The Voyage and Travaile of M. Caesar Frederick
About this text
The Voyage and Travaile was published in 1588. It was written by Caesar Federici. It covers his travels to India. Federici was born around 1530. He was an Italian merchant as well as a navigator. He would travel to the sub-continent in 1563. He passed away around 1603. The book is notable for presenting a detailed account of Federici’s observations of local politics and ways of livings. Primary Reading Federici, Caesar, The Voyage and Travaile, Richard Jones and Edward White. Secondary Reading Tavernier, Jean Baptiste, Travels in India, Volume 1, Oxford University Press Tavernier, Jean Baptiste, Travels in India, Volume 2, Oxford University Press.
Voyage and Travaile:
OF M. CAESAR FREDERICK,
MERCHANT OF VENICE, INTO
the East India, the Indies, and beyond
Wherein are contained very pleasant and
rare matters, with the customes and rites
of those Countries.
ALSO, HEEREIN ARE DISCOVERED
the Merchandises and commodities of those Countreyes, aswell
the aboundaunce of Goulde and Silver, as Spices,
Drugges, Pearles, and other
Written at Sea in the HERCULES
of London: comming from Turkie, the 25. of March 1588.
For the profitable instruction of Merchants and all other
travellers, for their better direction and knowledge
of those Countreyes.
Out of Italian, by T H.
Printed by RICHARD JONES
and EDWARD WHITE,
18. Junij. 1588.
1. A voyage to the East Indies, and beyond the Indies. &c.
IN the yeere of our Lorde God. 1563. I Caesar Frederick, being in Venice, and very desirous to sée the Easte partes of the worlde, I Shipped my selfe in a shippe called theGradaige of Venice with certaine merchandise, governed by M. Jacamo Vatica, which was bound to Cypris with his ship, with whome I went, and when wee were arived in Cipris, I left that ship and went in a lesser to Tripoly in Soria, where I stayde a while. Afterward I tooke my journey to Alexo, & there I acquainted my selfe with merchantes of Armenia and Moores: that were Merchants, and consorted to go with them to Ornus, and we departed from Alepo, and in two dayes journy and a halfe, we came to a Citie called Bir.
2. Of the Citie of BIR.
BIR is a small citie verie scarce of all maner of victuals, and neere unto the walls of the city runneth the river of Euphrates, in this citie the merchants devide themselves into companies, according to their merchandice y they have, & there either they buy or make a boat to carie them & their goods to Babylon, downe the river Euphrates, with charge of a merchant and mariners to conduct the boat in the voyage: these boats are in a manner flat bottomed, yet they be verie strong: and for all that they are so strong, they wil serve but for one voyage. They are made according to the sholdnes of the river, because that the river is in many places ful of great stones, which doth greatly hinder and trouble those that go down the river. These boats serve but for one voyage downe the river unto a village called Feluchia, because it is impossible to bring them up the river backe againe. At Feluchia the merchants plucke their boates in peeces, or else sell them for a small price, For that at Bir they cost the merchants forty or fiftie chickens apeece, and they sell them at Feluchia for7 or 8 chickens a peece, because that when the merchants return from Babylon backe again if they have merchandice or goods that oweth custome: then they make their returne in fortie dayes through the wildernesse, passing that way with a great deale lesser charges then the other way. And if they have not merchandise that oweth custome, then they goe by the way of Mosule, where it costeth them great charges both the Caravan and companie, from Bir where the merchantes imbarke them selves to Feluchia over against Babylon, if the river have good store of Water, they shall make their voyage in fifteene or eightéene daies downe the River, and if the Water be lowe, and it have not rained, then it is much trouble, and it will bee fortie or fiftie dayes journy downe, because that when the barkes strike on the stones that be in the River, then they must unlade them, which is great trouble, and then lade them againe, when they have mended their boat: therefore it is not necessarie, neither doe the merchants goe with one boate alone, but two or three, that if one boate split and bee lost with striking on the sholdes, they may have another redy to take in their goods, until such time as they have meded the broken boate, and if they drawe the broken boate a land to mend her, it is harde to defend her in the night, from the great multitude of Arabians y wil come downe there to rob you & in the rivers every night, when you make fast your boat to the banckside, you must kéepe good watch against the Arabians which are theeves in number like to ants, yet when, they come to rob, they wil not kil, but steal & run away, hargubushes is a very good weapen against them, for y they stand greatly in feare of the shot, & as you passe the river Euphrates, from Bir to Feluchia there is certaine places which you must passe by, where you pay custome certain madines upon a bale, which custom is belonging to the son of Aborise king of the Arabians and desart, and hath certain Cities and villages, on the river Euphrates.
ORmus is an Iland in circuit25 or 30 miles, and it is the most barrenest and most drie Iland in all the world, because that in it there is nothing to be had, but salt water, and wood, all other things necessarye for mans life is brought out of Persia 12 miles of and out of other Ilands néere thereunto adjoining, in such aboundance and quantitie, that the citie is alwaies replenished with all manner of store: there is standing néere [Page 4] unto the waters side a verie faire castell, in the which the captaine of the king of Portingale is alwaies resident with a good band of Portingales, and before this castell is a verye fayre prospect: in the citie dwelleth the married men, Soldiers and Merchants of every nation, amongst whom there is Mores and Gentiles. In this Citie there is verie great trade for all sorts of Spices, drugs, Silke, cloth of Silke, Brocardo, and divers other sorts of merchandize which come out of Persia: and amongst all other trades and Merchandize, the trade of Horsses is very great there, which they carry from thence into theIndies. This Iland hath aMore king, of the race of the Persians, who is created and made king by the captaine of the castell, in the name of the king of Portingale. At the creation of this king I was there, and saw the ceremonies that they use in it, which are as followeth. The old King being dead, the Captaine of the Portingales chooseth another of the blood Royall, and maketh this election in the Castell with great ceremonies, and when he is elected, the Captaine sweareth him to be true and faithfull to the king of Portingale, as his Lord and Governor, and then he giveth him the Scepter Regall: after this with great feasting and pompe, with great company, he is brought into the Roiall palace in the citie. This king kéepeth a good traine, and hath sufficient revenues to maintaine himselfe without troubling of any, bicause the Captaine of the Castell dooth maintaine and defend his right, and when that the Captaine and he ride together, he is honored as a King, yet he cannot ride abroade with his traine, without the consent of the captaine first had: it behooveth them to doo this, and it is necessarie, bicause of the great trade that is in the citie: their proper language is the Persian toong. There I shipped my selfe to go for Goa, a Cittie in the Indies in a Ship that had foure score horsses in hir: this is to advertise those Merchants that go from Ormus to Goa, to ship themselves in those Ships that carrie Horsses, because every Ship that carrieth twentie Horsses or upwards are priveleged, that all the Merchandize whatsoever they carrie, that they owe no custome, whereas the Ships that carrieth not Horsses, are bound to pa [...]eight per cento of all the goods they bring.
4. Goa, Dui, and Cambaia.
GOa, is the principallest Cittye that the Portingales have in theIndies, where is resident the Viceroy with his court and ministers of the king of Portingale, from Ormus to Goa, is 990 miles distance, in which passage, the first Cittie that you come to in the Indies, is called Dui, and is scituate in a little Iland in the kingdome of Cambaia, which is the greatest strength that the Portingals have in all the Indies, yet a small Citty, but of great trade, because there they lade verye manye great Shippes for the straight of Meca and Ormus with merchandize, and these Ships belong to the Mores and Christians, but the Mores cannot trade neither saile into those seas without the licence of the Viceroye of the king of Portingale, otherwise they are taken and made good prises. The merchandize that they lade these Ships withall, commeth from Cambaietta a porte in the kingdome of Cambaia, which they bring from thence in small barkes, because there can no great ships come thether, by reason of the sholdnes of the water thereabouts, and these sholds are 100 or 80 miles about in a straight or golfe, which they call Macareo, which is asmuch to say, as a race of a tide, bicause the waters there ran out of that place without measure, so that there is no place like to it, unlesse it be in the kingdome ofPegu, where there is another Macareo, where the waters run out with more force then these doo. The principalest Citie in Cambaia is called Amadavar, it is a daies jorney and a halfe from Cambietta, it is a verye great Citty and very populous, and for a Citie of the Gentiles it is very well made and builded with faire houses and large streats. with a faire place in it with many ships, & at sight like to Cayro but not so great: also Cambaietta is scituate on the Seas side, and a very faire Citie, the time that I was there, the citie was in great calamity and scarcenes, so that I have séene the men of the countrey that were Gentiles, [Page 5] take their children, their sonnes, and their daughters, and have desired the Portingales to buie them, and I have séene them sold for eight or ten La [...] ines a peece, which maye be of our money x. s. or iii. s. iiii. d.: for all this, if I had not seene it I could not have beléeved, that there should be such a trade at Cambaietta as there is: for in the time of every new Moone and every full Moone, the small barkes (innumerable) come in and out, for at those times of the Moone the tides and waters are higher than at other times they be. These barkes be lade in with all sorts of spices, with silke of China, with Sandole, with Elephants téeth, Velvets of Verzini, great quantity of Pannina, which commeth from Meca, Chickenoes which be péeces of gold worth seven shillings a pée [...]e sterling, with mony, with diverse sorts of other merchandize also these barkes lade out as it were an infinit quantitye of cloth made of Bumbast of all sorts, as white stamped and painted, with great quantitie ofIndico, dryed Ginger, and conserved, Myrabilony drye and condyt, Boraso in paste, great store of Sugar, great quantitye of Gottone, aboundance of Opioum,Assa Fetida, Puchio, with many other sorts of drugs. The Torbants are made in Dui, great stones, like to Corneolaes, Granats, Agats, Diaspry, Calcidonij, Amatisti, and some kind of naturall Diamants. There is in the City of Cambaietta an order, but no m [...] n bound to kéepe it, but they that wil: but all the Portingale merchants kéepe it, the which is this: There is in this Cittye certaine Brokers, which are Gentiles and of great authoritye, and have every one of them fiftéene or twentie servants, and the Merchants that use that countrey have their Brokers, with the which they be served: and they that have not beene there are informed by their friends of the order, & of what Broker they shall be served: now every fifteene daies (as abovesaid) that the fleete of small Ships enter into the port, the Brokers come to the water side, and these merchants assoone as they are come a land, doo give the cargason of all their goods to that Broker that they will have to doo their busines for them, with the markes of al the faroles and packs they have and the Marchant having taken a land all his furniture for his house, because it is néedful that the Marchants that trade the Indies carry provision of houshould with them, because that in every place where he commeth, he must have a new house. The Broker that hath received his Cargason, commaundeth his servants to carry the Marchaunts furniture for his house home, and loade it on some cart, and carry it into the citty, where the Brokers have divers empty houses, and méete for the lodging of Marchants, furnished only with bedsteads, tables, chayres, and empty Jares for water: then the Broker sayth to the Marchant go and repose your selfe, and take your rest in the citty: the Broker tarrieth at y water side, with the Cargason, and causeth all his goods to be discharged out of the Ship, and payeth the custome, & causeth it to be brought into the house where the marchant lieth, the Marchant not knowing any thing thereof, neither custome, nor charges. These goods being brought to this passe into the house of the Marchant, the broker demaundeth of the Marchant if he have any desire to sell his goods or marchandize, at the prizes as such wares are worth at that present time? and if he have a desire to sel his goods presently, then at that instant the Broker selleth it away: After this, the Broker saythe to the Marchant, you have so much of every sorte of marchandize, neat and cleare of every charge, and so much ready money, and if the Marchant wil imploy his money in other commodities, then the broker telleth him that such and such commodities wil cost so much, put a borde without any manner of charges: the Marchant understanding the proposed, maketh his accompt, and if he thinke to buye or sell at the prizes currant, he giveth order to make it away, & if he have commodity for 20 thousand Duckets, all shall be bartred or sould away in 15 dayes without any care or trouble, and when as the Marchant thinketh that he cannot sell his goods at the price currant, he may tarry as long as he will, but they cannot be soulde by no man, but by that Broker that hath taken them a land and paide the custome: and perchance tarrying sometimes for sale of their commoditye, [Page 6] they make good profit and sometimes losse: but those merchandize that come not ordinarily every fiftéene daies, in taring for the sale of them there is great profit. The barkes that lade in Cambaietta, they go for Dui to lade the Ships that go for the straights of Meca and Ormus, and some go for Chiaull and Goa, and these Ships be very well appointed, or else are guarded, with the Armods of the Portingales and is for this respect, for that there is so many Corsaries which go coursing alongst that coast, and robbing and spoiling, and for feare of those théeves, there is no safe sailing in those Seas, but with ships very well appointed and armed, or else with the fléete of the Portingales as aforesaid: in fine, the kingdome of Cambaia is a place of great trade, and hath much doings and tratique with all men, although hetherto it hath bin in the hands of tyrants, bicause that at 75 yeares of age the true king being at the assault of Dui, was there slaine, whose name was Sultan Badu: at that time foure or five Captaines of the armie devided the kingdome amongst themselves, and every one of them shewed in his conntrey what tyrannye he could: but twelve yeares agoe the great Magoll a More king of Agray and Delay, fortie daies jorney within the land of Amadavar, became the governour of all the kingdome of Cambaia without anye resistance, because he being of great power and force with people, devising which waye to enter the land, there was not any man that would make him any resistance, although they were tirants and a beastly people, they were soone brought under obedience, that in that time I owelled in Cambaietta I saw very mervelous things: there were such an infinit number of Artisicers, that made Bracelets called Mannij, or Bracelets of Elephants téeth, of diverse colours, for the women of the Gentiles which have their armes full decked with them. and in this order there is spent every yeare many thousands of Crownes, the reason whereof is this, that when there dyeth any whatsoever of the kindred, then in signe and token of moorning and sorrow, they breake all their bracelets from their armes, and presentlye they goe and buie new againe, because that they had rather to be without theire meat then without their bracelets.
5. Daman. Basan. Tana.
HAving passed Dui, I came to the second city that Portingales have, called Daman, scituate in the territorie of Cambaya, distant from Dui 120. miles: it is no towne of marchandize, save of Rice and Corne, and hath many villages under it, which in time of peace, the Portingale have theire pleasure in them, but in time of wars, the enemies have the spoyle of them in such wise that the Portingales have little benefite by them. Next unto Daman you shall have Basan, which is a filthy place in respect of Daman in condition: in this place is Rice, corn, timber to make ships and gallies: and a small distance beyond Basan is a smal Iland called Tana, a countrey very populous with Portingales, Mores, and Gentiles: these have nothing but Rice, there are many makers of Armesine, and weavers of Gerdles of wooll and bumbast black and red like to Moocharies.
6. Chiawle and the Palmer tree.
Beyond this Iland you shall find Chiawle in the Firme land, and they are two cities, one of the Portingales, and the other of the Mores: that Citie that the Portingales have, is scituate ower then the other, & governeth the mouth of the harbor and is very strongly walled: and as it were a mile and a l [...]distant from this is the Citie of the Mores, governed by their king Zamalluco. In the time of wars there cannot any great shippe come to the cittie of the Mores, because the Portingales with their Ordinance will sinke them, for that they must perforce passe by the Castles of the Portingales: both the Citties are portes of the sea, and are great cities, and have unto them great traffique & trade [Page 7] of marchandize, of all sortes of spices, Drugges, Silke cloth of silk, Sandolo, Marfine, Versive, Procelane of China: Velvets and Scarlets y come from Portingale, and from Meca: with many other sorts of marchandize: There commeth every yeare from Cochin, and from Canenor 10. or 15. great shipe, laden with great Nuts cured, and with sugar made of the self same Nuts called Giagra: the trée wheron these nuts do grow is called the Palmer trée: & throughout al the Indies, and especially from this place to Goa, there is great aboudance of them, and it is like to the Date trée: in the whole world there is not a trée more profitable and of more goodnes then this trée is, neither do men reape so much benefite of any other trée as they do of this, ther is not any part of it but serveth for some use, & none of it is worthy to be burnt: with the timber of this trée they make shippes wthout the mixture of any other trée, and with the leaves thereof they make sailes, and with the fruict therof which be Nuts wherof they make wine, and of the wine they make Sugar and Placetto, which wine they gather in the spring of the yeare, out of the middle of the trée where continually there goeth runneth out whit liquor like unto water, in that time of the yeare they put a vessell under every tree, and every evening and morning they take it away full & then distilling it with fire it maketh a very strong liquor: and then they put it into Buts, with a quantity of Zibibbo, white or black & in short time it is made a perfect wine: after this they make of the nuts great store of oyle: of the trée they make great quantity of Boordes and quarters for buildings. Of the barke of this Trée, they make Cables, Ropes, and other furniture for Ships, and as they saye, these Ropes be better then they that are made of Hempe: they make of the bowes, Beadsteds, after the Indies fashion, and Scavasches for Marchandyze, the leaves, they cut the as verye small and weave them, and so make sayles of them, for all manner of shipping, or else very fine Mats: and then of the first rynde of the Nutte they stampe, and make thereof perfecte Ockom to talke Shippes, great and small: and of the harde Barke thereof they make spoones and other vessells for meate, in such wise that there is no parte thereof throwne away or cast to the fire: when these Mats be gréene they are full of an excellent swéete water to drink, and if a man be thirsty with the liquor of one of the mats, he may satisfie himselfe: and as this Nut ripeth, the liquor thereof turneth all to ernell. There goeth out of Chiawle for Mallaca, for the Indies, for Maca, for Portingale, for the coastes of Mallendy, for Ormus, as it were an infinite number and quantitie of goods and marchandize that come out of the kingdom of Cambaia, as cloth of Bumbast white, painted, printed, great quantitie ofIndico, Opinione, Gotone, Silke of every sorte, great store of boraso in Pasta, great store of Fetida, great store of Iron, Corne, & other marchandize. The More king Zamalaco is of great power, as one that at néede may commaund and hath in his campe two hundred thousand men of warre, and hath great store of Artillerie, some of them made in péeces which for their greatnes they cannot be carried too and fro: yet although they be made in péeces, they are so commodious that they worke with them mervelous well, whose shotte is of stone, and there hath béene of that shot sent unto the king of Portingale for the rariety of the thing. The cittie where the king Zamallaco hath his being, is within the land ofChiawle, 7. or 8. dayes jorney, which citty is called Abneger. 70. miles from Chiawle, towards the Indies is the porte of Dabull, a Haven of the king Zamallaco, from thence to Goa is 150. miles.
GOa is the principallest citie that theportingales have in the Indies, where in the Vizeroye with his royall court is resident, and is in an Iland which may be in circuit 25. or 30. miles: and the citie with his boroughs is resonable bigge, and for a cittie of the Indies it is resonable fayre, but the Iland is farre more fayrer: for it is as it were full of goodly gardens, replenished with divers trées & [Page 8] with the Palmer trées as is aforesaid. This citie is of great trafique for all sorts of marchandize which they trade withall in those parts: & the fléete which commeth every yeare from Portingale which are 5. or 6. great ships that come directly forGoa, and they arrive there ordinarily the 6. or 10 of September, & there they remaine 40. or 50. daies, & from thence they goe to Cochin, where they lade forPortingale, and often times they lade one ship at Goa and the other at Cochin for portingale, Cochin is distante from Goa 300. miles, the cittie Goa is scivate in the kingdome of Dialcam a king of the Mores, whose chiefe citie is op in the countrey 8. dayes jorney and is called Bisapor: this kinge is of great power, for when I was in Goa in the yeere of our Lord 1570. this king came to give assault to Goa, being encamped néere unto it by a River side with an armie of 2 hundreth thousande men of war, and he lay at this seige 14. moneths: in which time there was peace concluded, & as report went amongst his people, there was great calamitie and mortality which bred amongst them in the time of winter and also killed very many Elephants. Then in the yeare of our Lord 1567. I went from Goa to Bezeneger, the chiefe citie of the kingdome of Marsinga 8. daies jorney from Goa, within the land in the company of two other Marchants which carried with them300 Arabian Horses to that king: because the Horses of that countrey are of a small stature, and they paye well for the Arabian Horses: & it is requisite that the Marchants sell them well, for that they stand them in great charges to bring them out of Persia to Ormus, & fromOrmus to Goa, where the ship that bringeth 20 Horses and upwardes, payeth no custome neither ship nor goods whatsoever, whereas if they bring no Horses, they pay 8. per cento of all their goods: and at the going out of Goa the Horses pay custome, 42. Pagodies for every Horse which Pagody may be of starling money 6 shillings 8 pence: they be peeces of gold [...]f that valew: so that theArabian Horses are of greate valew in those countries as 300. 400. 500. Duckets a horse, and to a thousand Duckets a horse.
THe cittie of Bezeneger was sacked in the yeare 1565, by4 kinges of the Mores, which were of great power & might, the names of these foure kings were these following. The first was called Dialcan, the second Zamaluc, the third Cotamaluc, & the fourth Viridy: and yet these foure kings were not able to overcom this cittie & the king of Bezeneger, but by treason. This king of Bezeneger was a Gentile, and having amongst all other of his Captaines, two which were notable, and they were Mores, and these two Captaines had either of them in charge 70 or 80 thousand men. These two Captaines being of one Religion with the foure kings which were Mores, wrought meanes with them to betray their owne king into their hands. The king of Bezeneger estéemed not the force of the foure kings his enimies, but went out of his Citie to wage battell with them in the fields, which when the armies were joined, the battell lasted but a while not the space of foure houres, because the two traytorous Captaines, in the chéefest of the fight, with their companies turne their faces against their king, and made such disorder in his armie, that as astonied they set themselves to flight: thirtie yeares was this kingdome governed by thrée brethren which were tyrants, the which kéeping the rightfull king in prison, it was their use every yeare once, to shew him to the people, and they at their pleasures ruled as they listed. These brethren were thrée Captaines belonging to the father of the king they kept in prison, which when he died, left his sonne verye yoong, and then they tooke the government to themselves: the chéefest of these thrée was called Ramaragio, and he sat in the roiall throne, and was called king: the second was called Temiragio, and he tooke the governement on him: the third was called Bengatre, and he was captaine generall of the armie. These thrée brethren were in this battell, in the which the chéefest and the last were never heard of quicke nor dead.
Onely Temeragio fled in the battell, having lost one of his eyes: when the newes came to the cittie of the overthrow in the battell, the wives and children of these thrée tyrants, with their lawfull king (kept prisoner) fled away, spoiled as they were, and the foure kings of the Mores entred the citie Bezeneger with great triumph, and there they remained sirmoneths, searching under houses and in all places for mony and other things that were hidden, and then they departed to their owne kingdomes, because they were not able to maintaine such a kindome as that was, so far distant from their owne countrie.
When the kings were departed from Bezeneger, this Temiragio returned to the Citie, and then began for to repopulate it, and sent word toGoa to the Merchants, that if they had anye Horsses to bring them to him, and he would pay well for them, and for this cause the aforesaid two marchants that I went in company withall, carried those Horsses that they had to Bezeneger. Also this Tyrant made an order or lawe, that if anye Merchant had anye of the Horsses that were taken in the aforesaid battell or warres, although they were of his owne marke, that he would give as much for them as they would: and beside he gave generall safe conduct to all that should bring them: when by this meanes hee sawe that there were great store of Horsses brought thether unto him, hee gave the Merchaunts faire wordes, untill such time as hee sawe they could bring no more. Then he licensed the Merchants to depart, without giving them anye thing for theyr Horsses, which when the poore men sawe, they were desperate, and as it were madde with sorrowe and greefe.
I rested in Bezeneger seaven moneths, although in one moneth I might have discharged all my businesse, for it was necessary to rest there until the waies were cléere of théeves which at that time ranged up and downe: and in the time I rested there, I sawe manye strange and beastlye déedes doone of the Gentiles. First when there is any noble man or woman dead, they burne their bodies: & if a maried man die his wife must burne hir selfe alive, for the love of hir husband, and with the bodye of hir husband: so that when anye man dyeth, their wives will take a monthes leave, two or thrée, or as they will, to burne themselves in, and that daye being come, wherein she ought to be burnt, that morning, she goeth out of hir house very earlye, either on Horssebacke or one an Eliphant, or else is borne by eight men on a small stage: in one of these orders she goeth, being apparrelled like to a Bride, carried rounde about the Cittye, with hir hayre downe about hir shoulders, garnished with Jewels & flowers, according to the estate of the partye, and they goe with as great joye as Brides doo in Venis to the nuptials: shée carryeth in hir left hand a looking Glasse, and in hir right hand an arrow, and singeth through the cittie as she passeth, and saith, that shee goeth to sléepe with hir déere spowse and husband. She is accompanyed with hir kindred and fréends untill it be one or two of the clocke in the after noone, then they go out of the citie, and going along the Rivers side called Nigondin, which runneth under the walles of the cittye, untill they come to a place where they use to make this burning of women, being widowes, there is prepared in this place a great square cave, with a little pinnacle hard by it, foure or five steps up: the aforesaid cave is full of dryed wood, the woman being come thither, accompanied with a number of people which come to sée the thing, then they make readye a great banquet, and she that shall be burned, eateth with great joye and gladnesse, as though it were hir marriage daye: and the feast being ended, then they goe to dancing and singing a certaine time, according as she will: after this the woman of hir owne accord, commandeth then to make the fire in the square Cave where the drye wood is, and when it is kindled, they come and certifie hir thereof, then presently shee leaveth the feast, and taketh the nearest kinsman of hir husband by the hand, and they both go together to the banke of the aforesaid river, where she putteth off all hir Jewels & all hir clothes, & giveth them to hir parents or kinsfolke, and covering hir selfe with a cloth, bicause shee [Page 10] will not be séene of the people being naked: she throweth hir selfe into the river, saying: Oh wretches that ye wash your sinnes. Comming out of the water, she rowleth hir selfe into a yellow cloth of 14 braces long, and againe she taketh hir husbands kinsman by the hand, and they goe both together up to the pinacle of the square cave wherin the fire is made: when she is on the pinacle, she talketh and reasoneth with the people, recommending unto them hir children and kindred: Before the pinacle they use to set a Mat, because they shall not see the fiercenes of the fire, yet there is manye that will have them plucked awaye, shewing therein a heart not fearfull, and that they are not afraid of that sight. When this sillye woman hath reasoned with the people a good while to hir content, there is another woman that taketh a pot with oyle and sprinckleth it over her head, and with the same she annoynteth all hir body, and afterwards throweth the pot into the Fornace, and both the woman and the pot goeth together into the fire, and presentlye the people that are round about the furnace, throw after hir into the cave great péeces of wood, so by this meanes, with the fire & with the blowes that she hath with the wood throwne after hir, she is quickly dead, and after this there groweth such sorowe and such lamentation amongst the people, that all their mirth is turned into howling and wéeping, in such wise, that a man could scarse beare the hearing of it. I have seene many burnt in this manner, because my house was néere to the gate where they go out to the place of burning: & when there dyeth anye great man, his wife with all his slaves with whome hee hath had carnall copulation, burne themselves together with him, Also in this kingdome I have séene amongst the base sort of people this use and order, that the man being dead he is carried to the place where they will make his sepulcher, and setting him as it were upright sitting, then commeth his wife before him on hir knées, casting hir armes about his neck, with imbracing and clasping him, untill such time as the Masons have made a wall round about them, and when the wall is as highe as their neckes, there commeth a man behind the woman & strangleth her, then when she is dead, the workmen finish the wall over their heads, and so they lie buryed both together. Beside these, there is an infinite number of beastlye qualities amongst the which I have no desire to write of them: I was very desirous to know the cause, whye these women would so wilfullye burne themselves against nature and lawe, and it was tolde me that this lawe was of an ancient time, to make provision against the slaughters which women made of their husbands. For in those daies before this lawe was made, the women for every little displeasure that their husbands had doone unto them, they would presentlye poyson their husbands, and take other men, and now by reason of this lawe they are more faithfull to their husbands, and count their lives as deare as their owne, bicause that after his death, hir owne followeth presently.
In the yeare 1567. the people of Bezeneger, for the ill successe that they had, in that their Citie was sacked by the foure kings. The king with his court went to dwell in a castell eight dayes jorneye up in the lande from Bezeneger, called Penegonde: Also sixe daies jorney from Bezeneger, is the place where they get Diamants, I was not there, but it was told me, that it is a great place, compassed with a wall, and that they sell the earth within the wall, for so much a Squadro, & the limits is set, how déepe, or howe lowe they shall dig, those Diamants that are of a certaine sise and bigger then that sise, all those be for the king, it is many yeares agone, since they got anye there, for the troubles that hath béene in that kingdome: the first cause of this trouble was, because the sonne of this Temeragio had put to death the lawfull king which he had in prison, for which cause the Barons and Noblemen in that kingdome would not acknowledge him to be their king, and by this meanes there is manye kings, and great devision in that kingdome, and the Citye of Bezeneger is not altogether destroyed, yet the houses stand styll, but emptie, and there is dwelling in them nothing as is reported, but Tigers and other wilde beasts. The circuit of this Citty is foure and twentie miles about, and within the walles certaine mountaines: the houses stand walled with earth, and plaine, all saving the thrée palaces of the thrée tyrant brethren, and the Pagodies which are Idoll houses, these are made with lime and fine marble: I have seene many kings Courts, and yet have I seene none in greatnes like to this of Bezeneger, I saye for the order of his Pallace, for it hath nine gates or ports. First when you go into the place where the king did lodge, there is five great portes or gates: these are kept with Captaines and Souldiers: then within these, there are foure lesser gates, which are kept with Porters, without the first gate there is a little porche, where there is a Captaine with five and twentie Souldiers that keepeth watche and warde night and daye, and within that, another with the like garde, where through they come to a verye faire Courte, and at the ende of that Courte, there is another porche as the first, with the like guarde, and within that another Courte, and in this wise are the first five gates garded and kept with those Captaines: and then the lesser gates within are kept with a garde of Porters, which gates stand open the greatest part of the night, bicause the custome of the Gentiles is to do their busines, and make their feasts in the night, rather then by day: the Citye is verye safe from théeves, for the Portingall Merchants sléepe in the stréetes, or under porches for the great heate that is there, and yet they never had any harme in the night. At the end of two moneths I determined to go for Goa in the companye of two other Portingale Merchants, which were making readye to depart, with two Palanchines or little Litters, which are very commodious for the waye, with eight Falchines which are men hired, to carrie the palanchines, eight for a palanchine, foure at a time: they carry them as we use to carrie barrowes, and I bought me two Bullocks, one of them to ride on, & the other to carrie my victuals and provision, for in that countrey they ride on Bullockes with Pannels as we terme them, girths and Bridles, and they have a verye good commodious pace.
From Bezeneger toGoa, in summer it is 8 daies jorney, but we went in the midst of winter, in the moneth of July, and were 15 daies comming to Ancole on the sea coast, so in 8. daies, I had lost my two bullocks: for he that carried my victuales, was weake & could not goe, the other when I came to a river where was a little Bridge to passe over, I put my Bullock to swimming, & in the midst of the river there was a little Iland, unto the which my Bullock went, and finding pasture, there he remained still, & in no wise we could come to him, and so perforce, I was forced to leave him, & at that time there was much raine, and I was forced to goe 7. daies a foote with great paines: and by great chance I met with Falchines by the way, that I hired to carrie my clothes & victuales: we had great trouble in our jorney, for every day, we were taken prisoners, by reason the great dissention in that kingdom, and every morning at our departure we must pay rescat 4. or 5. Pagies a man: and another trouble we had as bad as this, that when as we came into a new governors country, as every day we did, yet for that thy were all tributorie to the king Bezeneger yet every one of them stamped a severall coyne of Copper, so that the money that we tooke this day, would not serve the next: at length hy the help of God we came safe to Ancola, which is a countrey of ye quéens of Gargopam, tributary to ye king of Bezeneger. The marchandize that went every year from Goa to Bezeneger, was Arabian Horses, Velvets, Damasks, Sattens, Armesine of Portingale, and péeces of China, Saffron, & Scarlets: & from Bezeneger, they had in Turky for their commodities, Jewels, and Pagodies which be Duckets of gold: the apparrell that they use in Bezeneger, is Velvet, Satten, Dammaske Scarlet, or white bumbast cloth, acording to the estate of the person, with long hats on their heads, called Colae, made of Velvet, Satten, Dammask, or Scarlet, girding themselves in stead of girdels with some fine white bumbast cloth: they have breeches after the order of the Turks: they weare on their feete, plaine high things called of them aspergh, and at their eares they have hanging great plenty of Golde.
Returning to my voyage when we were together in Ancola, one of my companions that had nothing to loose, tooke a guide and went to Goa, whether they goe in 4. dayes, the other portingale not being disposed to go, tarried in Ancola for that winter: the winter in those parts of the Indies beginneth the 15. of May, and lasteth unto the end of October: & as we were in Ancola, there came another Marchant of horses in a planchine, and two portingale Souldiers which came from Zeland, and two carriers of letters, which were Christians borne in the Indies: all these consorted to go to Goa together, and I determined to go with them, and caused a pallanchine to be made for me very poorely of Canes: and in one of them Canes I hid privily all the Jewels I had, and according to the order, I tooke eight Falchines to carrie me, and one daye about elven of the clocke, we set forwards on our journey, and about two of the clock in the afternoone, as we passed a mountaine which devideth the territorie of Ancola and Dyalcan, I being a little behind my company, was assaulted of by eight théeves, foure of them had Swords and Targats, and the other foure had Bowes & Arrowes, when the Falchines that carried me understood the noyse of the assault, they let the palanchine & me fall to the ground, & ran away and left me alone, with my clothes wrapped about me: presently the théeves were on my necke, and riseling me, they stripped me starke naked, and I fained my selfe sicke, bicause I would not leave the Palanchine, and I had made me a little bed of my clothes, the théeves sought it very narowly and subtilly, and found two pursses that I had, well bound up together, wherein I had put my Copper mony which I had changed for foure pagodies in Ancola, the théeves thinking it had béene so manye Duckets of Golde, searched no further, then they threw all my clothes in a bush and hied them away, and as God would have it, at their departure, there fell from them a handkercher, and when I sawe it, I rose from my Palanchine or Couche, and tooke it up, and wrapped it together within my Palanchine. Then these my Falchines were of so good condition, that they returned to séeke me, whereas I thought I should not have found so much goodnes in them because they were paid their money afore hand, as is the use: I had thought to have seene them no more: before their comming I was determined to pluck the Cane wherin my Jewels were bidden, out of my cowtch and to have made me a walking staffe, to carry in my hand to Goa, thinking that I should have gone thether on foote, but by the faithfulnesse of my Falchines, I was rid of that trouble, and so in fower dayes they carried me to Goa, in which time I made hard fare, for ye théeves left me neither money golde nor silver, & that which I did eat, was geven me of my men for gods sake: and after at my comming to Goa I payde them every thing rially all that I had of them: from Goa I departed for Cochin, which is a voyage of 300. miles, and betwéene these two Cties are many holds of the Portingales, as Onor, Mangalor, Barzelor & Cananor. The holde or forte that you shall have in going from Goa to Cochin that belongeth to the Portingales, is called Onor, which is in the kingdome of the Quéene of Battacella, which is tributary to the king of Bezeneger: there is no trade there, but onely a charge with the Captaine and company he kéepeth there: and passing this place, you shall come to another small Castell of the Portingales called Mangalor, and ther is a very small trade onely for a little Rice: and from thence you go to a little fort called Barzelor, there they have good store of Rice which is carried for Goa: and from thence you shall go to a cittie called Cananor, which is a Hargabush shot distant from the chiefest citie that the king of Cananor hath in his kingdome, being a king of the Gentiles: and he and his are a very naughty and malicious people, alwayes having delight to be in wars with the Portingales, and when they are in peace, it is for the intrest to let their marchandize passe: there goeth out of this kingdome of Cananor, all the Cardomomo, great store of pepper, Ginger, Honey, Ships laden with greate Nuttes, greate quantity of Archa which is a fruict of the biggnes of Nutmegges, which fruict they eat in all those parts of the Indies and beyonde the Indies, with the leafe of an hearbe which they call Bettell, the which is like unto our Juye leafe, but a little lesser, and thinner: they eate it made in Plaister with the lime made of Oystershelles, and thorowe the Indies, they spend greate quantitie of money in this composition, and is used dayly, which thing I woulde not have beléeved if I had not séene it: The customers get greate profite by these Hearbes, for that they have custome for them: when these people eate and chaw this in their mouthes, it maketh theire Spittle to be redde, like unto blood and they saye, that it maketh a man to have a very good stomacke and a swéete breath, but sure in my judgement, they eate it rather to fulfill theire filthy lustes and of a knaverye, for this Hearbe is moyste and hote, and maketh a very strong expultion. From Cananor to Crangenor, which is another small forte of the Portingales in the Land of the king of Crangenor, which is another king of the Gentiles, and a Countrey of small importaunce, and of a hundreth and twenty miles, full with theeeves, being under the king of Callicut, a king also of the Gentiles and a great enemie to the Portingales, which when he is alwayes in warres, he and his countrey is the Neast and resting for straunger théeves: and these be called Moores of Carposa, because they weare on theire heads, long red Hattes, and these théeves parte ye spoyles that they take on the sea, with the king of Calicut, for he geveth leave unto all that wil go a roaving liberally to go in such wise that all along that coast, there is such a number of Théeves, that there is no sayling in those Seas but with great Shippes and very well armed or elle they must goe in company with the army of the Portingales: from Crangenor to Cochin, is 15. miles.
COchine is next unto Goa, the chéefest place that the Portingales have in the Indies, and there is great trade of Spices, drugs, and all other sorts of Merchandize for the kingdome of Portingale, and there with in the land is the kingdom of Pepper, which Pepper the Portingales lade in their ships by boulke and not in sacks, the Pepper that goeth for Portingale is not so good, as that which goeth forMeca, bicause that in times passed, the officers of the king of Portingale, made a contract with the king of Cochine, in the name of the king of Portingale, for the prices of Pepper, and by reason of that agréement betwéene them at that time made, the prise can neither rise nor fall, which is a verye lowe and base price, and for this cause the Villaines bring it to the Portingales, gréene and full of filthe. The Mores of Meca that give a better price have it cleane and drye, and is better conditioned: all the spices and drugs that is brought to Mecha, is stolne from thence as Contrabanda.Cochine is two cities, one of the Portingales, and another of the king of Cochines: that of the Portingales is scituat néerest unto the sea, & that of the kings of Cochin is a mile and a halfe up higher in the land, but they are both set on the banckes of one river, which is very great, and of a good depth of water, which river commeth out of the mountains of the king of the Pepper, which is a king of the Gentiles, in whose kingdome are manye Christians of S. Thomas order: the king of Cochine is also a king of the Gentiles and a great faithfull fréend to the king of Portingale, and to those Portingales which are marryed, and Cittizens in the Cittie Cochine of thePortingales, and by this name of Portingales, throughout all the Indies they call all the Christians that come out of the West, whether they be Italians, Frenchmen, or Almaines, and all they that mary in Cochine doo get an office, according to the trade hee is of, this they [Page 13] have by the great privilege the Cittizens have of that City, bicause there is two principall commodities that they deale withall in that place, which are these: the great store of silke that commeth from China, and the great store of Sugar which commeth from Bengala, the married: Citizens paye not anye custome for these two commodities: for all other commodities they pay foure per cento custum to the king of Cochine, rating their goods at their owne pleasure: those which are not married and strangers, pay in Cochine to the king of Portingale, eight per cento of all manner of merchandize, I was in Cochine when the Viceroye of the king of Portingale wrought what he could to breake the privelege of the Citizens, and to make them to pay custome as other did: at which time the citizens were glad to way their Pepper in the night, that they laded the ships withall that went to Portingale, and stole the custome in the night. The king of Cochine having understanding of this, would not suffer any more Pepper to be wayed: then presentlye after this, the Merchants were licenced to doo as they did before, and there was no more speach of this matter, nor any more wrong doone. This king of Cochine is of a small power in respect of the other kings of the Indies, for he can make but seventye thousand men of armes in his campe: hee hath a great number of Gentlemen which he calleth Amochy, and some are called Nayry: these two sorts of men estéeme not their lives any thing: so that it maye be for the honor of his king, they will thrust themselves forward in every danger, although they knowe they shall dye. These men goe naked from the girdell upwards, with a clothe rowled about their legs, going bare footed, and having theyr haire verye long and rolled up together on the top of his head, and alwayes they carrie their Bucklers or Targets with them, and their Swords naked: theseNayry have their wives common amongst themselves, and when any of them go into the house of any of these women, he leaveth his Sworde and Target at the dore, and the time that he is there, there dare not any be so hardy as to come into that house. The kings children shall not inherit the kingdome after their Father: bicause they holde this opinion, that perchance they were not begotten of the king their Father, but of some other man, therefore they accept for their King, one of the Sonnes of the kings Sisters, or of some other woman of the bloud royall for that they be sure they are of the bloud royall.
The Nayri and their wives use for a braverye to make great holes in their eares, and so bigge and wide, that it is incredible, holding this opinion, that the greater the holes be, the more noble they estéeme themselves. I had leave of one of them, to measure the circumference of one of them with a thred, and within that circumference I put my arme up to the shoulder, clothed as it was, so that in effect they are monstrous great. Thus they doo make them when they be little, for then they open the eare, and hange a péece of golde or lead thereat, and in the opening, in the hole they put a certaine leafe that they have for that purpose, which maketh the hole so great. They lade Ships in Cochine for Portingale and for Ormus, but they that go for Ormus, carrie no Pepper but by Contrabanda, as for Sinamond, they easilye get leave to carrye that awaye, for all other Spices and drugs they maye liberallye carrie them to Ormus or Cambaia, and so all other merchandize which come from other places, but out of the kingdome of Cochine proper, they carry away from thence into Portingale great aboundance of Pepper, great quantitie of Ginger, dried and conserved, wilde Sinamond, good quantitie of Arecha, great store of Cordage of Cayro, made of the barke of the Trée of the great Nut, and better then that of Hempe, of which they carrie great store into Portingale.
The Shippes everye yeare depart from Cochine to goe for Portingale, in the fist of December, or the fift of Januarie. Nowe to followe my voyage for the Indies: From Cochine I went to Coylane, distant from Cochine seaventie and two miles, whichCoylan is a small Fort of the king of Portingales, scituate in the kingdome of Coylane, which is a King of the Gentiles, and of small trade: at that place they [Page 14] lade onlye halfe a Shippe of Pepper, and then she goeth to Cochine to take in the rest, and from thence to Cao Comeri, is seaventie and two miles, and there endeth the coast of the Indies, and alongst this coast, néere to the water side, and also of Cao comery, downe to the low land of Chialoa, which is about two hundred miles: The people there are as it were all returned to the Christian faith: there are also Churches of the Friers of Saint Paules order, which Friers doo very much good in those places to turne the people, and in converting them, and take great trouble in instructing them in the lawe of Christ.
10. The fishing for Pearles.
THe Sea that lieth betwéene the coast which discendeth from Cao Comery, to the low land of Chialoa and the Iland Zeyland, they call it the Fishing of Pearles, which fishing they make everye yeare beginning in Marche or Aprill, and it lasteth 50 daies, but they do not fish every yeare in one place, but one yeare in one place, & another yeare in another place of the same sea: when the time of this fishing draweth néere, then they send verye good Dyvers, that goe to discover where the greatest heapes of Dysters be under water, and right against that place where the greatest store of Dysters be, there they make or plant a village with houses and a Bazaro, all of stone, which standeth as long as the fishing time lasteth, and it is furnished with all thing necessary, & now & then it is néere unto places that are inhabited, and other times far of, according to the place where they fish. The fishermen are all Christians of the countrey, and who that will may go to fishing, paying a certaine dutie to the king of Portingale, & to the Churches of the friers of S. Paule, which are in that coast, all the while that they are fishing, there is thrée or foure Fustes armed to defend the fishermen from Corsarios: It was my chance to be there one time in my passage, & saw the order, that they used in fishing, which is this there are3 or 4. barks y make consort together, which are like to our little pilot boats & a litle lesse, there goeth 7. or 8. men in a Boate: and I have séene in a morning great number of them go out, and anker in 15. or 18 fadomes of water which is the ordinarye depth of all that coast: when they are at ankor, they cast a rope into the Sea and at the end of the rope they make fast a great stone, and then there is ready, a man that hath his nose and his eares well stopped, and annoynted with Oyle and a Basket about his neck, or under his left arme, then he goeth downe by the rope to the bottome of the sea, and as fast as he can he filleth the basket, and when it is full, he shaketh the rope & his fellowes that are in the Bark, hale him up with the basket: and in such wise they go one by one untill they have laden their barke with Oysters: and then at the evening they come to the village, and then every company maketh theire mountaine or heape of Oysters, one distant from another in such wise that you shall sée a great long rowe of mountaines or heapes of Oysters, and they are not touched, untill such time as the fisshing be ended, and at the end of the fishing, every company sitteth round about their mountain or heap of Oysters, and fall to opening of them, which they may easily doe because they be dead, drie and brittle, & if every Oyster had pearle in them, it would be a very good purchase, but there is very many that have no pearles in them: when the fishing is ended, then they see whether it be a good gathering or a bad: there is certaine men expert in the pearles, whom they call Chitini which set and make the price of pearles according to their carracts, bewty and goodnes, making fower sorts of them: the first sorte be the round pearles, and they be called Aia of Portingale, because ye Portingales do buy them: the second sorte which are not rounde, are called Aia of Bengala: the 3. sorte which are not so good as the second, they cal Aia of Canara, that is to say the kingdom of Bezeneger: the fourth and last sorte, which are the least and worst sorte, are called Aia of Cambaia. Thus the price beeing set, there is Marchants of every countrey, which are ready with theire money in their hands: so that in a few dayes all is bought up, at the prizes set according to the goodnesse and caracts [Page 15] of the Pearles. In this sea of the fishing of pearles is an Iland called Manar, which is inhabited by Christians, of the countrey which first were Gentiles, and have a small holde of the Portingale, being scituate over against Zeyland: and betweene these two Ilands there is a Channell, but not very bigge and hath but a small depth therein, by reason whereof there cannot any great shippe passe that way, but small Shipps, and with the increase of the water, which is at the chaunge or the full of the Moone, and yet for all this they must unlade them, and put their goods into small vessels to lighten them before they can passe that waye, for feare of Sholdes that lye in the channell, & after lade them into their Ships, to goe for the Indies, and this doo all small Ships that passe that waye, but those Ships that go for the Indies Eastwardes, passe by the coast of Chiarimandell, on the other side by the lowe Lande of Chiloa which is beetwéene the Firme Land and the Iland Manor, and going from the Indyes to the coast of Chiarimandell, they loose some Shippes, but they be emptye, because that the Shippes that passe that waye discharge theyre goods at an Iland called Peripatane, and there landing theire goods into small flatte bottomed Boates, which drawe little water, and are called Tane and can runne over every Sholds without either daunger or losse of any thing, for that they tarrye in Peripatane untill such time as it be fayre weather: Before they departe to passe through the Sholdes there the small Shippes and flat bottomed Boates go together in company, and when they have sayled six and thirty miles, they arrive at the place where as the Sholdes be, and at that place the windes blow so forcible that they are forced to go through, not having any other refuge to save them selves: the flat bottomed Boats they goe safe through, where as the small Ships if they misse the aforesaid Channell, stick fast on the Sholds, and by this meanes many are lost: and comming back from the Indies, they go not that waye but passe by the Channell of Manor as above sayde, whose Channell is O ye, and if the Shippes sticke fast, it is great chance if there be any daunger at all: the reason why this Channell is not more surer to goe thether is, because the windes that raygne or bloweth betwéeneZeyland and Manar make the Channell so dry with water, that almost there is not any passage: from Cao Comery to the Iland of Zeyland is 120. miles overthwart.
FRom Zeyland within ye Iland, to go with small ships to Negapatan within the firme land: & 72. miles of is a very great citie, & very populous of Portingales and Christians of the countrey, and parte Gentiles: it is a countrey of small trade, neither have they any trade there save a good quantity of Rice, and cloth of bumbast which they carry into divers parts: it was a very plentifull countrey of victuales, but now a great deale lesse, & that aboundance of victuales, caused many Portingales to go thither, and build houses & dwell there with small charge.
This Citie belongeth to a noble man of the kingdome of Bezeneger being aGentile, neverthelesse the Portingales and other Christians are well intreated there, & have their Churches there with a Monastery ofS. Francis order, with great devotion and verye well accommodated, with bouses round about, yet for all this they are amongst tyrants, which alwaies at their pleasure may doo them some harme, as it happened in the yeare of our Lord God 1565, which I remember verye well, how that the Naic, that is to saye the Lord of the Citie, sent to the Cittizens to demand of them certaine Arabian Horsses, and they having denied them unto him, and gainesaid his demand, it came to passe that this Lord had a desire to sée the Sea, which when the poore Citizens understood thereof, they doubted some evill, to heare a thing which was not woont to bee, they thought that this man would come to sacke the Citie, and presently they imbarked themselves the best they could with their mooveables, merchandize, Jewels, money and all that they had, and caused the ships to put from the shore, when this was doone, as their ill chaunce would have it, the next night following, there came such a great storme, which put all the ships a land perforce, and brake them to péeces, and all the goods that came a land and was saved, was taken from them by the Soldiors and armye of this Lorde, which came downe with him to sée the sea, and were attendant at the Sea side, not thinking any such thing to have hapned.
12. Of the Kingdome of Orisa, and the River Ganges.
Orissa was a faire Kingdome, and trustye, through the which a man might have gone with Golde in his hand without any danger at all, as long as the lawfull King reined which was a gentile, which was in the citie called Catecha, which was within the land sixe dayes Journey. This King loved Strangers mervailous well, and Marchants which came in and out in his Kingdome, in such wise, that he would take no custome of of them, neither any other greevous thing. Onlye the Ship that came thither paide a small thing according to her portage, and every yeere in the port of Orisa, laded25. or 30. Ships great and small, with Ryce divers sortes of fine white bumbaste cloth. Oyle of Zerzclnie, which they make of a Séede, and is very good to eate and to frye fishe withall, great store of Butter, Lacca, long Pepper, Ginger, Mirabolany drye, and condyt, great store of cloth of hearbes, which is a kinde of Silke which groweth amongst the woods without any labour of man, only when the bole therof is growen round as big as an Orenge then they take care only to gather them. About sixteene yeeres passed, this King with his Kingdome were destroyed by the King of Patane, which was also King of the greatest parte of Bengala, and when he had got the kingdome he set custome there twenty pro cento, as Marchants paide in his Kingdome, but this tirant enjoyed his kingdome but a small time, but was conquered by another tirant, which was the greate Magoll, King of Agraa, Dely and of all Cambaia, without any resistance. I departed from Orisa to Bengala, to the harber Picheno, which is distant from Orisa towards the Easte a hundreth and seaventy miles. They goe as it were rowing alongst the coaste fiftie & fower miles, and then we enter into the RiverGanges: from the mouth of this River, to a Citie called Satagan where the Marchants gather them selves together with their trade, are 20. miles, which they rowe in 18. howers: with the increace of the water, in which River it floweth and ebbeth as it dooth in the Themes, and when the ebbing water is come, they are not able to rowe against it, by reason of the swiftnesse of the water, yet their Barkes be light and armed with oares, like to Foistes, yet they cannot prevaile against that streame, but for refuge must make them fast to the banke of the river untill the next flowing water, and they call these barkesBazaras and Patuas: they row as wel as a Gallyot, or as wel as ever I have séen any, a good tides rowing before you come to Satagan, you shall have a place which is called Buttor, and from thence upwardes the Shippes doo not goe, because that upwards the River is very shallowe, and little water, everye yéere atButtor they make and unmake a Village, with houses and shops, made of Strawe, and with all thinges necessary to their uses, and this village standeth as long as the shippes ride there, and depart for the Indies, and when they are departed, every man goeth to his plotte of houses, and there setteth fier on them, which thing made me to mervaile. For as I passed up toSatagan, I saw this village standing with a great number of people, with an infinite number of Shippes and Bazars, and at my returne comming downe with my Cartaine of the last ship, for whome I tarried, I was all amazed to sée such a place so soone rased and burnt, nothing left but the signe of the burnt houses, the Small Ships goe to Satagan, and there they lade.