Calendar of Persian Correspondence, Vol.I: 1757-1767

About this text

Introductory notes

Calendar of Persian Correspondences was published under the supervision of the Imperial Records Department. The Imperial Records Department was founded in 1891 at Calcutta, to examine and catalogue records of various governmental departments. C.R. Wilson who became the officer in charge of the Department conceived the scheme of publishing the entire series of Persian records. These Persian correspondences formed some of the oldest documents pertaining to the East India Company. The Calendar was to present a summary version of the correspondences between the East India Company and 'Indian rulers and Notables'. The first volume of the Calendar of Persian Correspondences during the tenure of E. Denison Ross as officer in charge of the Imperial Records Department in 1911. In 2013 Mushirul Hasan, the Director-General of National Archives of India took initiative to republish the Calendar. With introduction from two contemporary historians, Sanjay Subramaniam and Muzaffar Alam the series of Calendar of Persian Correspondence was published by Primus Books, New Delhi.

The first volume of Calendar of Persian Correspondence covers the years between 1757 to 1767. The first volume was published in 1911. The selections from the volume offer a picture of Company's condition in the years following the Battle of Diwani, till the Grant of Diwani in 1765.

Selection details

The first volume of Calendar of Persian Correspondence covers the years between 1757 to 1767. The first volume was published in 1911. The selections from the volume offer a picture of Company's condition in the years following the Battle of Diwani, till the Grant of Diwani in 1765.

[Page 1]

1. Feb.5.1759 8.

From Raja Tilok Chand. Is anxious to pay up the Company's tankhwah and hopes that orders will be issued to the Company's gumashtahs not to impede the Burdwan dallals and paikars in their business.

[Page 1]

2. Feb.5.1759 10.

To the Nawab Mir Ja'far. The profits of the lands he gave the Company are intended for the troops to defend the country. The Governor is now about to take the field.

[Page 2]

3. Feb.7.1759 13.

13. To Raja Tilok Chand. Hopes he never will attempt to extort money from his ryots by force.

[Page 2]

4. Feb.11.1759 26.

26. To the Nawab Mir Ja'far. 1 Has heard that the Nawab is about to offer money to the Shahzadah. If he does so, Shuja'u-ddaulah, the Marhattas and many more will bully money out of him till he has nothing left. It will also give the Shahzadah the means to raise forces which will imperil the safety of Bengal . What will be said H Mir J'afar who commands sixty thousand men offers money to a boy who has scarcely a soldier with him? The Nawab should rely on the fidelity of the English and of the troops attached to him.

[Page 10]

5. Mar.25.1759 143.

Intelligence. About the Shahzadah's receiving visits from dancing women and the different intrigues going on at Murshidabad. The army is in great distress for want of pay.

[Page 21]

6. Aug.10.1759 325.

To Muhammad Riza Khan. Reports that Mr. Vansittart has taken charge of the Governorship.

[Page 23]

7. Aug.26.1759 364.

To Haidar 'Ali Khan. Warns him not to molest the Company's gumashtahs at Golahgarh.

[Page 23]

8. Aug.26.1760 366.

To Raja Tilok Chand. Warns him against the consequences of his dilatoriness in discharging the Company's revenues.

[Page 26]

9. Sept.5.1760 409.

To Pitambar Das. He should supply every want of the dak people.

[Page 26]

10. Sept.10.1760 424.

To Raja Tilok Chand. He will take care that a Company's gumashtah sent to Kundgos is not molested.

[Page 31]

11. Oct.1.1760 501.

From Raja' Tilok Chand. Gives information of the trouble the ryots at Dinyercolly experience at the hands of the firangis encamped there.

[Page 32]

12. Oct.1.1760 514.

514. From Mir Waris 'Ali. The Company's rice will be let pass when those in charge produce a dastak. A small gratuity to the peons and sarlulrs is advisable.

[Page 33]

13. Oct.1.1760 533.

From Raja Tilok Chand. Regrets that the affairs of his country are still unnoticed and unadjusted. 'Wishes to pay the Company the utmost it would produce. The revenues of his country are unsettled.

[Page 34]

14. Oct.31.1760 533.

554. From Sulaiman Beg, Faujdar of Hooghly. Commends the Governor's measures for the care of the people.

[Page 34]

15. Nov.26.1760 618.

To Sulaiman Beg, Foujdar of Hooghly. Wishes to know the former duties on rice.

[Page 34]

16. Nov.26.1760 619.

619. To Raja Tilok Chand. Competent persons should be sent to adjust the revenue accounts of Burdwan.

[Page 34]

17. Nov.26.1760 622.

622. To Mir Waris 'Ali. Asks for help for the Company's people purchasing rice.

[Page 34]

18. Nov.26.1760 623.

623. To Mir Waris 'Ali. Mr. Dacre's gumashtah should not be interrupted in the purchase of rice at lnjeli.

[Page 34]

19. Nov.26.1760 626.

626. To Muhammad 'A'zam. Desires that orders he issued to his people not to molest the Company's gumashtahs in their purchases at Dacca.

[Page 41]

20. Dec.5.1760 671.

To the Nawab Mir Qasim. Informs him that if the Raja of Burdwan delays sending in the revenue, troops will be sent to compel him to pay it and to chastise him.

[Page 41]

21. Dec.5.1760 675.

To Mir Waris 'Ali. Desires him to order his gumashtahs not to impede the Company's purchases in rice.

[Page 43]

22. Dec.15.1760 699.

To Raja Tilok Chand. Informs him that Major White has been directed to prevent the inhabitants of Burdwan and others from being plundered. The Major has also been directed to leave troops in Midnapur to guard that town against Sheo Bhat and other Marhattas.

[Page 43]

23. Dec.16.1760 700.

From Muhammad Riza Khan. States that he did not receive the Governor's letter until after the revenue had been paid over to the Nawab's muta~addi. Professes great attachment to the Company.

[Page 43]

24. Dec.16.1760 701.

From Raja Tilok Chand. Intimates that the troops under Major White during their march through his lands committed robbery.

[Page 44]

25. Dec.17.1760 705.

To Raja Tilok Chand Complains of the misconduct of his people to those of the Company.

[Page 45]

26. Dec.28.1760 732.

From Raja Tilok Chand. Requests that the troops under Major White's command about to proceed to Burdwf.O II)ay be ordered not to plunder the country on their way from that place to Birbbum.

[Page 46]

27. Dec.28.1760 733.

To Raja Tilok Chand. Desired him to put obstacles in the way of the Raja of Birbhum's followers passing through his country.

[Page 48]

28. Jan.2.1761 762.

To Raja Narayan Deo. His measures against the Marhattas are approved of.

[Page 48]

29. Jan.2.1761 765.

To Mahabat Quli Khan. Desires him to pay his revenues to the Court at Murshidabad.

[Page 49]

30. Jan.11.1761 788.

To Raja Tilok Chand. Desires him to prevent different gumashtahs at Gahtawarah from oppressing the Company's weavers.

[Page 52]

31. Jan.25.1761 830.

From Raja Tilok Chand. lntirnates that Sheo Bhat has sent troops into his country to plunder it. Major White has seized his fort with cannons and other implements of war.

[Page 52]

32. Jan.30.1761 856.

From Damodar Singh, Zamindar of Bishanpur. Intimates that his house has been plundered by one Aynder Jyt. Refers him for matters in general to his wakil. [

[Page 56]

33. Feb.5.1761 884.

To the Nawab Mir Qasim. Refers to his parwanah pressing for. vigour in collecting the revenues of Burdwan. The Raja moves from place to place and has only sent a small part of the qist. Has therefore determined to send a person to receive the revenues, with troops and cannon. Major York has reported the bad behaviour of the Faujdar of Sylhet. The commanders of Jahangirnagar and Islamabad have been directed to make him prisoner and send him to the Nawab. At Midnapur the Marhattas attacked Mr. Johnson's troops, and two pieces of cannon have been sent to his assistance. Through the will of God, the greatness of His Excellency, and the bravery of his troops, the Marhattas will be destroyed and consumed by the fire of the cannon as lighted straw. Understands from Major York that the Zamindar of Birbhutn is ashamed of his misconduct and willing to submit to the Nawab. There is a great difference between his present and his former letter. Raja Fath Singh was formerly a friend of Sabit Jang Bahadur and is devoted to the Nawab. His country has been much damaged and he stands in need of the Nawab's favour, which may be shown him when he visits the Nawab at Patna.

[Page 57]

34. Feb.6.1761 889.

To Raja Jagta Nand. Has already sent cannon and troops to that side. The Marhattas will take to flight. He should secure his own country and send the revenues to Mr. Johnson, who will forward

[Page 57]

35. Feb.8.1761 891.

To Raja Raj Narayan. Thanks him for the beldars and other assistance which he sent with the army. The troops must have reached Midnapur by this time. The Milrhal'tas will speedily take to flight. Urges him to procure provisions for the army, agreeable to Mr. Johnson's directions.

[Page 58]

36. Feb.9.1761 898.

From Raja Tilok Chand. Enlarges upon the disturbed condition of his country. Mr. Sumner's presence will make it worse.

[Page 58]

37. Feb.10.1761 901.

To Muhammad Riza Khan. Is glad to hear that his mutasaddi has waited upon Mr. Verelst and hopes that the Khan will transact all business with Mr. Verelst as was customary. Informs him of the surrender of Pondicherry.

[Page 59]

38. Feb.10.1761 908.

To [Ragmanji]Jachak. Is pleased that he has written to Sa'adat Khan directing him not to levy the duties on the Company's cloth. Shco Bhat with a large number of troops attacked Midnapur and created great disturbances, but retreated to Cuttack on the arnval of the English troops.

[Page 60]

39. Feb.12.1761 913.

From Ragmanji Jachak, States that he has written to Sa'adat .Khan not to demand the duties. Is pleased to hear that the Company's troops have arrived at Midnapur. They should be directed not to create any disturbances.

[Page 62]

40. Feb.16.1761 931.

To the Nawab Mir Qasim. Has never yet heard that the zamindars make friends with the Company's mustasaddis in order to lessen the revenues. If he finds this is so, he will chastise them. The Nawab shall receive his rights, and disobedience to his orders shall be punished. No attention will be paid to their requests for lessening the revenues. Everything will be done to enable him to discharge the arrears of the sepoys.

[Page 62]

41. Feb.16.1761 933.

From Ramdhan Nag and Gokul Majmu'ahdar. They inform the Governor of their exertions to make up the. Burdwan rents.

[Page 62]

42. Feb.16.1761 934.

From Raj Chand Ray. Gives information of his exertions to make up the Burdwan rents.

[Page 64]

43. Feb.17.1761 946.

To Raja Raj Narayan, Raja Anand Lal, and the Naib Mahabat Quli Khan. Has sent Captain Knox Dilawar Jang Bahadur, with troops to Midnapur to drive out the Marhattas. He should be supplied with bullocks, coolies, beldars, provisions, and other necessaries and also with a wakil.

[Page 68]

44. Feb.26.1761 969.

To the Ray Rrayan. The gumashtah at Budhun says that he has advanced the dadni to the people of Bynadpur parganah for cloth. Chetan Ray, Tahsildar, will not allow the gumashtah to collect the money due to the Company. A letter asking for Chetan Ray's help for collections should be sent to him. Sends a copy of his letter to Chelan Ray for his perusal.

[Page 68]

45. Feb.26.1761 970.

Chetan Ray. Tells him it will be to his disadvantage to stop the collection of money due on account of advances to the inhabitants of Bynadpur village for cloth. On receipt of this letter he should band over to the gumashtah anyone owing money to the Company.

[Page 72]

46. Mar.6.1761 994.

To the Ray Rayan. According to a letter from Mr. Verelst and an iqranamah from Muhammad Riza Khan, Faujdar, the latter has paid the sum of sixty-five thousand four hundred and thirteen rupees received from the 1st October to the 23rd December 1164 [1167] to the Nawab's Sarkar. Encloses a copy of the iqrarnamah for his perusal. Hopes he will remit the money as well as forward the letter enclosed for the Nawab.

[Page 72]

47. Mar.6.1761 995.

To the Nawab Mir Qasim. Sometime ago His Excellency was informed of the complaints that arrived from the Company's gumashtahs and other merchants engaged in trade on the Raja of Bisseli's estates, of that Raja's misbehaviour. He was also asked to send a parwanah, armed with which a letter would be written to the Chief of Jahangirnagar factory to send a few troops to chastise him. As no answer, has been received and complaints are still coming in some Company's talingas have been dispatched to seize and bring the Raja to Murshidabad. When he has been brought, it is hoped that Turab 'Ali Khan or the Ray Rayan will be ordered to set up Dhurab Narayan, the Raja's brother, or some other competent person in his stead. This will put an end to all complaints. Enclosed is a copy of farman just received.

[Page 74]

48. Mar.10.1761 1005.

From Damodar Singh, Zamindar of Bishanpur. States that he has issued orders to his people not to intercept English letters.

[Page 82]

49. Mar.29.1761 1054.

To Muhammad Riza Khan. Encloses a copy of the note for Rs. 10,591-10-15 gandas executed by the Khan and sent to the writer by Mr. Verelst. Desires the Khan to pay the said amount to Mr. Batson, Chief at Cossimbazar factory. Is glad to hear that the Khan intends paying him a visit.

[Page 83]

50. Apl.2.1761 1069.

From Ragmanji Jacbak. States that the united efforts of the Company and himself will soon terminate all disturbances.

[Page 83]

51. Apl.2.1761 1070.

To Raja Tilok Chand, Lala Umi Chand, and Jugal Majmu'ahdar. Intimates that Ramdhan Nag has arrived and that a qistbandi for the closing and the ensuing years has been made. Desires them to proceed to Burdwan with their managers, and, to send the money due according to the qistbandi.

[Page 89]

52. Apl.22.1761 1104.

To the Nawab Mir Qasim. Has received the Nawab's Jetter acquainting him that Muhammad Riza Khan has in his hands a large sum of money belonging to the Sarkiir, that whatever he says is false, that the Governor should not listen to his lies but receive the Company's money from him. Says he cannot do so as it is not customary to take the balance of the past year from the produce of the present. Requests that the Ray Rayan may be directed to pay the money he received from Muhammad Riza Khan to Mr. Batson. Says the Nawab can settle the matter with Muhammad Riza Khan, who must have arrived at Murshidabad.

[Page 89]

53. Apl.22.1761 1106.

To Raja Tilok Chand. Mr. Sumner was despatched to Burdwan, but owing to the Raja's letters and Ramdhan Nag's representations, he was recalled. Ramdhan Nag gives information that the country is disaffected, and that in consequence of some evil rumours, the managers of districts and the tenants are fleeing from the Raja's zamindari, while the Raja himself is under great apprehensions. Consequently Mr. Sumner has. again been told to go to Burdwan in spite of Ramdhan Nag's remonstrances. Mr. Sumner will act in accordance with the Raja's wishes, and assi~t in the collection of the revenues.

[Page 92]

54. Apl.30.1761 1125.

From the Nawab Mir Qasim. Says he is an eye-witness of the ruin brought on the subah by the conduct of the Naib, from whom a great deal of money is now found to be due. Enlarges on Major Carnac's negligence due to the baseness of the Naib.

[Page 94]

55. May.5.1761 1138.

From Hafiz Rahmat Khan. Requests an order as to the payment of some monev to Mr. Bristow, and complains that the Company's people carry away his cattle and oppress his ryots.

[Page 95]

56. May.9.1761 1149.

To the Nawab Mir Qasim. Has received the Nawab's letter informing him of His Majesty's arrival at Bachypur. Has communicated to Colonel Coote everything concerning His Majesty, and says that whatever His Excellency and the Colonel determine upon will be right. Assures His Excellency that the Company will never deviate from the agreement.

[Page 110]

57. July.2.1761 1245.

To Raja Januii. Has not yet received a reply to his letter. Intimates tl1at a severe famine prevails in Bengal, and that food is so scarce that children are being sold in Calcutta. Hopes the people will receive favourable attention from him. States that Muslihu-d-din Muhammad Khan has come to pay him a visit. b glad to learn from him that great friendship formerly subsisted between the Raja and the Company.

[Page 111]

58. July.3.1761 1247.

To the Nawab Mir Qasim. Is much displeased to learn that Colonel Coote and Mr. Watts entered his tents and behaved rudely. Has, on account of the rains, sent for them to Calcutta with half the troops. Has expressly written to the officers to follow His Excellency's orders. Says that now as His Excellency has a free hand in Behar, he can settle its affairs to his satisfaction. Asks His Excellency to reinstate Ram Narayan, if his account is found to be satisfactory.

[Page 111]

59. July.5.1761 1249.

From Raja Tilok Chand. Enters into a long detail of the state oi the Zamindtiri of Burdwan. Complains of the excess at which the rents of that district have been rated. Hopes for attention to this remonstrance else his country will be ruined.

[Page 112]

60. July.11.1761 1254.

To the Nawab Mir Qasim. Intimates that Muslihu-d-din Muhammad Khan, with a letter of recommendation from him, is coming to see His Excellency. Says that with regard to the chauth, whatever His Excellency thinks advisable will be proper, Encloses a copy of a letter he has written ro Januji.

[Page 115]

61. July.24.1761 1271.

To Turab 'Ali Khan and the Ray Rayan. Says that through the scarcity of provisions, the people in and about Calcutta are in great distress. Asks the addressees to direct the merchants at Murshidabad to send to Calcutta some of the rice they receive from Jahangirnagar and other places.

[Page 116]

62. July.26.1761 1276.

To Lahori Mal. Says that as famine prevails in the subah,. it is the will of both His Majesty and His Excellency that no duties should be taken on rice. Desires him to take note of it and warns him that if he continues to take duties on rice, the Company's chaukis will be placed at Katwa.

[Page 116]

63. July.30.1761 1280.

To the Nawab Mir Qasim. Says that Mr. Dobbins is ready to leave Murshidabad with his people, but that as they are without provisions, it is feared that they will plunder the tenants as they pass. Advises His Excellency to pay that gentleman his dues that he may proceed to Calcutta or wherever he thinks proper.

[Page 126]

64. Oct.10.1761 1343.

To the Raja of Parsautam. Has been informed that a ship belonging to the Company's Sarkar has sunk near his zamindari; that a number of the crew and a considerable quantity of goods, etc., that been lost; that one gentleman with a hundred men and two women [Page 127] reached the shore and now remain near the chaklah of Makhdam ; and that the addressees manager's will not permit them to come to Calcutta. Says that this is very improper and desires him to direct his managers to let them go with their effects.

[Page 131]

65. Nov.15.1761 1368.

From the Nawab Mir Qasim. Inveighs against Nand Kumar, who wishes to ruin his affairs. Has taken steps to prevent the irruption of the Marhattas into Midnapur and sent Bu 'Ali . Khan against Kamgar Khan. [

[Page 133]

66. Nov.19.1761 1380.

To Muhammad Taqi Khan. Understands from his letter that Captain Castiel distressed the inhabitants. On inquiry, finds this to be true. Has therefore dismissed the Captain and sent away the people after encouraging them. Assures him that whatever officer is appointed in future, will not act in that manner.

[Page 134]

67. Nov.20.1761 1382.

To Raja Tilok Chand. Has received his letter concerning the appointment of Diwan. Says that he is the commander of the zamindari and should therefore so act as shall tend to the welfare of the inhabitants, the prosperity of the country, and the settlement of the Company's demands. Desires him to appoint such a Di'wan as will satisfy him in these respects.

[Page 136]

68. Dec.11.1761 1395.

To Mir Bu 'Ali Khan. Understands from His Excellency's parwanah that the Khan has been dispatched to Cuttack by way of Bishanpur or Birbhum to chastise and root out the disaffected Marhattas and in conjunction with the Company's troops to bring the city into subjection to the Sarkar. Says that Major Carnac and the English troops are in readiness. Desires the Khan to come speedily either by way of Birbhum or Bishanpur, and asks which road he proposes coming by.

[Page 140]

69. Dec.23.1761 1411.

To Raja Tilok Chand. Has received his letter saying that Ramdhan Nag has arrived ; that he is preparing to send the money and that his mutasaddis have presented Mr. Graham with the papers of the former and present year. Says that the increase of their friendship, the flourishing of the country and the tranquillity of the inhabitants are greatly impeded by the non-payment of the Company's money. Desires him always to send the money according to the qistbandi. Approves of his sending the mutasaddis with the papers. Desires him expressly to order them to get the remaining money ready.

[Page 143]

70. Jan.28.1762 1432.

To Panqit Ram. Some time ago, the Governor told him that one half of the Company's chunam had arrived safely but that the rest was much damaged, and directed him at the same time to inquire into the reason of it and repair the loss. Believes that a great quantity was spoiled when the water was taken out of the boats. Directs him to provide the chunam and then to advise Mr. Cartier of it. Directs him also to take from the said gentleman what boats he may want in future, and to act according to his orders in everything.

[Page 143]

71. Feb.6.1762 1442.

To Raja Tilok Chand. Has received his letter saying that he has, with Mr. Graham's consent, set out for Chancier Konah, leaving Gokul Majmu'ahdar and Ramdhan Nag with the said gentleman to act for him. Approves of this, and desires him to enjoin his mutasaddis to collect and send the money.

[Page 146]

72. Feb.16.1762 1447.

To Sheo Bhat. Has received his letter desiring that the money collected at Shahbandar and Pataspur and the goods which were plundered, and which his troops now demand from the zamindars under the jurisdiction of Midnapur, may be returned, and that the Raja of Burdwan may be directed to pay him three lakhs of rupees. Regarding the money and the goods in question, replies that the papers must first be examined to ascertain what loss accrued to the Company and the zamindars by the ravages of his troops, and that then whatever may be due will be paid to him. In regard to the Burdwan money, says that Burdwan has been granted to the Company for the expenses of their troops by His Majesty and Nawab Mir Qasim. Is amazed that the addressee, knowing this, still writes again and again on the subject.

[Page 147]

73. Feb.22.1762 1452.

A. To the Nawab Mir Qasim. (1) In regard to His Majesty demanding the revenue of the subahs from the time His Excellency waited upon him and His Excellency intending to pay it from the time the khutbah was read and sikkahs were struck, says that His Excellency's intentions are very proper since His Majesty's reign commenced when sikkahs were struck and the khutbak was read. (2) As for His Majesty demanding the revenues of the jagirs of Nawab Zinat Mahal and others according to the former custom and His Excellency representing that the country has been ruined by the frequent incursions of the troops, says that the money cannot be paid according to a former adjustment. Advises His Excellency to pay it agreeable to the present produce of the country. (3) Regarding what His Excellency writes, namely, that he is under no apprehensions roncerning Shuja'u-d-daulah and that he is ready either on the one hand to make war on the Wazir, or else to pay regard to his dignity and behave in a friendly manner, says that the Wazir is at a great distance from Behar and that therefore as long as [Page 148] he acts like a friend, it is proper that His Excellency should behave also in a friendly manner. But if he should attempt or be inclined to come into this country with a design to create a disturbance, His Excellency should engage him. (4) As to His Excellency's statement that he has appointed Mir Sayyid Muhammad Khan to the Naibship of Murshidabad in the room of Sayyid Turab 'Ali Khan and that the new Naih will behave to the English in a friendly manner, says that though the said Khan spread a very improper report through the city, he is a great man and is His Excellency's relation and consequently deserves His Excellency's favour. (5) His Excellency also writes that agreeable to Mr. Ellis's representations, parwiinahs have been sent to all the fattjdtirs on that side to assist the Company's trade; and desires that the faujdars and managers on this side may be written te according to the remonstrances of the gttmiishtahs belonging to the Company. Says that this has assured him of His Excellency's favour and friendship, and adds that the faujdiirs and managers on this side act in accordance with their instructions, but that those of Purnea and Rangpur are very deficient. Hopes His Excellency wilt write expressly to them. (6) As to His Excellency writing that he has not yet received an answer from him concerning the dismissal of the Marhatta wakils, says that, some time ago, he wrote particularly concerning this affair. Approves of what His Excellency thought it advisable to 'io and advises him to act in that manner and make an excuse.

[Page 168]

74. July.7.1762 1565.

To Khirat Narayan. Has received his petition saying that the Company's gumashtahs and others create disturbances as before. Has sent him a sergeant and some tilangtis and directed them to seize the offenders and send them to Calcutta.

[Page 168]

75. July.10.1762 1567.

To Ramdhan Nag. Has received his letter concerning the ' rents. Has several times directed them to be collected as usual and not in any manner to be interfered with. Desires him to act according to the directions of Mr. Johnstone and the Raja.

[Page 169]

76. July.26.1762 1575.

To Sahib Khan. Has been informed by the Governor of the Danish factory that as two boats laden with rice for his own provision were coming from Jahangirnagar to Serampnr with his dastak, the Khan seized them for the duties. Tells him that the Danish Company's dastak has always been regarded as sufficient. Desires him to release the beats.

[Page 174]

77. Oct.3.1762 1612.

From the Nawab Mir Qasim. Requests that the gentlemen of Dacca may be ordered to recall the people sent among the zamindars as they impede the collection of the revenue.

[Page 178]

78. Nov.29.1762 1645.

To Mir Sher 'Ali Khan. Has received his letter saying that the English gumashtahs trade with the merchants and rent-holders, lend to and borrow from them and are guilty of numberless violences and oppressions ; that his respect for the Governor has hitherto restrained him from complaining of these matters, but that now, agreeably to the Nawab's orders, he lays before the Governor a fair representation of all particulars. Replies that the writing of such a long and confused letter without coming to the point is certainly not the way to remove the disturbances he complains of. It is the. custom of this country that one does not receive ready money for the goods one sells, but is paid for them according to the agreement one makes. Also if one wants to purchase any cloth or other merchandise, one must advance money five or six months beforeha-. nd. That being so, one must undoubtedly lend to the merchants and paikars. If it is in the Khan's power to break off this old custom and make the palkiirs and merchants give and receive ready money for the goods they buy and sell, the Governor will be obliged to him and it will be greatly to the advantage of all trading people. But until the Khan has established this new method, ordering no advances to be made to the paikars is in . effect putting a stop to trade. The merchants and paikars are not rent-holders of the Government. The Nawab's order and the Governor's is that the gztmtishtah s of the Company's factories and the English gentlemen should not lend to or borrow from the zamindars or other officers of tl!e Sarkar, and that in case any of the eumtishtahs disobeys this order or interrupts the business of the Sarkar, the Khan should write to the Governor all the particulars of their proceedings, that they may be punished. Desires him to assist the Company's people in carrying on their trade, for such is the Nawab's desire and the Governor's.

[Page 178]

79. Dec.26.1762 1646.

To the Nawab Mit Qasim. Has received his letter. Will instruct the chiefs of the factories that they can issue dastds in the case of-shipping goods, but that as regards those bought and sold in the country, they must pay a duty of 9 per cent. Hopes His Excellency will direct his officers not to make unjust demands, Has aiready written to all the chiefs of the factories that they must not oppress the ryots and inhabitants of parganahs, nor protect His [Page 179] Excellency's dependants, nor create any disturbances. Will write to them and the gumashtahs again to the same effect. Hopes His Excellency will order his officers to behave to the latter with truth and uprightness and act impartially if a dispute arises between a , gumashtah and a subject of the Sarkar. Has written to the Chiefs • of Chittagong and Lakhipur that they must not work the salt pans themselves, nor intercept the merchants and renters of salt pans. Encloses two letters for the said chiefs. Will direct the chiefs and gumashtahs of the factories that they must neither rent nor purchase land, nor lend money to, nor borrow it from the zamindars and officers of the Sarkar, and will tell them to give back whatever ta'alluqs they may have purchased. Requests His Excellency to order the purchase money to be returned. Has received complaints that the officers of the Sarkar insist upon the former collections and beat, bind, and imprison the people. Asks His Excellency to direct them to desist from such proceedings. Will direct the chiefs and gumiashtahs not to obstruct the dallals and weavers of the Sarkar. Is afraid that the sarrafs, on learning that His Excellency has forbidden the Company's money to be coined in the Patna and Dacca mints, will demand as much battah as they please. Hopes His Excellency will write to the Naibs of Murshidabad, Patna and Dacca to punish the sarrafs in case of their demanding more than what they are entitled to by the rate of the bazar. Will direct the gumashtahs at Goalpara to carry on their business as formerly and not to trade direct with the mountaineers, but through the daroghahs of the Sarkar. Hopes His Excellency will enjoin him to treat the English gumashtahs as he does other merchants.

[Page 180]

80. Jan.4.1763 1648.

To Raja Naubat Ray. Has, as desired, directed Mr. Ellis to abolish Colonelganj. The merchants have been told not to bring their goods there any more. As it is necessary that some grain should be stored up for the Company, Mr. Ellis has been directed to build some goliis in such places as the Raja thinks suitable and to keep there about 20,000 maunds of grain. The merchants, after selling the said quantity to the Company, can dispose of the rest as they please. They are at liberty to serve the Company as before or to settle in any of the ganjs of the Sarkar. Orders have already been issued forbidding the Company's people to hold any ta'alluqahs and to lend to or borrow from the officers, zamindars, etc. With reference to the Raja's complaint that numbers of merchants carry away their goods for sale under the Company's protection, says that the Company grants them dastaks for which they pay ; that this is no new custom, and that this is the only protection afforded them. As to the goods bought and sold in this country, the Governor and the Nawab have agreed that the Company will pay a certain duty on the purchase price. When this regulation comes into force, no duties will be demanded on the road. Understands what the Raja writes about shutting up the Berhanna wicket of the fort and about the intrenchment by the river. Though there does not appear to be any great necessity for it, and the consequent deviation of route will be an inconvenience to the people of the factory, yet since it is the Nawab's order, it should be carried out. Zainu-i-'abidin, Amil of Behar, writes that a gumahstah of the factory has taken from one Dia Chand, a merchant, an obligation to the effect that no one shall buy opium besides the English. The merchant showed the 'Amil a copy of the obligation but did not leave it with him. It is uncertain whether the story is true, or whether the merchant was prompted by self-interest to impose upon the Amil, that he mhrht avoid paying the duties. Advises him to send for the merchant and inquire into the affair in the presence of Mr. Ellis, who has been directed to punish the gumashtah tn casethe complaint is proved. If hot, the Raja, on his part, should punish the merchant. With regard to the Sarkar' s bill in the hands of Mir Ashraf, it appears from the account that he has disposed of only 25,396 maunds of salt. He says that he could not sell more because in many places there was salt belonging to the English gentlemen, and he was not authorised to stop the sale of their merchandise to dispose of that of the Sarkar , and because notwithstanding the obligation entered into by the merchants of the city, the officers of several of the neighbouring places did not -put a stop to the business of other merchants. As the merchants of the city will be entirely ruined if their business continues to be stopped, the Rllja is advised to take back what salt of the Sarkar remains unsold and to dispose of it at the market price. Is sure that the Nawab will by no means approve of injuring the merchants. Desires him to examine Mir Ashraf's account. Will inform the Nawab of all particulars. As to the coining of the Company's money; tells him to direct the Darozflah of the mint not to receive any money or bullion that [Page 181] may be brought by the servants of the factory to be coined, and to write to Mr. Ellis that money will be coined for him on the same terms as for other merchants or that he may exchange it at the bazar price. Understands what the Raja writes concerning the revenues of Birrumpur and the nazranah for the saltpetre. Some thousand rupees were at different times paid by the Company to Ram Narayan for the expenses of his army. Mr. Ellis has been directed to pay the balance into the Sarkar's treasury.

[Page 186]

81. Feb.12.1763 1669.

To the Nawab Mir Qasim. Has been informed that while some saltpetre was being brought from Ghazipur on bullocks, His Excellency's 'amil forcibly pulled it off from the bullocks' backs at Mangee, took away the bullocks and left the saltpetre there; that the Darogah of Seisun has stopped a boat belonging to the Company and taken the saltpetre out; that all the asamis who supply the Company with saltpetre have run away through the oppressions of His Excellency's officers; and. lastly that Qutb 'Aiam, Faujdar of Rajmahal, has stopped four boats laden with betelnuts, notwithstanding that they bore a dastak from the Chief of Dacca, and demands duties. As disturbances have at once arisen on every side and complaints are coming in from all parts against the oppressions of His Excellency's officers, it is evident that this cannot have happened without orders. If His Excellency is desirous of removing the Governor's suspicions, he should punish those responsible and cause recompense to be made. Complains that His Excellency's officers, instead of abiding by the agreement concluded between the Sarkiir and the Company, devise orders on their own account and proclaim, by beat of drum, that the English must not be suffered to remain in the country and that nobody ll'lUst have any dealings with them. Thus the agreement has been rendered null and void. It is necessary that a new agreement be drawn up, wherein it should be fully explained how the officers of the Sarkiir and the English gumiishtahs are to act. The Chiefs of Cossimbazar, Dacca, Lakhipur and Burdwan have come to Calcutta to assist at the deliberations. Will hereafter inform His Excellency of whatever may be resolved on for the mutual benefit of the Sarkiir and the Company. His Excellency lives at such a distance from Calcutta that an answer .cannot be received in less than a month. Besides, none of the 'iimz'ls in these parts are invested with sufficient authority to treat with the Governor. Has, therefore, written to Sayyid Muhammad Khan at Murshidabad and Mugammad 'Ali Beg at Dacca that an elaborate agreement is being drawn up, that they must let the Company's, business and that of private gentlemen go on as formerly till the arrixal of the agreement, and that if any of the zila'dars in the meantime obstruct it, some of the Company's people will be sent to remove the obstruction. Encloses copies of his letter to the zila'dars. Requests His Excellency to write to them to the same effect

[Page 190]

82. Feb.22.1763 1682.

To the Nawab Mir Qasim. Has been informed by Mr. Ellis that Raja Naubat Ray has imprisoned several of the merchants of Colonelganj, stopped some boats laden with grain and going with an English dastak to the factory, and proclaimed, by beat of drum, that no one must carry any grain to the English. As this is an open breach of all the rules of friendship, Mr. Ellis has been directed to send some of the Company's people to protect the business. If the Raja has behaved in this manner in consequence of His Excellency's orders, it is necessary that they should be contradicted, for if complaints of the oppression of the officers of the Sarkar arrive daily from all parts of the country, ruin of His Excellency's affairs must be the consequence. In case the Raja has acted without orders, he should be speedily punished that no one in future may be guilty of such proceedings. It was agreed that some grain should be stored up for the use of the English army and the factory, and that no duty was to be paid upon it. As the price will be lower at the factory's bazar than in the town, the people of the town will go there to purchase grain. This is not desirable. Recommends that a certain number of merchanlc; should be appointed to take what grain may be necessary to the town. A list of their names will be sent to the Raja who will appoint a daroghah to collect the usual duties of the Sarkar. Desires His Excellency to direct the Raja to act agreeably to these rules and speedily to appoint a place for erecting golds, that the ganj may be abolished.

[Page 195]

83. Mar.7.1763 1698.

From Sayyid Mu'Qammad Khan. Has received his letter saying that while seven boats laden with rice and bearing the Company's dastaks were coming from Rajganj, the Daroghah of Barah Ghurya Haut stopped them, and desiring the Khan to arrest him. Has sent some harkiirahs to briug him to Murshidabad. Will punish him severely.

[Page 197]

84. Mar.7.1763 1702.

To the Nawab Mir Qasim. Has received his letters of the 26th February. It appears that His Excellency is disinclined to give the English any satisfaction for the interruptions that have been caused to the Company's business by Muhammad Ali Beg and others, and His Excellency's letters seem to be an evasion rather than an answer to the Governor's letters. The farmiins and other public orders of the Court, together with the subsequent treaties with the subahdars have been strictly examined. They show that the English are entitled to carry on trade, foreign as well as inland, in Bengal, Behar, and Orissa duty free. The Council have also taken account of the custom that has hitherto prevailed in the different parts of the country with respect to the English paying a duty on certain articles for inland trade. They learn that salt and tobacco are the only articles on which a duty has been paid, and that in the case of tobacco, it has been done so only at Lakhipur and Dacca. Although the aforesaid grants give the Company full permission to trade duty free, yet they are willing to pay 2 1/2 per cent., as will 'be explained to His Excellency by Mr. Amyatt. As regards the gumtislztahs, the Council cannot let the officers of the Sarkar control ,them. They have made certain regulations restraining the gumashtahs from oppressing the country people, and directing them to complain to the chief of the factory in case of their receiving any injury from His Excellency's officers. Copies of the farmans, hasbu-l- -hukms, and treaties together with the regulations for collecting the [Page 198] aforesaid duty on salt, and guiding the conduct of the Company's. gumiishtalu and of the officers of the Sarkar, will be sent to His Excellenc~ by Mr. Amyatt and Mr. Hay, who have been deputed by the Council to explain to His Excellency the Justice of those nghts and privileges. With regard to the complaints which have already been made, the Council insist upon punishment being given to such of His Excellency's officers as may be proved guilty of extortion and obstruction, and upon reparation being made for the losses occasioned thereby. On the other hand, the Company are willing to make amends for the acts of oppression committed by their agents. All the complaints made by His Excellency's officers against the latter have been referred to gentlemen of the factories. Admits that it has been customary for the Subahs of these provinces to negotiate with the Governor only, but says that it is the Council who decide everything and that the Governor is only their mouthpiece. The agreement concluded between His Excellency and the Governor cannot be enforced, since the Council do not approve of it. Desires His Exct-llency to inform his officers of the fact without delay, that they may cease ob;.tructing the Company's business.

[Page 198]

85. Mar.9.1763 1703.

From Shaikh Qutb Alam. Has received the Governor's letter. Denies having stopped the Company's boats at Rajmahal. Has never deviated from the former treaty. Learns that the managers of Maida factory have taken possession of more land than they actually purchased, and cut down mangoe trees in the parganall of Bhulah Gopalpura. It was about this affair that he wrote to Mr. George Gray. Mr. Peacock, who has built boats for gentlemen at Nawabganj, sent some people to Mahdipur for carpenters. They plundered and ruined well cultivated villages. On the writer's address- ing the said gentleman, the latter has made reparation for a few things only. Complains also of the violences of the Chief of Maida, and says that the lattc r sent to Buthdah [[Purdah ?]] a number of tilangas who plundered the cutcherry and carried awav Shaikh Haibatu-l-lah and others. Requests the Governor to direct the gentlemen of Malda factory to release the said Shaikh and to return the money and things plundered. They may also be directed to report to the writer if any of the managers of the districts interrupt the Company's business. Will chastise the offenders.

[Page 198]

86. Mar.10.1763 1704.

To the Seths. Has received their letter saying that the inhabitants' of Baligokalpur, a ta'alluqah they have just purchased have all run away on account of the violences committed by the peaple belonging to the Company. Has already issued orders that no dependant of the English should on any account oppress the [Page 199] ryots. Desires to be informed of the names of the offenders together with all particulars.

[Page 208]

87. Apr.21.1763 1736.

The Nawab Mir Qasim to the Company. States his case as follows. Mir Ja'far could not by reason of old age bestow proper attention on the administration of affairs, especially after the death of his son by a stroke of lightning. Grief and affliction deprived him of the excercise of his reason and understanding. At that time, Prince Shah Alam arrived in Behar and caused great troubles there; and though the King wrote to Mir Ja'far to send the prince to Delhi, the latter remained where he was. The result was that the collection of the revenues was entirely stopped, and that the Company's business was very much impeded. The Nawab's debt to the troops amounted to nearly two crores of rupees ; besides which he owed large sums of money to the Company and the merchants. From his extreme negligence and want of authority, he could not discharge the smallest part of his debt and was reduced to such an extremity that the troops surrounded him and clamoured for their pay. They even went to the length of calling him names and raining stones and bricks on him. The demands of the Royal treasury were more pressing, while the Marhattas lay at a distance of five or six kos from Murshidabad. When the writer saw things come to this pass, he offered himself as security for the arrears due to the army, satisfied the people, and then informed the Governor of the state of affairs. The latter thought it highly advisable to invest the writer with the direction of the affairs of the country, came to Murshidabad with some of his colleagues, and advised Mir Ja'far to entrust all his affairs to the writer who would serve him with all his heart and soul and eventualiy restore order. Mir Ja'far went to live at Calcutta where he has been paid his expenses ever since his deposition. The writer then applied himself to the management of the affairs of the provinces. He assigned the Company lands yielding an income of fifty lakhs of rupees for their military expenses; assisted their troops with five lakhs of ruptes when they were engaged in besieging Pondicherry, and paid all the money Mit Ja'far owed the Company. He then went to Behar to put an end to the troubles caused by Shah Alam. He agreed to pay His Majesty the sums due to the Imperial Sarkiir on condition of the latter's returning to the capital,. when several gentlemen and chiefs of the Company's forces interfered, and having conspired with some of the mutasaddis of the Court,. took His Majesty to Patna, laid the writer under heavy expenses for six months and tried to throw all his affairs into confusion. Luckily Mr. Vansittart remained firm. to the treaty and recalled several' gentlemen to Calcutta, so that their designs proved abortive and the King was prevailed upon to return to Delhi. Notwithstanding that His Excellency has done so much for the Company, the English bind and carry away his officers, speak whatever comes into [Page 209] their mouths, and place guards upon his houses and forts. His Excellency does not take any duties on the Company's exports and imports. But they, not being satisfied with this privilege, carry on trade in dried fish, straw, bamboos, betelnuts, salt, tobacco, timber, etc.-articles which used to afford the means of subsistence to the poor and indigent in the country. On His Excellency's representing the matter to the Governor, the latter agreed to a small duty on goods bought and sold in the country. But the gentlemen of the Council do not abide by the agreement and are creating disturbances. Has faith in the justice and impartiality of the Company. Hopes they will befriend him and direct the chiefs of the army and the gentlemen to abide by the treaty and not to create disturbances. Requests an answer to this address.

[Page 210]

88. Apr.21.1763 1740.

Mr. Amyatt to the Nawab Mir Qasim. Hopes that all the disputes will be settled amicably. The English began to seize his officers only when their behaviour became intolerable. The story that the Company's troops are in motion is a false and malicious lie. Desires His Excellency not to give credit thereto. Learns that His Excellency is making preparation for war and has !'tationed troops at different places. If such is the case, His Excellency must have sent orders to the chaukis not to molest Mr. Amyatt and party, but to render them all necessary assistance. Busybodies will continually spread false reports while the Sarkar and the Company are in a manner deprived of a free intercourse. The Governor and the Council have therefore thought it advisable to appoint Mr. Amphlett to remain as Resident with His Excellency. Assures His Excellency that he is accompanied only by his attendants and that they are not so many as those who accompanied the Governor.

[Page 217]

89. May.23.1763 1778.

Mr Amyatt to the Nawab Mir Qasim. Sends him a list of demands. Hopes he will return a satisfactory reply that it may be sent to Calcutta to convince the Council that His Excellency's [Page 218] intentions are as peaceful as theirs, and that peace and order may once more reign in the country. It is necessary for a body of English troops to remain at Patna in order that they may be at hand for any service. His Excellency may require of them. Moreover, Patna is a healthy place. The Council, however, will probably consent to their being removed to Monghyr, when His Excellency has built fit cantonments for their accommodation. The fact that troops are pouring into Patna, and that the communication between the factory and the city has been stopped when there is no enemy in the country, gives strong reason for suspicion that war is really going to break out. Desires it to be proclaimed that friendly negotiations are in progress between the Sarkar and the Company, in order that the alarm of the people may subside. Desires also that Mahdi Ali Khan may be directed to adopt a conciliatory attitude towards the English and to punish anyone who insults them. Mr. Ellis will punish the Company's people immediately on receipt of co.mplaints against them.

[Page 218]

90. May.23.1763 1778A.

List of demands delivered to the Nawab by Messrs. Amyatt and Hay. (1) That His Excellency do annul the treaty he made with Mr. Vansittart and issue parwiinahs informing his officers of its being void. (2) That reparation be made for the losses sus tained by the English both before and after the said treaty was made. (3) That the sanad for the remission of all duties for the space of two years be immediately cancelled, as it deprives the English of the advantages to which the Royal farman entitles them above other merchants, and as it is entirely repugnant to tht-ir interests and prejudicial to the harmony which ought to-subsist between His Excellency and the English. (4) That disputes between the English and the dependants of the Sarkiir be adjusted in the following manner:At all the arangs adjacent to or under the management of the subordinate factories, a gumastah shall, in the first instance, apply to the officer of the Sarkar residing on the spot, In case he does not receive immediate satisfaction, he shall send his complaint to the chief of the nearest factory. But in respect of weavers, paikars, etc., who receive advances of money for goods to be supplied or are indebted for goods bought, the gumashtahs shall as usual retain their power to call such debtors to account. Otl the other hand, a subject of the Sarkar, complaining of an English gumashtah shall give the latter notice of the complaint in writing. In case the said gumiishtak refuses to settle the dispute in such a manner as shall appear reasonable to the office of the Sarkar, the latter shall transmit the case to the chief of the nearest factory. The gentlemen of the subordinate factories shall keep a register of such complaints, a copy whereof shall be forwarded monthly to Calcutta. (5) That a gentleman on the part of the English shall always reside at His Excellency's Dabar to transact all business between the Sarkii.r and the Company. (6) That jagiri sanads be granted the Company for Burdwan, Midnapur, [Page 219] and Chittagong. (7) That the money coined in the Company1s mint be declared current, and the English allowed to coin three liikhs of rupees annually in each of the mints of Dacca and Patna. (8) That the money srent by Muhammad Riza Khan in the expedition to Tippera out of the revenues of Chittagong, after the latter was made over to the Company, be reimbursed. (9) That before the departure of Messrs. Amyatt and Hay from Monghyr, a public and exemplary punishment be inflicted on Lal Shah, who attacked a subahdar and so sepoys, declaring that he had the Nawab's orders to cut every English sepoy to pieces wherever they were found. (10) That the Seths be released. (11) That His Excellency do give an explicit answer to the above demands and with all convenient expedition issue orders agreeably thereto.

[Page 226]

91. June.26.1763 1809.

From the Nawab Mir Qasim. Has, as desired, released the boats with the muskets. But Messrs. Amyatt and Hay have told His Excellency that the Council have decided not to remove the troops from Patna. Has just learnt that Mr. Ellis is about to assault the fort, and that he is preparing ladders and platforms and pulling down. the houses of Bankipur in order to make entrenchments. Has forborne so long for the Governor's sake. His patience is now quite exhausted. Encloses letters regarding the state of affairs at Patna.

[Page 226]

92. June.26.1763 1809C.

Paper of news. Mr. Ellis's sepoys come close to the fort, call the garrison names, and challenge them to fight. He has made ladders and platforms to scale the walls. One day he was ready to assault the fort, when a storm of wind and rain frustrated his design. The people of the city are in great distress, but Mubammad Mahdi Khan will not fight without His Excellency's orders.

[Page 226]

93. June.26.1763 1809E.

Mahslngh to the Nawab Mir QAsim. Intimates that about 700 Europeans and tiJangas after plundering the merchants [Page 227] and tenants at Chilmari, went to his cutcherry and killed and wounded fifteen of his peons. Owing to the repetition of such disturbances, the country has been ruined and the collection of the revenues entirely stopped.

[Page 227]

94. July.7.1763 1813.

From the Nawab Mir Qasim. Mr. Ellis has turned out to be his sincere friend. The Governor would not part with two or three hundred muskets, but Mr. Ellis has supplied His Excellency with all the muskets and cannon in his possession; for he assaulted the fort like a night robber and plundered the city for hours together, but was at last defeated and captured with all his muskets and cannon. [Page 228] Passes over his own losses; but will insist on the Company making reparation to the poor. The English concluded with him a treaty to which they pledged the name of Jesus Christ. They took from him Burdwan and other lands for the expenses of their army, with the condition that the troops would always serve him. In reality they were kept to be employed against him, as the recent events have clearly shown. Desires that the said lands may be restored to him together with therents for the past three years, and that he may be indemnified for all the violences committed by the English gumashtahs.

[Page 234]

95. Aug.27.1763 1850.

The Wazir to the Nawab Mir Ja'far. Professes friendship. The King also is favourably disposed towards him. His Majesty had thoughts of marching towards Bengal, but was prevented from doing so on account of the rains. He has now been informed of the political situation in Bengal and was grieved to learn of the distress of that province. Therefore, notwithstanding the badness of the roads, he left Surajpur with his troops "numerous as the stars '' and crossed the Ganges that he might speedilyarrive and punish the iniquitous. Refers him to Muhammad 'Ali Beg for particulars. Requests a reply to this letter.

[Page 235]

96. Aug.27.1763 1851.

From the Wazir. The Rohillas have been reduced to submission. Has heard of the disputes between the English and Mir Qasim, and of the violences committed by the latter. According to the treaty which Colonel Coote and Major Carnac made with the writer, their interests are identical. Is surprised that the Governor has not informed him of the political situation in Bengal for a long time. It is His Majesty's most earnest desire that not even a single poor man should be oppressed or injured. Accordingly, asks how they can suffer the English to be treated with oppression or injustice. They have crossed the Ganges at Allahabad with the intention of coming to Bengal with all expedition. Hopes the Governor will send a letter of invitation that their intention may not be misunderstood.

[Page 235]

97. Aug.27.1763 1852.

The Wazir to Mr. Ellis. To the same effect as the fore- going.

[Page 235]

98. Aug.27.1763 1853.

To the Wazir. The English were obliged to enter into a war with Mir Qasim on account of his stopping the Company's business, acting in an unfriendly and hostile manner and treacherously murdering Mr. Amyatt. Has dispatched against him an army under Major Adams, Major Carnac, and the Nawab Mir Ja'far. Has also sent for some troops and men-of-war from Madras. The English troops are strong enough to punish the enemy. They have gained successive victories at Katwa, Murshidabad, and Gheria. Hopes that Monghyr will shortly be taken and the enemy captured or obliged to flee. Requests that the Zamindar of Benares and the Faujdars of Ghazipur and Zamania may be directed to seize him if he passes through their territory. The Na wah M ir Ja 'far, who is loyal to the King, is engaged in regulating the affairs of the country. Hopes His Excellency's representations will be listent'd to.

[Page 239]

99. Sept.13.1763 1875.

To Sheo Bhat. Relates how the English were obliged to make war on Mir Qasim, and gained successive victories at Katwa, Murshidabad, Gheria, Udanala, and Suri. Suhrab, the adopted son of Muhammad Taqi Khan, and Kamgar Khan have appeared in the Birbhum, province. Hopes that they too will meet with due punishment and that Monghyr will shortly be taken. Some ships and troops have arrived from Madras, but there will be no occasion to send a reinforcement to Major Adams. The Governor knew that the addressee, if requested, would assist the English, but did not think it proper to trouble him in this trifling business. Hopes that in case the enemy comes that way, he will be seized and sent to the Nawab.

[Page 243]

100. Oct.8.1763 1895.

From Sayyid Badal Khan. Reports that one Aqa 'Alivardi, who was arrested in connection with the plundering of Cossimbazar, says that though nothing has been proved against him, he is still kept in prison. Requests that the Chief of Cossimbazar may be directed to release him provided his statement is true.

[Page 246]

101. Oct.18.1763 1907.

From the Nawab Mir Ja'far. Encloses a letter he has written to Commodore Tinker. Has received the muchalkah signed by Ahsanu-l-lah Khan and sent it to Murshidabad to be entered in the books. Whatever goods the enemy plundered at Cossimbazar were taken to Monghyr. The rest were carried off by the people of Murshidabad. When His Excellency arrived there, he ordere_d a strict inquiry to be made into the affair, and directed Mul.1ammad Eraj Khan and the Daroghah ofthe Sarkar at Murshidabad to collect the stolen goods. Encloses a list thereof. Complains that the Chief of Cossimhazar has arrested Muham mad Ali, the Daroghah, and Himmat Singh, the Diwan, on a charge of stealing the said goods, and does not consent to their being tried by Muhammad Eraj Khan. Asks how the city can flourish whilst such oppressions are committed. ls encouraging the ryots to settle but these disturbances make them run away. Hopes strict orders will be sent on the subject to the officers of the factory. Has been informed that the enemy have sent Messrs. Ellis and Lushington to Patna. Is always thinking of how to effect their release. Is glad to say that his brother Mir Kasim 'Ali Khan, having made his escape,. arrived at camp on the 5th instant.

[Page 274]

102. Jan.14.1764 2023.

Shakiru-d-daulah to Mr.' Batson. Has received his letter rcquestine: that Mir Qasim and Sumroo may be seized and delivered up. The King and the Wazir are friendly to the English and will comply with their wishfes. Mir Qasim wanted to go to the Rohillas and the Jats, but His Majesty and the Wazir, out of their regard for thft Nawab Mir Ja'far and the English, invited him to the Court by artful encouragement. Now that he has arrived, it is certain that they will take from him a vast sum of money on account of the balances due from him to His Majesty and the jagirdars, as well as whatever remained due from former Nazims, that hP., being brought to shame and distress, may desiist from creating a disturbance and may even retreat from the world, and in the end die through grief at seeing himself reduced to such a state of poverty and contempt. These designs of ruining the enemy will be carried into execution in order to please the Nawab and the English genllemen. Their addresses together with a nazr of 100 gold moburs have been received at the Court. The Wazir presented them himself to His Majesty, who wrote on the paper requesting the sanads [Page 275] "Let a farman be written." His Highness will cause the sanads to be drawn up in the usual form, and send them to Raja Beni, by whom they will be forwarded to the Nawab. Has been appointed Waqaya' nigar and Bakkshi, etc., of Bengal and Behar, and has sent Muhammad Waris Khan and Ray Sida Mal to manage his affairs. Hopes the addressee will intercede with the Nawab and cause his people to be put in possession of his jagirs. Will serve His Excellency diligently. Mir Sulaiman, Khansaman of Mir Qasim, came to His Majesty and the Wazir to procure their assurances of protection. They have accordingly sent Mirza Rahim Khan and 'Ali Beg to receive him. After his arrival, the wishes of the English will be complied with. His Majesty and the Wazir are encamped on the banks of the Jumna. Agha Baqir has been recalled from Bundelkhand. The country on the other side of the river has been committed to the charge of Aniip Ghir Himmat. The French padre Windel has not yet received a reply to his letters.Encloses another letter from him to Major Adams. Dated 24th Dec. 1763.

[Page 293]

103. Mar.14.1764 2126.

Major Adams to Ajit Singh. Enlarges upon the necessity of seizing Ram Nidi Chaudhri and prohibits the carriage of grain to the enemy's camp.

[Page 295]

104. Apl.2.1764 2142.

From the Nawab Mir Ja'far. States that there is no scarcity of grain in camp.

[Page 299]

105. Apl.17.1764 2164.

To the Nawab Mir Ja'far. It is with great concern that the Council find themselves under the necessity of remonstrating with His Excellency upon the ill-administration of the affairs of these provinces, strongly exemplified by the great distress the English army has been in for want of grain, though the country had been freed from disturbance before the crop was cut and though it was as plentiful as was ever known; exemplified too by the repeated complaints His Excellency has made of his want of money, though the heaviest collections of the year must have fallen into his hands; and in general by the little assistance he now seems able to give for the destruction of their common enemies. Asks to whom these evils can be imputed but to Nand Kumar, under whose influence and direction all the affairs of the Government have been hitherto conducted. These are strong instances of his misconduct and negligence, but what gives the Council still greater reason to be dissatisfied with him is that, from advices lately received from Major Carnac, it is suspected that he has been carrying on a secret correspondence with the enemy, and counteracting every measure that has been taken for the support of His Excellency's Government. Notwithstanding the repeated representations which have been made to His Excellency for supplies of grain, Major Carnac, for want of it, has been obliged to return to the Soan. This, together with other matters which have been fully represented to His Excellency by the Major, will effectually convince him that the disapprobation which the Council now express at Nand Kumar's conduct, arises alone from their friendship for the Nawab and a regard for their common safety. However backward and cautious therefore the Council should at all times be in interfering with the affairs of the Sarkar yet the wicked mismanagement of Nand Kumar in the present critical situation of affairs obliges them to press and insist upon the immediate removal of that man from His Excellency's employ. They do not take it upon themselves to recommend a successor, but are resolved to approve of any man whom His Excellency is pleased to appoint, provided he will but manifest a true zeal for the service of the Sarkar. Whatever opinion they may have expressed of Ray Dulab, or desire to have him employed, they are ready to acquiesce in his removal to Calcutta, if such is His Excellency's pleasure, at the time when Nand Kumar is sent down, being desirous to give His Excellency every proof in their power of the fact that they are not swayed to make this remonstrance by any partiality for the one or personal dislike for the other, and that they [Page 300] are not incautiously or unnecessarily interfering with His Excellency's authority, which they are determined to support, but are compelled much against their will to press the removal of Nand Kumar, who seems to be undermining both his power and that of the Company. As they are now giving the strongest proofs of their attachment to His Excellency by exerting all their strength to free his country from their common enemies, they must expect that he will so far concur with their endeavours as immediately to remove Nand Kumar from his confidence and service. The longer any power continues to remain in his hands, the more endangered is their common safety by his artifice and misconduct. This address will be presented to His Excellency by Major Carnac, of whose attachment and regard he has repeatedly had such strong proofs, and with whom he will without doubt be ready to concur in every measure necessary for the public good.

[Page 302]

106. Apl.25.1764 2181.

From the Nawib Mir Ja'far. Intimates the arrival of Captain Pemble at Patna. Owing to the scarcity of grain, has left that place with his army for Dinapur.

[Page 305]

107. Apl.27.1764 2196.

To Muhamrnad Riza Khan, Naib of Dacca. Faqir Chand Sahii has for a long time been bringing grain, oil, and other goods from Dacca to Calcutta. The people employed by the addressee in collecting grain have now stopped the boats loaded by Faqir Chand's Naib. Desires him to release the boats and to give positive orders that no one should act in such a manner in future.

[Page 308]

108. May.7.1764 2211.

To Muhammad Riza Khan, Naib of Dacca. Mr. Cartier has been directed to collect some grain and send it to the army. Desires the Khan to assist him. Has already sent to the said gentle man the Nawab's order on the ,Khan. Asks him to pay the money to the factory in the space of one month agreeably to His Excellency's directions.

[Page 309]

109. May.9.1764 2217.

From the Nawab Mir Ja'far. Reports the capture of all the grain by the enemy, the subsequent skirmishes and the movements of the English army. Najaf Khan is coming to attack Murshidabad. Urges the necessity of sending a force for its protection.

[Page 315]

110. May.29.1764 2268.

From the Nawab Mir Ja'far. Reports the defeat of the enemy in Sarkar Saran by Captain Morgan. Ram Nidi has gone over to Mir Qasim. Is in distress in consequence of the revenues being stopped.

[Page 327]

111. July.29.1764 2353.

To the Nawab Mir Ja'far. Has received his letter enclosing an account of the present state of his debt to the Company and the army, and mentioning that the enemy were brought to punishment by the Europeans and sepoys and not by any cavalry, and that it is a very difficult matter to provide for such expenses out of half the province of Bengal. As the Nawab Shuja'u-d-daulah has not yet desisted from hostilities, but has possessed himself of the country belonging to His Excellency from the Soan to the Karamnassa, and is preparing to prosecute the war afresh, it is necessary that the English should be prepared. Major Carnac and all the officers represent that it is a matter of great importance that there should be a body of cavalry to act in conjunction with the English army by collecting provisions and pursuing the enemy after a defeat. If, therefore, His Excellency does not choose to keep any cavalry on the footing recommended by the Governor, he should at least entertain some in his own service. The Company's expenses have been doabled in this war. What with the troops from Europe, the newly raised troops and military stores, they cannot be less than seven lakhs of rupees a month. The revenues of Burdwan and the other lands, which have been made over to the Company, may amount to about fifty lakhs a year, so that their disbursements are three lakhs o£ rupees a month in excess of their income. As the Nawab's military expenses have decreased in proportion as those of the Company have increased, and as the freeing of the country from the enemy rests entirely upon the English, it is requested that they may be furnished with the aforesaid three lakhs of rupees over and above the amount agreed upon. As to His Excellency's saying that it is difficult to provide for these expenses out of balf the province of Bengal, it is contended that the lands, which have been made over to the Company, yield fifty ltikhs, while the revenues of the remainder of the province can scarcely be less than two crores. Last year the army was much distressed for want of provisions. Desires him therefore to direct all his officers to dispatch grain to Patna and Monghyr. Refers him to Mr. Billers for particulars. PS-Is surprjsed to learn that Doctor Mirza 'Ali Naqi and Babii jagat Chand have written to His Excellency that the Governor said with anger "Some captains shall [Page 328] go and take the donation money for the Navy.'' Protests that he never uttered such words. As the above-named persons deny that they wrote the letters containing this information, His Excellency is requested to send the originals for the Governor's information. With regard to the donation, it has already been written to His Excellency that, like the army, the navy also deserves something but that it depends on his favour. PS.-Requests that Mr. Billers, Chief of Patna factory, may be paid the balance due to the Company, which according to the account enclosed in His Excellency's letter is Rs. 7,12, 687-15-6.

[Page 337]

112. Sept.14.1764 2410.

Paper of requests presented hy the Nawab Mir Ja'far to the Board. (1) The officers of Colonclganj and Marufganj, the newly established ganJ's at Patna, take away by force the merchants belonging to the ganjs of the Sarkar, by which means His Excellency suffers a loss of thcusands of rupees. Desires that the aforesaid ganjs may by abolished. (2) At the badrt"qah of Patna and the pachotrah of Murshidabad, merchants refuse to pay the customary tluties under cover of the protection of English factories. Requests that positive orders may be issued on the subject. (3) In the Sarkars of Tirhut, Hajipur, and Saran, and in the province of Bengal. the English gumashtahs hold_ farms in the name of the factories and give protection to the dependants of the Nizamat, by which means His Excellency's government is weakened and the affairs of the country are interrupted and rrejudiced. Desires that this may be put an entire stop to. (4) Money belonging to the Company's factory is coined in the mint at Patna at the rate of 2 1/4 per cent. Last year it was decided that Rs. 10,000 a month ~hould be sent from the factory to the mint to be coined and that the usual duty should be paid. At present very large sums are brought into the mint from the factory and the servants and dependants of the factory, and a duty is paid according 'to the factory rate, whereby a heavy loss falls upon the Sarkar. Desires that strict orders may be issued on the subject. (5) The gumiishtaks o£ Cossimbazar factory have forcibly taken possession of the villages of Damdama and Sibpur in the parganah of Kulbaria and the village of Bammangatta in the parganah of Shamsiani with other villages in the chaklah of Murshidabad, and do not pay a single kauri as malguzari. Also the officers of the chaklah of Burdwan have taken possession of the tappak of Jamgaon, etc., which belong to the parganah of Birbhum, and collect the revenues there. Requests that this may be prevented. (6) The English gumashtahs in the districts of D"acca, Rangamati; Chilmari [Page 338] Backergunge, etc., force tobacco and other goods upon the ta'aluqdiirs and ryots, whereby the country is desolated and a very heavy loss falls upon the Sarkar. Desires that a stop may be everywhere put to this oppression. (7) There are people on the part of the English in the forts of Patna, Monghyr, etc., whereby His Excellency's authority is greatly impaired. Desires that the forts may be evacuated. (8) The agents o several Englishmen everywhere buy and sell rice and other grain in the ganjs and golas of Bengal, whereby the faujdars ami other officers are prevented from sending grain to the army. Requests that this may be stopped. (9) In Patna about forty houses designed for the reception of strangers are in possession of several English gentlemen, so that His Excellency cannot have them for himself, his family and dependants. Requests that they may be vacated. (10) The wood farm belonging to Purnea, which has hitherto paid a tribute of Rs. 50,000 a year is now in the hands of the English, and His Excellency does not receive a single kauri' from it. Requests that they may cease from interfering in that farm. (I I) Requests that orders may be issued prohibiting the English from protecting the dependants and servants of the Sarltiir. ( 12) The sepoys, who are sent from the factories into different parts of the country to hear complaints, desolate the villages, and put the ryots to flight by their oppressions, whereby His Excellency's revenues are greatly injured. Requests that no sepoys may be sent into the country without previous notice to him or his officers. (13) The poor of the country, who used always to deal in salt, betelnut, tobacco, etc., have now been deprived of their daily bread by the trade of the Europeans.

[Page 340]

113. Sept.22.1764 2416.

Zainu-1-'abidln Khan to Major Munro. Has received through Asad Khan his letter desiring the writer to join the English army with as many able-bodied and well-mounted Moghals, Tiiranls, etc., as possible. Although it is dishonourable for all men, particularly for men of family, to desert the service they are engaged in and go over to their master's enemies, yet there are several reasons which justify such conduct in the Moghals. First, the Wazir, not withstanding his oath upon the Quran, murdered the Nawag Muhammad Quli Khan, who was the glory of the Moghals, and who to the writer was dearer than a father or a brother. Secondly, the Wazir's behaviour to the Nawab Mir Qasim, who is a descendant of the Prophet, has been very shameful. It is not allowed by any religion that a person, who flees to another for protection with his family and effects, even if he be a person of low rank, should meet with treatment other than friendly. " Why then has he in violation of his oath and agreement behaved in such a manner as to incur universal censure and reflect disgrace upon the Moghal name?" Thirdly, he has never failed to break every engagement he has entered into and every oath he has taken. Fourthly, neither he nor his ministers pay any regard to his own sign-manual. Fifthly, with regard to the Moghals, who are strangers in this country, and who, having nothing to depend upon but their monthly pay, are brought to distress whenever that is stopped, he thinks of nothing but how to oppress and ruin them. Moreover, he takes no notice of men of family, but places all his confidence in low and worthless people. Sixthly, he by no means makes a proper distinetion between his friends and his enemies, but makes a practice of countenancing the latter and ill-treating the lormer. The assisting and supporting of such an oppressor is neither conformable to reason, nor to the Quran, nor to the rules of any religion, and the quitting of his service can reflect no dishonour upon anyone either in the sight of God or man. Therefore if the English, who are celebrated for their justice and good faith, are desirous of an alliance with the Moghals, and are willing to agree to their just demands and to swear to the observance of the agreement by the names of Jesus and Mary, and if the gentlemen of the Council put their seals to it and speedily forward it, a great number of Moghals and Turanis will without delay join the English army. Praises 'Ali Riza Khan and desires the Major to invite him back to the English service. Assures him that the said Khan was carried away to the Wazir's camp, contrary to his own inclinations, by his troop of horse and the people of Tikari,Jbat in spite of His Highness's solicitations, he has refused to enter his service, that he has been greatly oppressed on account of his connection with the English, and that he is sincerely attached to them. Refers him to . Mirza 'lwaz Beg for particulars.

[Page 343]

114. Sept.22.1764 2424A.

Shah Mal, Qal'adtir of Rohtas, to Major Munro. Has received his letter agreeing to set his hand to the writer's paper of requests, but saying that Mir Asad 'Ali, the bearer of it, has not yet arrived. Encloses another paper. Although he is fully satisfied with what the Major has said in his letter, yet in compliance with the custom of the world, he requests that the paper will be properly signed, sealed and speedily sent to Rohtas together with some money and a body of troops. The enemy's troops, which were at Tilloot, have scattered themselves on every side. Should they surround the fort, the garrison will be greatly distressed for want of provisions. Makes repeated appeals for help. Refers him to M1r Asad 'Ali and Dr. Fullarton for particulars.

[Page 348]

115. Oct.17.1764 2439.

From Muhammad Ri?a Khan, Naib of Dacca. Has come to Murshidabad with the utmost speed with his officers and accounts. As His Excellency did not give him any instructions about leaving a Naib of rank at Dacca, he has only left a person with a few assistants to take care of the fort. Now by reason of the absence of the officers and the want of a Naib of rank, the collections and business of those parts are in the greatest confusion, and are daily growing worse. The season for collecting the revenues is passing away. Sees no prospect of his being able to make up in future for the losses which are now happening, nor will it be an easy matter for him to give a satisfactory answer. Is therefore in the greatest distress. Hopes that he will be sent for to Calcutta or helped in some other manner.

[Page 348]

116. Oct.23.1764 2448.

The Nawab Mir Ja'far to the Board. Till the removal of the troubles with the Wazir, 50,000 maunds of rice, etc., will be kept in the ganjs for the use of the English army ; but afttrwards this establishment will cease. Whenever the chaukidars see a dastak under the seal of the Company or the chiefs of the factories, they will by no means be guilty of any obstruction. The writers who are at the established chaukis will endorse the dastak and let it pass. Can not give a list of the chaukis with an account of the duties collected !thereat, since the amount of the duties is not fixed but depends upon 'the goods which pass and repass. All those who have taken any ta'alluqs without His Excellency's consent will have to relinquish them. Approves ot the coining of the Company's money in the Patna mint at the rate of 21 /2 per. eent., but wants to be informed of the monthly or yearly amount of it. With regard to the battah on the several mints, says that 1t is a matter of great moment and that he will consider it after t.e is settled at Murshidabad. Has not yet received ~ny rent ror the villages of Bammangatta and Sheupur [Sibpur] [Page 349] which he gave to Colonel Clive. The gumashtah of Damdama will be sent to Calcutta that the matter may be inquired into. With regard to Jamgaon, it will be made over to the Company, if it appears from the papers to be dependant not on Birbhum but Burdwan. Although the merchants and the poor of the country will be distressed by the English trading in salt and betelnut at Dacca, Murshidabad, and Patna, yet His Excellency consents to it on condition of their paying a duty of 2 1/2 per cent. and agreeing not to deal in any other article. Will withdraw the parwanahs which have been granted to several English gt:ntlemen. As soon as the war with the Wazir is finished, all the forts should be delivered up to his officers and all the new ganjs abolished. No English merchants should trade in grain. The bringing of rice as usual to Calcutta does not matter. The Company's troops, who have gone to fight the enemy, have left people and effects in all the houses at Patna. His Excellency did not apply for the latter before on account of the rainy season. Desires that they may now be evacuated. Desires also that after the war the troops to be stationed in the Patna province may be quartered outside the city. Is entirely satisfied with the Governor's resolution concerning the wood farm. Will not trouble any of his dependants and servants, who have lived under the Company's protection, except about the affairs of the Sarkar. The sepoys' going 1nto the country about the Company's money is of no consequence. But no one should be sent in any other case except that of murder or robbery, that the collection of his revenues may not be interrupted.

[Page 369]

117. Dec.30.1764 2523.

From Muhammad Riza Khan. The Nawab has after a long conversation consented to receive in payment about Rs. 27.60,000. Represents that the country has been entirely ruined by famine and that for the last six months during which he has been detained at Murshidabad, the affairs of Dacca have been in a state of confusion. The Nawab is displeased with him. Although His Excellency says that of this large sum if two or three lakhs of rupees remain unpaid, they will be accounted for by the Sarlear in the next year's payment and not demanded of him now, yet he cannot put any trust in this promise. Will wait on Mr. Middleton at Muradbagh and deliver him the Governor's letter.

[Page 372]

118. Jan.10.1765 2534.

From Muhammad Riza Khan. Has written to Ram Charan Ray explaining how he was confined in the fort, how a guard of harkiirahs was stationed at his house, and how at last he was released through the favour of Mr. Middleton. The said Ray will inform the Governor of everything. Mr. Middleton shows the writer the greatest kindness. On Wednesday last, he sent for Maharaja Nand Kumar and himself to Muradbagh with a view to the adjustment of his affairs. It was settled that Rs. 26,86,000 should be paid on account of the present year and Rs. 1,30,000 as the arrears of last year. The Maharaja in the presence of the said gentleman said that if 2 or 3lakhs remained due at the end of tlte year, they would be received with the revenues of the ensuing year. Represents that as the present [ Fasli] year is nearly over, it will be difficult for him to pay so large a sum unless he is given two or three months' time in the next year. It is now six months since he was first unjustly detained at Murshidabad. Accord- ingly the collection of the revenues has been stopped and the proper opportunity lost. The Mahiraja has told Mr. Middleton that he will inform the Nawab of this and make out the papers of the agreement. Hopes for protection.

[Page 373]

119. Jan.10.1765 2536.

From the Nawab Mir Ja'far. Has received his letter. Agrees with the Governor that under the circumstances, peace cannot be made with the Wazir. Requests to be favoured with a copy of what the Governor will write to the latter, that His Excellency also may write to him to the same effect. The English lettet written by the Governor to Mr. Billers directing him to accommodate the King's family outside the city and not in the house of Raja Ram Narayan, has been received and forwarded to Patna. Hopes that that gentleman will act according to the instructions contained therein. As to Muhammad Riza Khan, the Governor must have heard everything from Mr. Middleton. The Khan has paid only about Rs. 3,82,000 and is in arrears to the amount of 17 lakhs of rupees owing to his carelessness and inattention to the collection of the revenues. Moreover, from the beginning of Pus to the end of the year, there is a demand on him for another sum. Accordingly one day His Excellency was urgent with him for the payment of his arrears. But since that day the Khan has not been much troubled about them. He is at his case in his own house; and if anything to the contrary has been reporteC. to the Governor, it is utterly false. Hopes that such talk will not be given credit to, for His Excellency has no desire beyond promoting the good and welfare of his friends. As the above Khan is one of his dependants and an old friend, asks how he can think of doing anything to his prejudice. This was the custom of that ''vile wretch Qasim." Hopes that no such suspicions will be entertained with regard to himself.

[Page 395]

120. Mar.25.1765 2616.

2616. From the Nawab 'Najmu-d-daulah. On the 19th instant in the evening, he told Raja Nand Kumar that as many people went to Motijhil and spoke things to Mr. Johnstone in preJudice of them both and as the Raja for want of leisure went but seldom there, thus causing that gentleman to entertain an ill opinion of him, he should go to Motijhil and pay a visit to the gentlemen there. Accordingly the next day in the mcrning the Raja went from his own house direct to Motijhil and saw Messrs. Johnstone, Senior, Middleton, and Leycester. Having presented to them His Excellency's compliments - and good wishes agreeably to their respective ranks, he sat down. Those gentlemen were just then preparing to come to His Excellency. The Raja was desirous of accompanying them, but they told him to remain there as they would soon be back. Accordingly they left him under a guard and came to His Excellency with the Governor's letter of the 17th instant concerning the Raja. On perusing it, finds that the charge against him now is the same as was preferred against him by Mir Ashraf at Buxar a twelve-month ago. The fact of the matter was that the Raja had refused him sanads for a certain grant for Bibi Raushan, his sister, and for a jagir yielding a revenue of Rs. 32,000. In consequence of this refusal, he conceived a great enmity against the Raja, and brought before General Carnac, then a Major, one Din Dial Missar together with two or three more suborned witnesses. Din Dial Missar is an old gumashtah of his own, whom he had before introduced to His Excellency the late Nawab Mir Ja'far as a wakil of Balwant Singh. General Carnac together with Messrs. Swinton, Stables, Pearson and other gentlemen made full inquiry into the affair. Again, after the return of the army from Buxar, the gentlemen called together Mir Ashraf's suborned witnesses, and a second inquiry, wherein their falseness plainly appeared, was helrl. A third time the General, Mr. Swinton and other gentlemen called Mir Ashraf before them at Patna. The Mir represented that Din Dial Missar had notice of the treasonable letter written by Nand Kumar to Raja Balwant Singh. Upon this, Din Dial Missar was summoned and examined. He replied that Nand Kumar did not give him any letter or message, and that only one letter of which the cover was open under his seal was shown to him by Mir Ashraf. In fine, the latter was convicted of falsehood in the presence of the late Nawab and the aforesaid gentlemen. Accordingly Major Carnac and Mr. Swinton repeatedly wrote the Council a full account of their inquiries into this affair. Beg-s that the Governor will take out those papers and peruse them. When the late Nawab went down to Calcutta, Mr. Vansittart Shamsu-d-daulab resumed the inquiry and the allegations appeared to he entirely false. At present, Nand Kumar having given the General a memorandum about seizing the parganah [Page 396] of Kabra Manirur, Balwant Singh must have been much offended thereat. And now that Mir Ashraf, who is of old a liar and a child of selfishness, has been to Benares, it is not surprising if he has induced Balwant Singh to act in concert with him. Selfish people in order to gain their private ends, spare no pains to ruin a faithful friend of His Excellency's and a well-wisher of the Company's. ''Understanding is requisite to those who hear." Asks the Governor to consider, at the time when Shuja'u-d-daulah's forces were advancing, how earnestly and repeatedly Nand Kumar pressed the late Nawab to dismiss him to Rani-ka-talab where the English army was encamped; with what speed he hastened to join it ; how he supplied the army with grain which was not procurable there ; and how numbers of his people were plundered, killed or wounded in passing backwards and forwards. Also in the wars at Patna what pains did he not take, and what services did he not perform ? Asks to what this behaviour could be attributed but to his attachment to the English Company and the late Nawab. It is very improper, therefore, that His Excellency should entertain any thoughts of enmity against such a well-wisher of the Company's and such a faithful friend of himself. There was no necessity for sending him to Motijhil to see the gentlemen of the Council, who regardless of his rank and station would not suffer him to come away again. Moreover, when His Excellencv sent them a note by the hands of Muzaffar 'Ali Khan, Darogah of the Diwan Khavah, desiring them to release him, they would not consent to it. Through necessity he went himself this day to Motijhil and begged and entreated the gentlemen of the Council in the most suppliant manner to release Nand Kumar. At length, they gave in after having made His Excellency give them under his hand whatsoever they desired. Cannot describe the contempt to which his Government has been exposed by these proceedings. Has written this for the Governor's information. Is awaiting his reply. If it is necessary that Nand Kumar should come to Calcutta, he will doubt less be sent. His Excellency, who has the utmost desire to see the Governor, will likewise come with his household and servants and realise that desire. Dated 21st Mar.

[Page 405]

121. May 12.1765 2641.

2641. From Raja Dulab Ram. Is rejoiced to hear of His Lordship's arrival in Calcutta. As the parched earth is refreshed by the blessing of rain, and as the budding flower after the hard weather recovers its beauty and fragrance by the sweet breeze of spring, so has this news afforded relief to his anxious mind. Sends a congratulatory nazr of 2 gold mohurs. Refers him to Ram Charan Ray for particulars.

[Page 414]

122. June 19.1765 2664.

To the King. Has received his letter. His impatience to have the happiness of paying his respects to His Majesty in person increases day by day. Will set out therefore in three or four days notwithstanding the difficulty of travelling in this rainy season, and make the best of his way to the Presence. With regard to the Nawab Najmu-d-daulah's applying for sanads in the customary manner, will take care that he does so agreeably to His Majesty's commands. As to the revenues and business of the Imperial Court, everything will be propedy settled when the writer has the honour of a personal interview with His Majesty.

[Page 414]

123. June 23.1765 2666.

Muhammad Yar Khan to Bhawanl Pandit. When the writer was at Shahjahanabad, he contracted an intimate acquaintance with Parsauram Pandit, brother to Raja Baboji Mahadeo, who was wakil at the Royal Court on the part of Pandit Pardhan [the Peshwa]. Oti account of that consideration, he received letters from the [Page 415] Subakdar Rao Malharjl Hulkar desiring him to give the latter. constant information of the secret proceedings of those parts, and to act with such caution that he might succeed in his aims. Accordingly the aforesaid Subahdar having joined the Nawab Wazir of the realm is encamped with a large force in the districts of Farrukhabad. The English have retreated, and must have come probably as far as Benares by this time. As the writer has been in the service of Raja Januji for these eight wars [[?years]] and is always heartily attached to his interest, he therefore writes to say that unless the English are expelled, tht chauth money can never be paid. Some time ago Maru-d-din [sic] 'Ali Khan came to Calcutta from the addressee and they refused to give him anything. In like manner Ragunath Pandit is here, and no one pays him anything. Is rejoiced to learn that the addressee has arrived at Cuttack with a considerable force. There is not tile slightest difference between Haja Janilji and the -Subahdar Malharji Hulkar, and the affairs of each of them are the same. When the affairs of the Governmrnt are scttled, the addressee can obtain the ckauth money by the assistance of the Subahdar. Therdore if he holds it necessary to unite with the latter, he should march from Cuttack to Baksore with his troops. The people here will be struck with a panic. In this case if the Wazir gives him intelligence of it, he will possess himself of Jellasore and even Midnapur. It will be a difficult matter for the English to make head against the Marhattas on both sides. Will write to the Siibahdiir and procure from him letters of encouragement to the addressee. Everyone at Calcutta is acquainted with the writer, ~incc in the time of Mahabat Jang, he in conjunction with Mirza Sahib came first and settled everything. Now also the Mirza having received a khal'at and an elephant from the Wazir, had set out for Nyaspur with bills in order to fetch troops, but died on the road. In case the Wazir's army remains tnis year where it is, it is requisite that the addressee should canton his troops at Balasore. Whenever after the rains the armies of the Wazir and Hulkar advance this side of Bt'nares, the addressee likewise at that time will march to possess himself of the country hereabouts. It is proper that he should write a letter to the Subahdar. The Raja will be much obliged to him for his assiduity in cultivating a correspondence with the Wazir and the -Subahdar and perhaps it may be a means of his rising to a high rank. Has written fully what is prudent and advisable. Will set out for the Subahdar' s, court, as soon as the addressee's answers arrive. It is not advisable to send qasids or harkaraks, on account of the regulations of the English. Has therefore dispatched this letter by a faqir. The addressee also should send his letters by any of the faqirs who come this way, mentioning the reward to be given him, Five or ten rupees is not so great a sum considering th' importance of the business on which it !s spent. It is very desirable for the addressee to cultivate this correspondence by any means whatsoever.

[Page 419]

124. June 23.1765 2673.

To the King. He had the honour of writing to His Majesty from Murshidabad, but it is long since he has been favoured with any letters. As he is impatient to hear of His Majesty's health, and as it is necessary that he should be acquainted with the occurrences of those parts, it is requested that he may be favoured with letters from time to time, Has matters of the utmost consequence to settle with His Majesty. In this rainy season when the river runs with surprising rapidity, his proceeding to Allahabad will be attended with great delays and difficulties. If therefore His Majesty would be pleased to come this way, it would be a means of bringing the business to ll- speedy conclusion, and His Lordship would esteem it a particular favour. This day which is Friday the 12th July he arrived near Rajmahal. Will proceed to Patna with all expedttion, and hopes very shortly to have the honour of paying his respects to His Majesty

[Page 420]

125. July 18.1765 2675.

To the Wazir. Has received his letter. Is glad to learn that he has already wrilten to His Lordship and that his not having received any letters from His Highness has been solely due to their having miscarried. As he bas been informed by General Carnac that His Highness is desirous of being put in immediate possession of part of the province of Oudh upon paying down a portion of the money which he is to give in consideration thereof to the Company, the General, who, in conjunction with him, is vested with full power, has been directed to comply with His Hihhness's desire, if the latter thinks such a step necessary before His Lordship's arrival, in oruer to convince him of the sincerity of his friendship and his real desire that a hearty union should be established between him and the English. Has arrived at Monghyr, and purposes, notwithstanding the inconvenience of travelling in this rainy season, to make the best of his way by land to Benares or any other place that may be most convenient to His Majesty and.His Highness, that he may have the happiness of seeing them as soon as possible, and that everything may be settled in such a manner as to give His Highness satisfaction and convince him of the honour of the English nation.

[Page 422]

126. July 24.1765 2683.

2683. To Jugal Kishor, Zamindar of Bettia. ln the time of Mir Qasim, he used to pay into the treasury 6 or 7 lakhs of rupees out of the revenues of his samindtiri Has been informed that at present he gives nothing but a few timbers. Desires him therefore to send without delay the balance which he owes the Sarkar and to give security for the regular payment of his revenues in future. If he neglects this advice, an English army will march against him after the rains and settle his business.

[Page 423]

127. Aug 2.1765 2687.

2687. From the King. Has three requests to make. First, that all mattf'rs of business relative to Bengal may be settled by Raja Sbitab Ray, as was the case in the time of the late Nawab Mir Ja'far, and that the qists may be paid every month. Secondly, that the province of Allahabad and the chaklak of Kora, which have been assigned for the Royal expenses, may not be at the disposal of Najaf Khan, as he has not paid the tribute money, nor will he in future pay a single dam, and as he is unfit for business. Let His Majesty have possession of the said places, and he will bestow it upon some capable man who will pay the tribute money. Thirdly, that as after the rains His Majesty will transport his high standard to the capital in order to settle those parts, an English chief with a considerable force may be appointed to accompany him. Has related all these [Page 424] matters to General Carnac and sent Muniru-d-daulah and Raja Shitab Ray to communicate them to the Governor. It is necessary that His Lordship should listen to their representations and act accordingly. Has invested the Raja with full powers to manage His Majesty's affairs respecting Bengal and to negotiate matters between the Court and the Company.

[Page 424]

128. Aug 11.1765 2688.

From the King. Major Munro made a promise to His Majesty that after ddeating Shuja'u-d-daulah, he would attend the Royal stirrup to Shahjahanabad. In the interim he returned to Calcutta and "our ancient and sincere well-wisher" General Carnac came to the enlightened Presence. He also agreed that after the rains he would accompany His Majesty to Shahjahanabad. But when the Governor, "the strength of our arm'' came to the enlightened Pre- sence, His Majesty's mind was perfectly set at ease from a conviction that an expedition to Shahjahanabad was fully determined on ; that the Empire would be settled and he firmly seated on the throne; and that by His Lordship's labour and valour his enemies would meet with the punishment due to their actions. Understands from Muniru-ddaulah that His Lordship does not purpose attending the Royal stirrup to Shahjahanabad this year, but will do so next year. With regard to this twelve months' delay, represents that Malhar, who, being defeated by the General, fled in disgrace, is still in the Bundelkhand country preparing for war. He has sent for his troops from every part of the Deccan, and has hostile schemes in view. If after his forces are assembled, he marches from Bundelkhand towards Dega and Cummeer and brings with him the zamindars and rajas of those parts together with Jawahir Singh, and if the Sikhs also are invited to join them, Najibu-d-daulah will be under the necessity of entering into the same alliance, as his country and family are in the neighbour- hood of Shabjahanabad. And if these people, agreeable to their intentions, place upon the throne some on of the princes of the Royal family and march with their united forces towards Allahabad, the Rohillas and Ahmad Khan will also join them, and such a disturbance will be raised as it will be difficult to put down. His Majesty's safety depends at present upon the safety of the Governor, the General, and the English chiefs. Has written to His Lordship after considering the advantages and evils of every measure. Tells him not to regard these matters as trifles. Since His Lordship will not proceed to Shahjahanabad this year, it is necessary that during the two remaining months of the army [rainy] season, Najibu-d-daulah, Mu'tamadu-d-daulah, and Ahmad Khan should be invited to the Presence and an alliance entered into with them. The mind of Malhar likewise should be so satisfied that no disturbance may be raised at least during the present year, and that His Majesty may pass his time at Allahabad and the Governor at Murshidabad or CalCutta in tranquillity and quiet. If the forming of an alliance is neglected and things are left in their present state, "we" shall hereafter have cause to repent. Mirza [Page 425] Najaf Khan was formerly a jama'dar in Sbuja'u-d-daulah's service. He is entirely unacquainted with the malguzari business. If Allahabad and Kora are left to his management, His Majesty has no hope of receiving a single rupee and the country will be ruined and desobted. The said places should therefore be entirely at His Majesty's disposal that he may grant them to some one who will pay the revenue. As to the Khan, he will be entertained in the Royal service, and paid year by year whatever allowance the Governor may fix. Muniru-ddaulah and Raja Shitab Ray will acquaint His Lordship with His Majesty's commands concerning the province of Bengal, the peshkas!t of Behar, the jaigirs and some other matters. Hopes that he will act conformably thereto. Asks him not to return to Calcutta until all these matters are properlv settled, and His Majesty's heart is set at ease, and when he docs return, to leave General Carnac to attend His Majesty.

[Page 427]

129. Aug 25.1765 2695.

From Jugal Kishor. Has received His Lordship's letter desiring him to send the balance due to the Sarlciir. Before the arrival of his letter, having heard of his being at Patna, the writer sent a nazr and was intent on getting ready the balance which is the first and chief object of his desire. The delay which has happened in this matter he will now explain. What should he say of the ruin and utter devastation of the parts under his jurisdiction by the movements of Mir Qasim's army? Afterwards the Nawab Mir Ja'far, having conferred on him a pattah in the usual form, sent him orders, upon the appearance of fresh trouble and contention at Patna, to levy a new and powerful force and therewith to take post on the bank of the river Gandak and prevent the enemy from passing over, and assured him that his faithful service would be requited and full allowance made for the charges of his troops. Accordingly the writer posted himself strongly on the bank of the said river aud notwithstandiiJg the efforts of two parties, on the one side Shaikh Abu-l- barakat and on the other Nidi, who both wanted to pass this way, acquitted himself with loyalty and fidelity. The Governor must bave heard of this. Why should he repeat the promises of favour which His Excellency made him on that occasion ?- Now that His Lordship has arrived at Patna, it is hoped that his amindari will he settled on the most firm and advantageous footing and the balance due to the Sarkar paid without fail. His Lordship must have been informed what sums the writer paid in notwithstanding the wretched [Page 428] and ruinous state of the country. Entreats him therefore to enjoin his mutasaddis and officers in the strictest manner to make out the writer's account agreeably to the sanad and ancient pattah wherewith he was favoured by His Excellency, and with due regard to his services and his expense in keeping up troops according to His Excellency's commands. If it pleases His Lordship to show the writer favour, it will be most kind and generous, if not, he will, before the rains are over, pay up the balance without fail.

[Page 456]

130. Dec 10.1766 2766.

2766. The Nawab Fakhru-d-daulah Saif Jang Mr. Harry Verelst Bahadur to Muhammad Riza Khan. As the chaukidars, misunderstanding the orders that have recently been issued, derain the goods on their way from arangs, and as this is just the season for the ships being dispatched, their departure will considerably be delayed. Accordingly the French and the Dutch have complained of the matter. The English will be equally affected. It would be better if those orders were suspended for some time, and put in force again after the season ts over.

This is a selection from the original text


authority, crops, famine, gomastha, rice, scarcity, trade, war, zamindar

Source text

Title: Calendar of Persian Correspondence

Subtitle: Vol.I: 1757-1767

Publisher: Primus Books

Publication date: 2013

Original date(s) covered: 1757-1767

Edition: 1st Edition

Place of publication: New Delhi

Provenance/location: This text was transcribed from print at the National Archives of India. Original date(s) covered: 1757-1767

Digital edition

Original editor(s): C.R. Wilson

Language: English

Selection used:

  • 1 ) pages 1 to 2
  • 2 ) page 10
  • 3 ) page 21
  • 4 ) page 23
  • 5 ) page 26
  • 6 ) page 31 to 34
  • 7 ) page 41
  • 8 ) pages 43 to 46
  • 9 ) page 46
  • 10 ) pages 48 to 49
  • 11 ) page 52
  • 12 ) pages 56 to 60
  • 13 ) page 62
  • 14 ) page 64
  • 15 ) page 68
  • 16 ) page 72
  • 17 ) page 74
  • 18 ) pages 82 to 83
  • 19 ) page 89
  • 20 ) page 92
  • 21 ) pages 94 to 95
  • 22 ) pages 110 to 112
  • 23 ) pages 115 to 116
  • 24 ) page 126
  • 25 ) page 131
  • 26 ) pages 133 to 134
  • 27 ) page 134
  • 28 ) page 136
  • 29 ) page 140
  • 30 ) page 143
  • 31 ) pages 146 to 148
  • 32 ) pages 168 to 169
  • 33 ) page 174
  • 34 ) page 178
  • 35 ) page 180
  • 36 ) page 186
  • 37 ) page 190
  • 38 ) page 195
  • 39 ) pages 197 to 199
  • 40 ) pages 208 to 210
  • 41 ) pages 217 to 218
  • 42 ) pageas 226 to 228
  • 43 ) page 235
  • 44 ) page 239
  • 45 ) page 246
  • 46 ) page 274
  • 47 ) page 293
  • 48 ) page 295
  • 49 ) pages 299 to 300
  • 50 ) page 302
  • 51 ) page 305
  • 52 ) pages 308 to 309
  • 53 ) pages 327 to 328
  • 54 ) pages 337 to 338
  • 55 ) page 340
  • 56 ) page 343
  • 57 ) page 348
  • 58 ) page 369
  • 59 ) page 405
  • 60 ) pages 414 to 415
  • 61 ) pages 419 to 420
  • 62 ) page 422 to 425
  • 63 ) page 427 to 428
  • 64 ) page 456


Texts collected by: Ayesha Mukherjee, Amlan Das Gupta, Azarmi Dukht Safavi

Texts transcribed by: Muhammad Irshad Alam, Bonisha Bhattacharya, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Muhammad Ehteshamuddin, Kahkashan Khalil, Sarbajit Mitra

Texts encoded by: Bonisha Bhattacharya, Shreya Bose, Lucy Corley, Kinshuk Das, Bedbyas Datta, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Sarbajit Mitra, Josh Monk, Reesoom Pal

Encoding checking by: Hannah Petrie, Gary Stringer, Charlotte Tupman

Genre: India > official correspondence > persian correspondence

For more information about the project, contact Dr Ayesha Mukherjee at the University of Exeter.