A description of the province of New Albion

And a Direction for Adventurers with small
stock to get two for one, and good land freely:
And for Gentlemen, and all Servants, Labourers, and
Artificers to live plentifully.
And a former Description reprinted of the heal-
thiest, pleasantest, and richest Plantation of New Albion in
North Virginia, proved by thirteen witnesses.
A Letter from Master Robert Evelin, that lived there
many years, shewing the particularities, and excellency
With a briefe of the charge of victuall, and necessaries, to
transport and buy stock for each Planter, or Labourer,
there to get his Master 50 l. per Annum, or more in twelve
trades, and at 10 l. charges onely a man.
Printed in the Year 1648.

[Page 9]

1. CHAP. I.

FOr the first creation of Earls in the Saxons time, and since by the Norman Kings in England, I refer you to that learned Antiquary Master Selden [Page 10] his Book, who writeth at large in his Book of Titles and Honours, as well of this as of forain Nations. But there you shall finde Records cited, and Earls made both by Privy Signet and Privy Seal, without the Great Seal. And they were not then meerly titulary, and nominall, without Interest, Power and Judicature, as now they are commonly all, except the Earle of Arundell, who still is a locall feodall Earl, by possession of the Castle, and of some Rapes or Liberties; for the Lord Lumley not long since for some yeares being possessed thereof, was for such time Earle of Arundell, and that Earledome is confirmed, and so adjudged with his honour and precedency, by the house of Peers entred both in the Parliament, and Court of Honour Rols: and the Royall Grant was, Do tibi Comitatum & tertiam partem profitucrum, unde Comes est. And he made the Sheriffe, or his Vicount, or Deputy: and the County Court was his, and it was an honour and office, both with the County and assignable, the assignee enjoying the County, honour and office, as in Master Seldens Booke is cited in their Patents, and was not so many large words for his Title and Peerage as is now used.

But in the Reports 9 Jacobi of Sir John Davis in the case of the County Palatine, and in the Fourth Part of the Institutes of Sir Edward Coke, of Jurisdiction of Courts, of the three County Palatines, yet in England you may see Acts of Parliament, Judgements and full matter, shewing, That there were Comites Palatini of the first and higher ranke, which had in their Territories absolute command in Martiall, civill and criminall matters, with all Royalties and Regalities which the second order of titulary or nominall Earls had not, both in the Saxons and Normans time, long before the title of Duke, Marquesse, or Vicount were here granted. Secondly, Comes Palatinus was Comes Palatii, being a chief Councell and Companion to the Emperour or King, Comes Curarum Par extans Curis, solo diademate dispar. That in Chester, Durham, Lancaster and Pembroke, were made Earl Palatines, and County Palatines: and in Ireland in Lemster, Earl Strongbows Sir Hugh de Lacy in Meth, to Sir Hugh de Lacy the younger in Vister.

That William Marshall marying Earl Strongbows daughter, had by her five daughters: So as the Province of Lemster descending to them, it was divided into five Counties, to each of them one County Palatine. That Bracton the ancientest of Lawyers, averres Earl Palatines have regall power in all things saving Liegance to the King; Hugh Lupus by the Conquerour was made Earl Palatine of the County of Chester, as free to the sword, as the King to the Crown, and the Palatine of Chester made Barons, the Baron of Haulton, the Baron of Malbanck, the Baron Malpas, the Baron of Kinderton, and in Lancaster, the Baron of Walton [Page 11] in Durham, the Baron of Hilton, and in Meth, Magnates and Barons; Baron de Streene, Baron de Nuven, Baron de Baltrim, Baron de la Narrow, Baron de Rheban in Kildare; the Baron Idrone in Caterlogh, the Baron of Burn-Church in Kilkenny, Baron of Nevill in Wexford, Baron of Loughmo in Tiperary, Baron Misset, and Baron Savage in Vlster. That these Earles Palatines had Parliaments, made tenures in Capite, and grand Serjancy, and the tenants sued out Licence of Alienations, and all Writs and Pleas, Officers, Chancelours, Judges, and that none of the Kings Officers could enter there, or that the Kings Writs, neither at Law or Chancery, did lie or run there, and that the County Palatine was thereby absolutely severed from the Crowne. That the County Palatine of Lancaster was created by that of Chester: and to Chester was annexed his conquered small County of Flint in Wales, and made besides the four above, foure other Barons: Vernon of Saybrook, Hammond de Massi Baron of Durham, and the Barons of Hawardin and Stockport, and in other Antiquities, Cornwall Baron of Burford in Shropshire.

That any Manors or Lands lying out of the County Palatine if held thereof, and the pleas of the inhabitants there arising shall bee tried within the County Palatine.

Thomas and Hugh Count Palatines both, and both Bishops pleaded and returned to the Kings Writs: I am a Lord Royall here, the Kings Writs doe not run here.

The eldest sisters son by descent after her mother was Earl Palatine of Pembroke; And the Law, Reports, and Abridgements, shew they made Knights, and as Knights were to be impleaded; Divers statutes shew Durham and the Earle Palatines, Mints, Durham pence yet extant. The Earl Palatines had in their Counties Jura Regalia, as the King had in his Palace, &c.

In the Lord Lovels Case, the name or title of a Baron is no name of dignity or addition, 8 H. 6. 10. but Earl is parcell of his name, and of the substance of his name, and if it be left out of the Writ, the Writ shall abate, 39 E. 3. 35. the case of Gilbert Vmfrevill Earl of Angus; and 14 E. 3. Brief 278. the case of Hugh de Audley Earle of Gloucester; yet note Master Burlacy, for not calling the Lord Mohun Lord, but Mohun, was committed to prison; and note in a Star-chamber Bill, the Lord Verulam, his widow marrying Sir John Underhill, was called and charged as my Lady Underhill, the late wife of Vicount Verulam, and not being called Vicountesse, the Bill was cast out, and a Fine for dishonour imposed.

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Now there be four other Lord Proprietors that have Palatine jurisdiction granted, and Provinces in the West-India Isles, Florida and Maryland, and as free as the Bishop of Durham had, but none have a speciall creation of an Earle Palatine, but ours of New Albion: nor have they the words with such Additions, Titles, Dignities, and Priviledges, as either Durham or any other had, nor any speciall grant to coin money; in that of Maryland speciall Resort or Soveraign Dominion, which is a Court of Appeal, as in the case of King E. the third, and his son E. in Aquitany, with free fishing, and wood for houses, and to set up fishing stages, is reserved; Else all the Lord Proprietors have all the like Royalties and Regalities, and all these 11 H. 6. in a long Roll particularly expressed, are confirmed by Parliament to the Bishop of Durham, and so thereby to all the Lord Proprietors. And all of them have a speciall clause to give to the well deserving inhabitants in those Provinces, Titles, Honour and Dignities, so as they be not the same used in England. Now though some question is made whether the other four Lord Proprietors can make Barons or any Knights in their Provinces, because such Honours and Titles of Barons and Knights, are used here; but there is no question or doubt in the Province of New Albion, our Lord being an Earle Palatine 16 years standing, as free as Chester and Pembroke; or Lacy, OF Strongbow in Ireland, by that second power according to the judged cases in Law and in Parliament, may make Provinciall, locall and fewdall Barons, as the 19 above named, and make Knight Batchelours, though here used, & to have precedency, as others have had heretofore, though his intended order of Knights of the Conversion of Albion is more proper. And for our Earle Palatines Honour and Peerage in Ireland, and to make his Proxy in his absence in that House of Peers there with all suh Honor and Titles, & Precedency to him, his Countesse, and children, in all places, as an Irish Earl, the speciall Decree and Clauses in the Charter doth fully warrant it. All the Civilians, Pleaders in the Court of Honour, and two Serjeants of the Coife at Law, nine in number, have certified it, and enrolled on record, and is exemplified under the seal; the Baronets of Nova Scotia being President for the like case. And note both the King of France, and this our King, have made Barons and Knights, Hollanders, that have precedency there before other the subjects there.

But to answer an Objection of some not truly informed and mistaken, conceiving that our Earle Palatine might in his Countrey onely and no where else, have his Honour, Title and Precedency. I answer, that our Soveraign Lord King Charles, as Emperour of England, under his Privy Signet, signed with his Royall hand, so granted and created him, which alone [Page 13] had been sufficient, as others have been made, in Master Seldens Book, Records and Presidents mentioned; but being farther with speciall Clauses and Decree, and speciall Creation, so made and particularly granted, that both by Tenure and Dependency, and that this Province shall be of the Liegance of Ireland, and all there born to be free Denizens thereof, and under his Majesties Great Seal, there is no doubt or question thereof; For he is no Alien Earl made by an Alien King, as Copply by the French King, Duke Dudley, and Count Arundell by the Emperour, but by our own King the fountain of Honour; For an Earl by his Charter carrieth his Honour with him in all places, and that is his true name as above is adjudged, and is not to be sued or sue, is adjudged, without it; and so the nine learned Civilians and Serjeants have certified; and Nova Scotia is so annexed to Scotland, Adam de Valentia, and Marshall, Earle Palatines of Pembroke by Conquest in the kingdome or Principality of Wales, then out of England, was a Peer to the English Parliament, and so the three Irish Conquerours Palatines recited; and how absurd a conceit it is that our Earl Palatine in Albion, and he of Pembroke in Wales, and the rest having all Regalities and Powers, Lordship, Honour and Titles, and power to give Honours and make Barons coming out of their Countries into England, should here bee un-Lorded and debased unto Esquires without Lordship, Honour or Precedency. And note all these, and Earl Fitz Allen in his locall Earldome of Arundel by Writ being called to Parliament, is not there by an Earl; for to be called by Writ, is onely to be a Lord or Baron, and so the Earle of Arundels Title and Precedency was adjudged him after long debate by Parliament.

To conclude, the Earl Palatines of Chester and Pembroke, and Montgomery, or de Belesmo in Shropshire, were the greatest Princes of England; and by their Conquests, and so in Ireland, by their Hazard and Conquests that kingdome and Wales is gotten to this Crown: And so the now Lord five Proprietors that now conquer on Indians, and convert Pagans, and civilize them, and bring them to the obedience of our Soveraign, and at their own charges have made an entrance and sure way with the other Colonies of America to make our Soveraign an Emperour of America, having now neer two hundred thousand to defend his Empire; and therefore deserve all Honour and Encouragement; amongst which our Earl Palatine having adventured in person seven years, with so much hazard and charges, is chiefly to be advanced and honoured according to his worth.

Now for the pedegree and ancient Family of our Earl Palatine of 1200 years descent, being in England and borders of Wales: I finde onely a letter in the name changed, in each Age, and Conquest or change of Nation; for in Henry of Huntingdon, and William of Malmsbury, his Chronicles of [Page 14] all the Saxon Princes, that here arrived, and seated, and conquered the Britains; this family descending of a daughter, came with those Princes into Britany; and I find that in lower Saxony neer Hamboro, and Holstein a member of the Empire, and in all Maps there is still in that harsh language Ployen a wall'd City by a lake, and Plowen a walled Castle of Count Plowen, a Count of the sacred Empire, in Grimstons and other Histories mentioned; Now the Welch make and turn the vowel u into i or y, as from Brutus to Britons, so Plowden to Ployden; as all Maps write it. In Deeds, and the Bishop of Herefords Records I find Anno Domini 904.

an Exchange pro decem manlis vocat Ploydanes place super quas Episcopus aedificaturus est Castrum, called Bishops Castle, in which Town the Ploydens have much lands and tenements, having Ployden Manor, Ployden Hall, Longvili Castle, and thirteen Townes about it to this day, and at the coming in of H. the seventh were Commanders of that country, and Constables, or Chastellains of that Fort of Bishops Castle; now Ployden and Ployden is all one, Forest of Danes for Denc, the Norman pronuntiation, which name of Ployden signifieth kill Dane, or wound Dane: and Pleyden by Ry in Sussex was of this house, and signifieth in French hurt Dane, and this Pleyden sent his sons and conquered in Normandy, where are five families yet: and the heir of Pleyden wanting issue, made it an Hospitall, now held by the Earle of Thanet, Lord Toston; So Plowen, Ployen, Ploydane, Ployden, Plowden and Pleyden is all one, for the change of time, and severall Nations pronunciation, Saxons, Danes, English, Welch and Normans. And note, to this day an Esquire in France of 300 yeares standing of Coat Armor shall take place and precedency of any Earle, Vicount or Baron, which is not so ancient of Coat Armor, they not allowing the King by new creations to bar their inheritance and precedency. And for their greatnesse and pedegree, I finde Ployden maried the daughter of John de Monte Gomerico, (now called Mount Gomery) Earl of Salopshire, in William the Conquerours reign, and in Edward the thirds time maried the daughter of that great and rich Knight Burley Conquerour in France: Humphrey Ployden in H.the sevenths time maried the daughter and heir Stury of Stury Hall, daughter of Corbet, of Morton Corbet, by whom the Lacons, Laytons, Bromlees, Purcelswollascot, of Wollascot, and the two Baronets Lee and Corbet Knights for the County of Salop to this Parliament, are of his kindred. And of the daughters of John Ployden, Lord Blany of Ireland, and of the other daughter maried to Hardwick, grandmother to that great Thin of Clause Castle; the third daughter maried to Walcot of Walcot Close to Ployden, yet men of great possessions, the Countesse of Bristoll being a Walcot, and so her sons, the Lord Digby and Sir Lewis Dives, and Vicountesse Chichester, or Belfast, and the other Ladies her daughters are descended, [Page 15] and are his kindred. Our Earl Palatines mother being sister of Sir Richard Fermor of Somerton, and cousen of Sir George and Sir Hatton Fermor, descended of the Knightlies, and so the Lord Vicount Say and Seal, the Countesse of Thomond a Fermor, and her children, and Vicount Wenman marying Sir Hatton Fermors children: the Baronesse of Aborgenny, and her sister maried to Baronet Gage are his Neeces; his mother the Lady Penelope, daughter to the Lord Darcy, Vicount Colchester, Earl River ; but his branches for three last descents are so many, and at least fifty Baronets Knights, Esquires, of 1000 l. per annum at least, and their numerous issue; but for heirs males of the name his first is Ployden of Wansteed, Ployden of Shipplacke, Ployden of Askon, Ployden of Ployden, and Ployden of Lee, and Doctor Ployden late of Lambeth. And for his now wife Countesse Palatine, daughter and heir to two worthy families, Neece of Sir George and Sir Hambden Paulet deceased, in that pedegree 300 from the Marquesse of Winchester, Lord high Treasurer of England are allied. All which I have more fully published, that all of his kindred may, any ways poor or oppressed, the sooner be preferred, advanced and transplanted to this most rich and pleasant Province, and to great possessions and honours there, as great Strongbow did 1200 of his to Wexford and Lemster in Ireland.

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2. CHAP. IV.

NOw since Master Elmes letter and seven years discoveries of the Lord Governour in person, and by honest traders with the Indians, wee finde beside the Indian Kings by him known and printed, in this Province there is in all twenty three Indian Kings or chief Commanders, and besides the number of 800 by him named, there is at least 1200 under the two Raritan Kings on the North side next to Hudsons river, and those come down to the Ocean about little Egbay and Sandy Barnogate, and about the South cape two small Kings of forty men a piece, called Tirans and Tiascons, and a third reduced to fourteen men at Roymont, the Sasquehannocks are not now of the Naturals left above 110, though with their forced Auxiliaries the Jhon a Does, and Wicomeses they can make 250: these together are counted valiant & terrible to other cowardly dul Indians, wch they beat with the sight of guns only; but in truth meeting with English, are the basest cowards of all, though cunning and subtile to intrap and surprise on all straits, coverts, reeds, and ambushes, for at the last Maryland March against them, these 250 having surprised in the reeds, and killed five English men with the losse of one of theirs, Captain Cornwallis that noble, right valiant, and politick soldier, losing but one man more, killed with fifty five of his, and but raw and tired Marylanders, twenty nine Indians as they confessed, though compassed round with two hundred and fifty: and Summer was twelve moneth, Captain Lewis of Maryland at the Coves drawing but twenty men out of his winde bound Sloupes, and in two small Cocke-boates much distant, finding twenty four Canoes, and therein an hundred and forty Sasquehannocks, reduced by these three Swedes into a half moon, with intent to encompasse the first small boat before the second could reach the former, at the first volley of ten sho , and losse of one Indian, they run all away; for note generally twelve English with five foot Calivers, shoot thirty pellets, or dagge shot, and fifty yards distance, and the naked Indian shooteth but one arrow, and but thirty yards distance, so as his Lordship knoweth well with such a squadron of twelve or thirteen mark-men,to encounter three hundred, and to bring by the lock the proudest Sagamoore, to bee ransomed for any Trespasse: and not to suffer any Indian or trader without his Lordships badge or stamped livery worn, to come within twenty miles of his Plantation, or ten miles of their Cattle, as in all the outskirts of Virginia is used, but to kill them. Insomuch as the Emperour Nicotowance saying was, my countrymen tell me I am a lier, when I tell them the English men will kill you if you goe into their [Page 23] bounds; but valiant Captain Freeman made him no lier, when lately he killed three Indians so without badge incroaching. And therfore fair and far off is best with Heathen Indians; and fit it is to reduce all their trading to five Ports or Pallisadoed trucking houses, and to kill all straglers and such spies without ransome. Then shall christians and their cattle be safe and quiet, and severely putting to death all that sell the Indians guns arms and ammunition, then Indians are sooner ruled, civilized and subjected, as in New England is daily seen.

In Long Isle are about four Kings, and eight hundred Bow-men, most of them two hundred miles off his Lps seat of Watcessit in Charles river, these of Long Isle are well civilized, living within ten miles, and in sight of eight thousand English in that part of New England being and the five towns in Connectacute river, and New Haven town being populous, discourageth any hostility: but chiefly his Lordships sixe good free-holding towns in Long Isle, is a bridle to check and contain them; for Southhampton, Hempsteed, Flushing, Gravesand and Ainsford are placed like distinct Garisons to command them. Then between the two South Capes there are two petty Kings called Aquats and little Matankin, having both an hundred Bow-men, and above Watcessit South-west, are the black and white Mincos neer three hundred men, being speciall friends to Watcessit, and enemies to the Sasquehannocks. Now for choice seats for English, Watcessit first, where were seventy English, as Master Miles deposeth, he swearing the officers there to his Majesties allegiance, and to obedience to your Lordship as Governour, being twenty one leagues up Delaware Bay in Charles river, to which any ship may come, and about it Manteses plain, which Master Evelin avoucheth to be twenty miles broad, and thirty long. & 50 miles washed by two fair navigable rivers, and is 300000 acres fit to plow and sow all Corn, Tobacco, and Flaxe, and Rice, the four staples of Albion.

The second seat is three miles off to Watcessit adjoyning to Charles and Cotton river, so named of six hundred l. of Cotton wilde on trees growing: and is called Ritchneck, being twenty four miles compasse, one wood, huge Timber trees, and two foot black mould, much desired of the Virginians to plant Tobacco, they alledging each plant there dried and cured, will bring a pound, whereas wom land five and sixe to a pound, and these large leaves in the new land, and freshes, serve to lap up all the bad S. Christophers, and Barbadoes rolled Tobacco, and maketh it fire sooner: of the three upper leaves they make Varinas and Spanish. The Dutch give for this double price, and the English double for sweet sented: and though Charles river is 120 miles North of James river in Virginia, yet having a more farre constant and tempered growing heat, Tobacco three years together tried, is riper, and sooner struck by wet seasons by full three weeks, then in Virginia, and hath yeelded double the price: and no doubt Cotton will grow as in Millain, [Page 24] being three degrees more North-ward, though as there it dieth yearly by frost, is re-planted by the seed as a Rosebush giveth a full cod.

The third seat is at Roymont a strong, rich and fit place for a Fort. Sir Walter Rawley left there thirty men, and four guns, the Dutch seated there fifteen men and a Fort, both to plant in that rich five miles neck to Roymont river (which runneth down into Chisapoack Bay) choice Tobacco, and thereby to prejudice and undersell Virginia, as to set up a fishing Stage for Whales, these proved but Grampus, and they killing basely an Indian refusing quarter or ransome, were by the Indians killed and expelled twenty years since. This place is close to the In-south Cape, having a Creek of sixe foot water only, and two furlongs of the grand Delaware Bay: on one side is an Isthmos or Penisle, nine miles compasse, fit for pasturage, and Hogs and Goats: and on the other side is a second Isthmos, four miles compasse, easily fenced, and is but sixty miles over land to the Northermost and neerest part of Virginia, to drive cattle by land, and have supplies by horse and foot: and here is never ice or frost: sea-fish, all oysters, and shell-fish, and fowl, all winter Cod to lade ships three moneths after December fit for salt and trade: and there is a poor Indian of fourteen men only, and weak to hinder any, all the soile is under a brick earth, stone slat hard by, and timber to build.

The fourth seat is Uwedale under Websneck, and is a valley sixe miles long, sheltred by hils from the North-west windes:below it is sixe miles a thicket of four sorts of excellent great Vines running on Mulberry and Sassafras trees; there are four sorts of Grapes, the first is the Tholouse Muscat, sweet sented, the second the great foxe and thick Grape, after five moneths reaped being boyled and salted, and well fined, it is a strong red Xeres; the third a right Claret, the fourth a white Grape creeps on the land, maketh a pure gold colour white wine: Tenis Pale the French man of these four made eight sorts of excellent wine, and of the Muscat acute boyled that the second draught will fox a reasonable pate four moneths old: and here may be gathered and made two hundred tun in the Vintage moneth, & re-planted will amend; two other valleys there are of the same Grapes and large, above Uwedale, the hill is called Websneck, environed with three rivers round, one of sixteen foot water navigable, all but a neck, a caliver shot over, easily imparked, being 9000 acres, the cliffes all of rich black mould, with huge timber trees, most fit for Tobacco and Corn not far off are rich lead mines, containing silver tried, and iron stone, and by it waters, and fals to drive them in an inhabited desert, no Christians or Indians neer it, where Elkes, Stagges and Deer are most quiet, most fat, and not disturbed, so as five men in three or four days kill and salt sixty Deer, or an hundred twenty sides for Summers food:

four or five hundred Turkeyes in a flock, Swans, Hoopers, Geese, [Page 25] Ducks Teles, and other Fowles, a mile square, and seven mile together on the shores, for here is all Ches-nuts Wall-nuts and Mast berries, and March feeds, wilde Oats, and Vetches to feed them. Neer hand is also in August Custard apples, and Papawes to make the best Perry English for 100 tun in a place, and all Plums, Hurtleberries, Black Cherries, wilde Anniseed, Perfimenas, and other dainty fruits, and roots are had, as in all the huge long Meads and Marshes, sweet seg roots ground nuts, Tucaho and Cuttinamon roots for Hogs and whole Warrens, and berries of sweet Muskerats, and here black Bears and Lions feeding on sweet foods, are killed and eaten In the head of Chisepeack river by Tomkins and Walton, was seen a Camell Mare brown black, seven foot high, of which 300 mile West-ward are store, their skins brought and sold by the Indians confirm it.

The fifth seat is Brents fort, a steep rock, invincible and not to be battered, having an Isthmos of low hard ground like a Tongue below it environed with fresh water, and under it a Cove close to hide two ships or gallies, ships of 500 tun may come up to it, and hard by is good Mead and rich land, and Woods to plant; and in this desert is best living, stored as before with all game and their food to maintain them.

The sixt is an Ile called Palmers Ile, containing 300 acres, half meade, halfe wood; in it is a rock forty foot high, like a Towr, fit to be built on for a trading house for all the Indians of Chisepeack Gulfe: it lieth a mile from each shore in Sasquehannocks river mouth, and there four Sakers will command that river, and renue the old trade that was; it lieth in forty degrees and twelve minutes, it is most healthy, but cold neer the hils, and full as all the seventeen rivers there of eleven sorts of excellent fresh fish; the Indians in stead of salt doe barbecado or dry and smoak fish, to each house a reek or great pile, and another of Sun dried on the rocks, Strawberries, Mulberries, Symnels, Maycocks and Horns like Cucumbers.

The seventh is five mile off it, called Mount Royall or Bolalmanack hill, and more properly Belveder, for thence you may see 100 miles off high hils, above the clouds like sugar-loaves that shelter and bear off the North-west windes; here is a clear Indian field sixe miles long to plant and plow rich land, and as well stored as the rest, and under it is Elk river, having many branches navigable, in all these the Tide of fresh sweet water ebbes and flowes, and hath three fathome deep, the mouth of it is like a fort with fit Isthmos and necks, and runneth up seven leagues to a street, but eleven miles over land into Charles river, and Delaware Bay, this neck is a rare work of God, for it is 450 miles compasse to goe by sea and water, from one side to the other of this eleven miles street, and Uwedale is on one of these branches.

The eight seat is Kildorpy, neer the fals of Charles river, neer 200 miles [Page 26] up from the Ocean, it hath clear fields to plant and sow, and neer it is sweet large meads of clover or honysuckle, no where else in America to be seen, unlesse transported from Europe, a ship of 140 tuns may come up to these fals which is the best seat for health, and a trading house to be built on the rocks, and ten leagues higher are lead mines in stony hils.

The ninth is called Mount Ployden, the seat of the Raritan King on the North side of this Province twenty miles from Sandhay sea, and ninety from the Ocean, next to Amara hill, the retired Paradise of the children of the Ethiopian Emperour, a wonder, for it is a square rock, two miles compasse, 150 foot high, a wall-like precipice, a strait entrance, easily made invincible, where he keeps two hundred for his guard, and under it a flat valley, all plain to plant and sow.

The Sasquehannocks new Town is also a rare, healthy and rich place, with it a Crystall broad river, but some fals below hinder navigation, and the Hooke hill on the Ocean with its clear fields neer Hudsons river on one side, and a ten leagues flowing river on the southside is much commended for health and fish, were it not so Northerly.

The bounds is a thousand miles compasse, of this most temperate, rich Province, for our South bound is Maryland North bounds, and beginneth at Aquats or the Southermost or first Cape of Delaware Bay in thirty eight and forty minutes, and so runneth by, or through, or including Kent Isle, through Chisapeack Bay to Pascatway; including the fals of Pawtomecke river to the head or Northermost branch of that river, being three hundred miles due West, and thence Northward to the head of Hudsons river fifty leagues, and so down Hudsons river to the Ocean, sixty leagues, and thence by the Ocean and Isles a crosse Delaware Bay to the South Cape fifty leagues; in all seven hundred and eighty miles. Then all Hudsons river, Isles, Long Isle, or Pamunke, and all Isles within ten leagues of the said Province being; and note Long Isle alone is twenty broad, and one hundred and eighty miles long, so that alone is four hundred miles compasse. Now I have examined all former Patents, some being surrendred, and some adjudged void, as gotten on false suggestions, as that at the Councell Table was at Master Gonges suit, of Matachusets, and as Captain Clayborn heretofore Secretary, and now Treasurer of Virginia, in dispute with Master Leonard Calvert alledgeth; that of Maryland is likewise void in part as gotten on false suggestions: for as Cap: Clayborn sheweth the Maryland Patent in the first part declareth the Kings intention to bee to grant a land therea fter described, altogether dishabited and unplanted, though possest with Indians. Now Kent Isle was with many housholds of English by C. Clayborn before seated, and because his Majesty by his privy signet shortly after declared it was not his intention [Page 27] to grant any lands before seated and habited: and for that it lieth by the Maryland printed Card, clean North-ward within Albion, and not in Maryland, and not onely late Sea-men, but old Depositions in Claybornes hand, shew it so to be out of Maryland, and for that Albions Privy signet is elder, and before Maryland Patent, Clayborn by force entred, and thrust out Master Calvert out of Kent; Next Maryland Patent coming to the Ocean, saith along by the Ocean unto Delaware Bay; That is the first Cape of the two most plain in view, and exprest in all late English and Dutch Cards; and note unto Delaware Bay is not into the Bay, nor farther then that Cape heading the Bay, being in thirty eight and forty, or at most by seven Observations I have seen, thirty eight and fifty minutes: So as undoubtedly, that is the true intended and ground bound, and line, and no farther, for the words following, are not words of Grant, but words of Declaration; that is, Which Delaware Bay lieth in forty degrees where New England ends; these are both untrue, and so being declarative is a false suggestion, is void, for no part of Delaware Bay lieth in forty. Now if there were but the least doubt of this true bounds, I should wish by consent or commission, a perambulation and boundary, not but there is land enough for all, and I hold Kent Isle having lately but twenty men in it, and the Mill and Fort pulled down, and in war with all the Indians neer it, not worth the keeping.

But it is materiall to give a touch of Religion and Government, to satisfie the curious and wellminded Adventurer. For Religion it being in England yet unsettled, severall Translations of Bibles, and those expounded to each mans fancy, breeds new Sects, I conceive the Holland way now practised best to content all parties: first, by Act of Parliament or Grand Assembly, to settle and establish all the Fundamentals necessary to salvation, as the three Creeds, the Ten Commandements, Preaching on the Lords day, and great days, and Catechising in the afternoon, the Sacrament of the Altar and Baptisme; But no persecution to any dissenting, and to all such as to the Walloons, free Chapels; and to punish all as seditious, and for contempt, as bitterly rail and condemn others of the contrary; for this argument or perswasion of Religion, Ceremonies, or Church-Discipline, should be acted in mildenesse, love and charity, and gentle language, not to disturb the peace or quiet of the Inhabitants, but therein to obey the Civill Magistrate.

For the Politique and Civill Government, and Justice, Virginia and New England is our president: First, the Lord head Governour, a Deputy Governour, Secretary of Estate, or Seal keeper, and twelve of the Councell of State or upper House: and these or five of them is also a Chancery Court. Next out of Counties and Towns, at a free election and day prefixed, thirty Burgesses or Commons. Once yearly the tenth of November these meet, as at [Page 28] a Parliament or Grand Assembly, and make Laws, or repeal, alter, explain, and set taxes and rates for common defence, and without full consent of Lord, upper and lower House nothing is done: Appeals are here also tried, all criminall cases for life, above only by two Juries, or actions at Law, a Jury on either side may be called, and by them tried: and any before judgement, may stop the Law, and be tried in Equity; The two months Courts may try before four Justices of Peace, any action not exceeding 10 l. or 1500 l. of Tobacco, at 4 s. charge onely, and plead without Atturney; an Appeal lieth thence to each quarter, or Chancery first Court above, and from thence an Appeal to the Grand Assembly: any matter under 40 s. value, or 200 l. of Tobacco, to be ended by the next Justice at 1 s. charge, no deposition to be taken but before two Justices, whereof one of the Quorum, or in Court, or before a Councell, or of Estate: and here is no Jeofails, nor Demurrers, but a Summary hearing, and a Sheriffe, and Clerk of Court, with small fees ends all for the most part in a few words.

Last of all how plentifully may a quiet industrious man live here, having rich Corn Land, Mead and Pasture, and Timbers, and Woods covered, many months with Ches-nuts and four other nuts, and mast for Deer, Hogs and Turkeys, Fish, Fowl, Venison, Wine and Fruits gratis? Our chiefe Staples are Tobacco, then Flaxe and Rice, of which in floated lands you have infinite increase, and without floating you may have, and all the winter Shipp-lankes, Clove board and Pipe-staves, these lade home ships twice a year hence, and for them bring you any English servants or English or Dutch wares, cloths, stuffes, drams, wines or what you bespeak: but surely we may easily grow rich if we will, and buy no clothes, for a good Weaver brought hither, will make us of our own Flaxe nine sorts of Linnens, tufted Hollands, Velures, Velvets, Tuftaffetaes, and Plushes; and for Winter a good Glover with allome onely of our own Elk-skins, maketh the best Buffe-coats, our owne Stag and Deer skins make best gentile and soldiers clothes, fittest for our Woods: a Doeskin breeches with the fur inside in our short Winter, is better then two broad clothes and warmer, so we need no English clothing; Cattle in Virginia, and all Grain in New England brought to our doores cheaper then here; Indian Corn, or Pease, or Beans at twelve pence a bushel by truck with the Indians, and Rye Meal, a third, with the white and dry Mayz Meal, which is all together but twenty pence, a bushell of Meale maketh the best bread, and we have more choice drinks then here, for sweet Stalk and Pumpion drink hopped, is good beer, and ale we have and mault as you; and in the hot Summer rock cold water, with an eighth of Peach Vinegar is the best Beaverage: Peaches better then Apricocks by some doe feed Hogs, one man hath ten thousand trees, all Apples, Pears, Cherries, and other [Page 29] fruits grow here in half the time as in your cold and blasty Region, and so do all Hops & Roots, Hearbs and Garden stuffe. Our days in Summer 2 hours shorter, and in Winter more comfortable two houres longer, and a warmer Sun and bigger fires, and no rent to my Landlord, makes us merry. He that is lazy and will not work, needs not fear starving, but may live as an Indian, sometimes Oysters, Cockles, Wilkes, Glams, Scollons two moneths together; sometimes wilde Pease and Vetches, and Long Oats, sometimes Tuckaho, Cuttenoman ground, Nuts, Marhonions, sometime small nuts, Fillbirds, Wall-nuts, Pokikerries, ten sorts of Berries, Egs of Fowl, small fish in Cove, at low water will teach him to live idly.

[Page 30]

3. CHAP. VI.

  1. HEre by bringing good Labourers, and Tradesmen, the provident planters may doe well by giving shares or double wages, when each man may earn his five, nay sixe shillings a day in Tobacco, Flaxe, Rice.

  2. For here the Ship-carpenters ten men a day will build a tun of shipping as in England, which with masts and yards there taken is here, and there worth 3 l. a tun, and yet here, and there is built at 1 l. a tun wages, which is 6 s. 2 days work, having the Timber without money.

  3. Here in 14 days they make a thousand of Pipe-staves, worth here foure pound, and at the Canaries twenty pound a thousand, and so get six shillings a days work.

  4. Here in making Iron they save 5 l. a tun in the price of wood, and 3 l. more in digging the Iron mine, and saving land carriage of it, and of the charcole, for mine is taken on the Sea beach, and wood floated down the Rivers, and so each man earns 5 s. 10 d. a day, Iron valued at 12 l. per tun.

  5. Here the constant trade of 350 ships, and 7000 men a fishing beginne to leave cold Newfoundland small fish, and late taken, when this is before theirs two moneths at the market, 100 fish here yeelds four quintales, there scarce one, and here is fish all the year, there but only in the four warm months, so as for nine weeks work each man above his diet, passage, and returne, gets twenty pound, and twelve pound a man, and herein dried Base, in Sturgeon, in pressed Mackrell, Herrings, and Pilchers, is got as well as well as in Codfish, [Page 31] sixe shil. and eight shil. a day. And this returns ready French and Spanish coin.

  6. Here the glorious ripening Sunne as warme as Italy or Spain, will bring rare fruits, wines, and such store of Anniseed and Licoras, as well as Bay-salt, made without boyling, only in pans with the Sun, that each labourer may make 6 bushels a day, worth in these three 12 s. a day, And this maiden soyl, so comforted with the Suns glittering beams, and being digged, and set with the Indian Wheat, and their Beans and Pease, with 40 s. charge in 40 days worke with seed, yeelds 10 quarters an acre, the same Wheat being ten times as big and as weighty as ours, besides Potatoes, Woad, Madder, Roots, and many Plants, and Tobacco, will yeeld half a tun of Flax, and a tun of Hemp, worth 12 l. an acre, and 6 s. a days work.

  7. Here as in Province in France, Walnut-Milk, or Oyle ground and pressed, will yeeld the gatherer ten gallons, and 10 s. a days work.

  8. Here the Land lieth covered seven moneths with Beech, and Oke Mast, Wallnuts and Chestnuts, and three moneths with Groundnuts, Seg and other roots, and wilde Pease, and Fetches yearly, so as forty Hogs for one, and ninety Turkeys, Partridges, Heathpoults, and tame Poultry, eating their fill, for one is ordinary encreased.

  9. Here the Sope and Pot-ashes men paying in England 12 d. a bushell, and 4 d. carriage for ashes, and 20 l. a tun for Pot-ashes, may make them for a quarter and lesse: and get 8 s. a days work, by cutting, reeking, and burning whole plains of Fern, Brambles, and wilde Vines, being thrice as strong as Woodashes.

  10. Here a ship may goe, and return in five moneths laded, and comfortably see their friends, making two voyages a year, in a healthy ayre, free from Enemies and Turks, and get two for one each voyage: that is, four for one of that stock, and proceed in a year.

  11. Here the kinde Gentleman that in England doth not live without debts, mortgages, suretiship, law-suits and troubles, may here settle, and avoid bad company, and tempting occasions, and live in plenty, and variety of all sports, hunting Deere, hawking Fowl, fishing, and many more sports, and sorts of game, as with dainty fruits; and lay up his spare rents.

  12. Here the Soldier, and Gentlemen wanting employment, and not bred to labor, without going to war to kil Christians for 5 s. a week in the mouth of the roaring Cannon, or in a Siege threatned with famine, and pestilence: and but ten together against a few naked salvages, may like a devout Apostolique soldier with sword, and the word to civilize, and convert them to be his Majesties Lieges, and by trading with them for furs, get his ten shillings a day, and at home intermixing sport and pleasure, with profit, store his Parks with Elks and [...]

This is a selection from the original text


corn, fish, flax, food, health, religion, rice, starvation, tobacco, trade

Source text

Title: A DESCRIPTION OF THE PROVINCE OF NEW ALBION. And a Direction for Adventurers with small stock to get two for one, and good land freely: And for Gentlemen, and all Servants, Labourers, and Artificers to live plentifully. And a former Description reprinted of the heal- thiest, pleasantest, and richest Plantation of New Albion in North Virginia, proved by thirteen witnesses. TOGETHER WITH A Letter from Master Robert Evelin, that lived there many years, shewing the particularities, and excellency thereof. With a briefe of the charge of victuall, and necessaries, to transport and buy stock for each Planter, or Labourer, there to get his Master 50 l. per Annum, or more in twelve trades, and at 10 l. charges onely a man. Printed in the Year 1648.

Author: Beauchamp plantagenet

Publication date: 1648

Provenance/location: This text was transcribed from images available at Early English Books Online: http://eebo.chadwyck.com/home Bibliographic name / number: Wing / P2378 Physical description: 32 p. : Copy from: Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery Reel position: Wing / 749:08

Digital edition

Original author(s): Beauchamp plantagenet

Language: English

Selection used:

  • 1 ) chapter I, chapter IV, chapter VI


Texts collected by: Ayesha Mukherjee, Amlan Das Gupta, Azarmi Dukht Safavi

Texts transcribed by: Muhammad Irshad Alam, Bonisha Bhattacharya, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Muhammad Ehteshamuddin, Kahkashan Khalil, Sarbajit Mitra

Texts encoded by: Bonisha Bhattacharya, Shreya Bose, Lucy Corley, Kinshuk Das, Bedbyas Datta, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Sarbajit Mitra, Josh Monk, Reesoom Pal

Encoding checking by: Hannah Petrie, Gary Stringer, Charlotte Tupman

Genre: Britain > surveys description maps

For more information about the project, contact Dr Ayesha Mukherjee at the University of Exeter.