears not great. As it was said of the Lands of Alcibiades that compared with the Glob of the whole earth, they did not appear bigger than a small tittle. The Mogols Territories are more apparent, large, and visible, as any one may take notice, who strictly views this affixed Map, wch is a true representation of that great Empire in its large dimensions. So that although the Mogol be not master of the whole World, yet hath he a great share in it, if we consider his very large Territories, and his abundant riches, as will after more appear, whose wealth and strength makes him so potent, as that he is able, whensoever he pleaseth to make inroades upon, and to do much mischief unto any of his Neighbours, but I leave that, and come now to speak.
Now for the disposition of that King, it ever seemed unto me to be composed of extreams, for sometimes he was barbarously cruel, and at other times he would seem to be exceeding fair, and gentle. For his cruelties, he put one of his women to a miserable death, one of his women he had formerly touched and kept Company withall, but now she was superannuated, for neither himself nor Nobles (as they say) come near [Page 407] their wives, or women, after they exceed the age of thirty years, though they keep them, and allow them some maintenance. The fault of that woman, this the Mogol upon a time found her, and one of his Eunuchs kissing one another, and for this very thing the King presently gave command that a round hole should be made in the earth, and that her body should be put into that hole, where she should stand with her head onely above ground, and the earth to be put in again unto her close, round about her, that so she might stand in the parching Sun, till the extream hot beams thereof did kill her, in which torment she lived one whole day, and the night following, and almost till the next noon, crying out most lamentably while she was able to speak in her language, as the Shunamites Childe did in his 2 King. 4. Ah my head, my head! which horrid execution, or rather murder was acted near our house, where the Eunuch by the command of the said King was brought very near the place where this poor Creature was thus buried alive, and there in her sight cut all into pieces.
That great King would be often overcome by Wine, yet (as if he meant to appropriate that sin to himself) would punish others with very much severity, who were thus distempered. [Page 409] For his good actions he did relieve continually many poor people; and not seldom would shew many expressions of duty and strong affection to his Mother, then living, so that he who esteemed the whole World as his Vassals would help to carry her in a Palankee upon his shoulders, and in this he did exceedingly differ from that most unnatural and cruel Nero, who most barbarously killed his own Mother Agrippina, causing (as they write) that Bed, in which he was conceived, and from whence born, and wherein he took up his first lodging to be ript up and spoiled.
The Mogol would often visite the cells of those he esteemed religious men, whose persons he esteemed sacred, as if they had been Demigods.
And he would speak most respectively of our blessed Saviour Christ, but his Parentage, his poverty, and his crosse did so confound his thoughts, that he knew not what to think of them. (As Bernard complained of some in his time, that they took offence at the clowts and rags of our blessed Saviour, at the humility and meannesse of his birth) believing that it could not stand with the Majesty of the Son of God to appear in the World, in such meannesse [Page 410] as he did; though he had been told that Christ Jesus came into the World in that low condition that he might beat down the pride thereof. And that at his first coming he came for sinners, and then he came in great humility but at his second coming he shall come against sinners, and then will he appear in power, & great glory. Lastly, the Mogol is very free and noble unto all those which fall into, and abide in his affection
The Jesuits in East-India have liberty to convert, any they can work upon, unto Christianity, &c. the Mogol hath thus far declared, that it shall be lawfull for any one, perswaded so in conscience, to become a Christian, and that he should not by so doing lose his favour.
The late Mogol about the beginning of his reign, caused a temple to be built in Agra, his chief City, for the Jesuits, wherein two of his [Page 448] younger Brothers Sons were solemnly Baptized, and delivered into their hands to be trayned up in Christianity