The Estate of this Country under the Romans.
The Building of the famous Wall of the Picts, by the
The Ancient Town of Pandon.
A briefe Description of the Town, Walls, Wards,
Churches, Religious Houses, Streets, Markets, Fairs,
River and Commodities; with the Suburbs.
The ancient and present Government of the Town.
A relation of the County of Northumberland, which was the
bulwark for England, against the inrodes of the Scots. Their
many Castles and Towers. Their ancient Families and Names.
Of the Tenure in Cornage. Of Cheviot-Hills. Of Tinedale,
and Reedsdale, with the Inhabitants.
Potestas omnium ad Caesrem pertinet, proprietas ad singulos.



EVERY Country hath had his Chronologer, or Writer, to portrait unto their countrymen their antiquities, and noble acts. Greece had his Homer. Rome his Virgil. Our Britains had their Gildas. Saxons had their Beda. England had of late his learned Camden, and painfull Speed, to delineate and portrait unto their countrymen the antiquities and scituations of all shires in England. Yet it is impossible, that any one man, being never so inquisitive, and laborious, should attain unto the perfect knowledge of all passages, in all places. I have adventured to write of the Antiquity of this Town and Country, which by reading and experience, I have gathered out of the ruine of Antiquity; that those Monuments which these late warrs have obliterated and ruin'd, may be left to posterity, for tempus edax rerum. I find a great difficulty in my undertakings, because the Records of this Country are but few, and confused, being so often infested by the Scots and Danes, who consumed and fired all before them, wheresoever they came. Questionlesse many brave men have lived in this Town and Country, many memorable acts of Chivalry have been atchieved; but they are all buried in oblivion. I hope the courteous Reader will pardon the [Page] faults committed herein, Nam in priscis rebus veritas, non ad unguem quaerenda est. Many errours, many suppositions upon probabilities, may be found in it. Humanum est errare & decipi. I have begun the work, I hope some of my Fellow Burgesses will finish what I have begun; to the everlasting memory of this famous town.

Some cretiques have presumed to correct and blame me (with their indigested zeale, and unknown enthusiastique knowledge, of Chimoera's, in their giddy pericraniums) for fables and errours; as the Priest, that found it written of St. Paul, Demissus est per sportam, mended his book, and made it demissus est per portam; because Sporta was an hard word, and out of his reading. But ne sutor ultra crepidam, let no man professe that he knows not. Its true, He that writes, resembleth a man acting his part upon a Theator or Stage, where the spectators have their eyes sixing upon him, all observing his gesture and words; if he fail in either, presently he is censured and condemned. Lastly, we live in an age, that Mechanicks will presume to step into Moses chaire, and become politians to contradict and controle whatsoever is acted and done according to the laws divine and humane. One thing I desire of these phantastiques, Carpere vel noli mea, vel ede tun. Vale.

W. G.


THE first Natives of this Island. 1
Romans first in Britaine. 2
The first Roman Conquest in the North. ibid.
The North brought into a Roman Province. 4
The comming in of the Saxons. 6
The first Denominations of Newcastle. 7
The Walls and Gates of Newcastle, and who built them. 8
The Bridges of Newcastle upon Tine. 12
The Churches in Newcastle. 13
The Streets and Buildings of the ancient Towne of Pampden. 17
The Grants and Charters to the Town. 19
The highest and North Parts of the Town. 22
The Sandhill. 23
The middle Parts of the Town. 25
Pilgrim Street. 27
West-Gate Street. ibid.
The Government of the Town. 29
The 24 Wards of the Town. 31
Of the River Tine, and the Commodities. 32
Divine Providence over all Nations and Countries. 37
The Suburbs of Newcastle. 39
Of the Noble and Ancient Families of the North, and their Castles. 41

1. Chorographia;


THE Britains were Autochthenes, natives of this Island, for more ancient inhabitants we finde none. The People of this Nation is thought to have been descended from the neighbouring Gaules, in regard of the same Religion, Language, and Manners. Their originall from the Trojans, by Brute, is altogether fabulous; there being no Greek or Latine Authors, or any Monument in this Island, which makes mention hereof. Their Descent from the Gaules is more probable, being the next parts of the Continent unto Britaine, or their way from Asia or the East, from whence all Countries was first peopled.

[Page 2]


THE Romans were first certaine and know Forreiners in this Island. C. J. Caesar was the first of Romans that invaded Britaine; he having subdued the Nation of the Gaules, made his journey into Britaine, Cassivellanus reigning King. Some Victories he atchieved, some Hostages he took; imposed a Tribute upon the Nation, and so returned into the Continent; he made no Conquest of them, but discovered them to Posterity.

A long time after, the Roman Emperour Claudius, sent Aulus Plantius hither, accompanied by two Brethren. Sabinus Vespasian, who made warre against the Britains, vanquished them in severall Fights, took Camalodunum, the chiefe seat of their Kings, and their King took prisoner, planted a Colony at Camalodunum, (now Maldon in Essex) and reduced the higher or South parts of Britaine into the forme of a Roman Province.


IN the Yeare of Vespasian, the great and populous Nation of the Brigantes are warred upon, and in part overcome. These Brigantes containeth all the Country [Page 3] North of Humber to the river of Tine and Picts Wall, called lower Britaine.

Julius Agricola in the Reigne of Domitian, set limits here to the Romane greatnesse, and extended it Northward into the Seas and Friths of Dunbriton and Edenbrough in Scotland.

The Emperour Adrian, not long after, removed the Pale more Southward, and the better to keep out the Enemy, drew a Trench and Wall of Turfes crosse the Land, betwixt the two Seas.

The Roman Britains being continually molested by often incursions of the barbarous People called Caledonii, or Picts, who brake down the Sodd Wall, harrying and spoiling this Country. Which moved the Emperour Severus to build a Wall of Stone, with great wisedome and industry, to strengthen this Northerne Parts of Britaine, against the many inrodes of the barbarous Picts: At every miles end of this wall was a Tower, and in the wall a Pipe of Mettall betwixt the Tower or Sentinell Houses, that so soone as a man had set his mouth to this Pipe they might heare through all the Sentinells, where the Enemy were, and so, in a short time, giving warning from one end of the wall to the other. One of these Towers remaineth whole in the Towne wall of Newcastle in Pampden, older then the rest of the Towers, and after another fashion, standing out of the wall.

[Page 4]


AT this same time began this Country to flourish, (being reduced into a Roman Province) to be civilized to learne Roman Letters, habits and manners; for before this time, the inhabitants went naked, had no houses to live in, neither did they till the ground, (as one writeth) De praeda & venatione frondibus{que} arborum vivunt; degunt in tentoriis nudi & sine calceis. Xiphilin.

This Countrey had the presence of the Emperours of Rome; Yorke a Municipium of the Romans, and the seat of their Emperours during the time of their abode in this Island, attending the warres of the Picts and Caleedonians, famous for the death and funeral exequies of the Emperour Severus and Constantius, and the happy Inauguration of Constantine the Great, sonne to Constantius, here beginning his Reigne over the Roman and Christian world.

I finde in the time of the Romans, many places in Northumberland that was their stations about this famous wall, called sometimes, Vallum, a Rampire; sometimes, Murus Pictious, or Murus Severi.

The most remarkeable is upon the Tine-West-Hexam, called of old Axelodunum, the station of the first Cohort of Spaniards, a Bishops Sea under the Saxons. [Page 5] Corebridge Curia of Ptolemy, a city of the Otadeni. Prudo Castle, the station of the first Cohort of the Batavi. Sighhill, of old called Segedunum, the station of the fourth Cohort, named of the Lergi. Pons Aelii, the station of a Cohort of Cornavii, now Ponteland. Gabrosentum, the station of the second Cohort of the Thracians, probably (saith my Author*) *Camden Newcastle upon Tine. Pampden, a part of Newcastle, probably a station of the Romans, having an ancient Roman Tower, and another ancient building called the Wall-Knowle, a part of the Picts Wall. This Towne of Pampden is very ancient: probable some building was erected here in this place to their great god Pantheon; this Wall being the outmost confines of the Roman Empire, called now Pandon. I finde of the Kings of Northumberland, that had a house in Pampden, which we call now Pandon Hall; an ancient old building and Seat of the Kings of Northumberland.

Tunnocellum the station of the first Cohort, named Aelia Classica, now Tinemouth, at the mouth of Tine. There is a Village neere Newcastle called Hetton, where there is an old Roman Tower, probably named from the Proconsull Aetius, who was sent from Rome into these Parts; whom the Britains petitioned for help in these words, Aetio ter Consuli gemitus Britannorum, & c. Repellunt nos barbari ad Mare, repellit Mare ad barbaros, [Page 6] inter hac oriuntur duo genera funerum, aut jugulamur, aut mergimur. Beda. When the Romans had their Empire much weakened by their own discords, and by the irruptions of the Gothes and Vandals, Proconsull Aetius was forced to retire their Legions from the Northerne parts; so leaving the Country naked, the Picts did breake in, who most miserably wasted and spoyled the Countrey.


THUS Britaine became a prey againe to the Picts; when the Britains had despaired of Romane help, they sent into Germany to crave help of a People called Saxons, who entered and inhabited Britaine to their ayde against the Picts.

The Picts being vanquished and overthrowne, through their valour; possessed themselves of this North Kingdome upon the driving out of the Native Britains. The victorious Sexons erected their Heptarchy, or seven severall Kingdomes.

The Kingdome of Northumbers was the most spacious, populous, and victorious Kingdome against the Picts or Scots, untill the Danes invaded these Northerne parts, and broke out like a violent thunder-clap on the Northumbers, and put the English Saxons to [Page 7] much slavery and bondage many yeares, untill they were expelled by the English.

The Kingdome of Northumbers being in Peace, began to build and erect many strong Castles for defence, against the Scots and Picts, as Dunstonbrough Castle, Bambrough, Alnewicke, Morpeth and Tinemouth, which was the Seats of the Kings of Northumbers.

In time of this Heptarchy, many famous Monasteries were erected, viz. Hexam made a Bishops Sea under the Saxons; many erected in this Towne of Newcastle and Pandon. Some of their Kings were interred in Saint Augustines Friers, now called the Mannors. The upper Part and West was called Monk Chester before the Conquest; a place wholly dedicated to Devotion and Religion. Chester signifies a bulwarke, or place of defence; which sheweth that in ancient time, under the Saxons, it had been a place of Fortification for Religious men that lived in Monasteries.


AFTER the Conquest it got the name of New-castle, by the NewCastle, which Robert de Curtois sonne of William the Conquerour built there out of the ground against the neighbouring Scots.

[Page 8]

This Towne of Newcastle, and Towne of Pampden made one Towne, by the Grants of the Kings of England, being in old time belonging to the County of Northumberland.

This Towne of Newcastle is seated upon the Picts wall and side of a steep hill, upon the North side of the River Tine; The Picts wall came through the West-Gate, Saint Nicholas Church through Pampden; then to the Towne East, called Wallsend.

The bounds of the Towne upon the West the Lands belonging to the Priour of Tinemouth; On the North, the Towne Moore, as some say, the gift of Adam de Athell of Gesmond; Upon the East, the Land of Biker; Upon the South, the River of Tine. Gateside in the County Palatine of Durham.


THE Towne of Newcastle is environed about with a strong thick stone wall, having seven Gates or Ports, with many round Towers and square Turrets. These Walls began to be built in King Johns Reigne, the North part of the Wall at NewGate. The West part of the Towne in King Henry the third's reigne. Pandon Gate and the East and South of the Townes Wall, [Page 9] builded in Edward the first his Reigne, and so continued building, untill it was finished. The Towne is two miles in circuit, with trenches in the outside of the Wall, rampered within with earth.

The cause that moved them in those dayes to build this great Wall, was the often invasions of the Scot; into this place and Country; they were continually infesting and sorraigning this Country, and rich Monasteries in these Northerne parts; the Religious Houses of this Towne, and adjacent, being above forty houses, which hath been dedicated to pious uses.

There was a rich man (in Edward the first's Reigne) of Newcastle, that was taken prisoner out of his house, and carried into Scotland, ransomed and brought home; which act moved the Townesmen and Burgesses, and the religious men therein, to contribute towards the building of these Walls.

The question is, who builded these walls? Some are of opinion that King John builded it; others Roger de Thornton. King John gave many priviledges to this Towne, and probably, the NewGate and Walls thereabout, was built in his time: that North part of the Wall being the ouldest, and of another fashion then the the other Walls.

As for Thornton, who lived in Henry the 6 dayes, all the Walls of the Towne was finished: it is probable that Thornton builded the West-Gate, which is a strong [Page 10] and saire Gate, in memory that he came from the West Country, according to the old saying,

In at the West-Gate came Thornton in,
With a hap and a halfe-penny, and a Lambe skin.

The Walls and Gates was builded by severall Persons, as by the names of the round Towers doth appeare. Some of them was builded by the Fryers and Monasteries that did dwell in the Towne, as the White, Blacke, Gray, and Austine Fryers. Others, named Durham and Carlile Towers. Others by Noblemen and Gentry of the Country, as Nevils Tower, adjoyning to his house in West-Gate.

There is seven Ports or Gates in Newcastle, beside Posterne Gates, which belonged to the religious Houses. In the lower part of the Towne upon the River is many little Gates to that famous long Key.

  1. West is Close-Gate, called so from a street called the Close, which goeth up the water, to a place of recreation, called the Forth, given to the Towne for good services performed by the Burgesses of the same.

    In Edward the S. Reigne, three hundred valiant Men issued out of the Towne, through a Posterne Gate, came suddenly in the night upon a great Army of the Scots, which lay in that part West of the Towne; raysed [Page 11] the Army of the Scots, put them to flight, and took Earle Morray prisoner in his tent, and others,

  2. The next West is WestGate, a stately and faire Gate, builded by Roger de Thorneton, a rich man that lived in Hen. the 6. dayes, the high way West into Northumberland and Cumberland.
  3. Is New-Gate, the ancient and strongest of all the Ports, having a causey that leadeth to the Towne-Moore, and towards the north parts of Northumberland and Scotland. Now a Prison for Debtors and Felons.
  4. Pilgrim-Street Gate; so called because of Pilgrims lodging in that Street; and went out of that Gate to the Shrine of the Virgin Mary in Gesmond; to which place, with great confluence and devotion, people came from all parts of this land, in that time of Superstition.
  5. Pandon-Gate, so called from the ancient Towne of Pampeden, where was the Picts Wall, and a Roman Tower, lately decayed; out of which Wall is a Causey that goeth into a place of recreation and perambulation, called the Shields-Field; and a way to a Village, called the Walls-End; by Beda, Villa ad Murum, and so into Tinemouthshire.
  6. [Page 12]East of the Towne is Sand-Gate, built upon the river side. Without this Gate is many Houses, and populous, all along the water side; where Shipwrights, Seamen, and Keel-men most live, that are imployed about Ships and Keels.


  1. THE Bridge of this Tower, over the River Tine, consisteth of Arches, high and broad, having many Houses and Shops upon the Bridge, and three Towers upon it: the first on the South side, the second in the middle, and the third in Newcastle side, lately built upon an Arch in the Bridge, used for a Magazine for the Towne, and an old Chappell.

    There is a blew Stone about the middle of the Bridge, which is the bounds of Newcastle Southward, from Gateside in the County Palatine of Durham.

    There was a strange accident upon the Bridge, hapned to an Alderman of Newcastle, looking over the Bridge into the River, with his hands over; his gould ring fell off his finger into the water; which was given for lost. It chanced that one of his servants bought a Salmon in the Market, opening the belly of the Fish, found his Masters ring in the guts.

    The other Bridge within the Towne is the upper and [Page 13] neather Deane Bridge; under the last Bridge came Boats up from the River, and the Picts Wall came over that Bridge, and so along into Pandon.

    The Stocke Bridge in Pampeden, where is thought to be the ancient Market for Fish; where Boats came up from the River.


THERE is foure Churches and Parishes in this Towne.

  1. The first is Saint Nicholas, in the mid'st of the Towne; a long faire, and high Church, having a stately high stone Steeple, with many pinakles; a stately stone Lantherne, standing upon foure stone Arches, builded by Robert de Rhodes, Lord Priour of Tinemouth, in Henry 6. dayes: It lifteth up a head of Majesty, as high above the rest, as the Cypresse Tree above the low Shrubs.


    My Altitude high, my Body foure square,
    My Foot in the Grave, my Head in the Ayre,
    My Eyes in my sides, five Tongues in my Wombe,
    Thirteen Heads upon my Body, foure Images alone;
    I can direct you where the Winde doth stay,
    And I tune Gods Precepts thrice a Day.
    I am seen where I am not, I am heard where I is not,
    Tell me now what I am, and see that you misse not.
    [Page 14]

    In this Church is many porches, especially Saint Georges, or the Kings porch; built by some of the Kings of this land.

    In it are many sumptuous windowes; that in the East surpasseth all the rest in height, largenesse, and beauty, where the twelve Apostles, seven deeds of Charity, & c. built by Roger de Thornton, (a great benefactor of this Towne) with this inscription, Orate pro anima Rogeri de Thornton, & pro animabus Filiorum & Filiarum

    In the North part of the same is a Shrine of Henry the fourth, Perey Earle of Northumberland, who was killed by the hands of Rebells in Yorkeshire, gathering up a Subsidy; he was buried at Beverley, and this made in memory of him in his owne countrey, he having a house in this Towne and Parish; and other noblemen, and gentry had in those dayes in this Towne. Orate pro anima Henrici Perey 4. Northumbriae, qui per Rebellium manus occubuit, & c.

    In the South part of the middle of this Church, under a Window, is an ancient Tombe of a warrelike Gentleman, lying with his legges a crosse his Escutcheon of Armes, and Sword; after the fashion in those dayes were they onely interred, who took upon them the crosse, and were marked with the badge of the crosse, for sacred warre-fare, to recover the Holy Land from the Turks.

    [Page 15]

    In the Quire and walks about it is many faire Monuments, Tombes, and Marble-Stones of Majors of this Towne, their names and armes engraven in stone, with their titles of (sometime Major of Newcastle) honours; not one word of their good deeds; their generations and names are worne out. Onely that thriee noble Major, Master Robert Anderson, whose memory will continue untill there be no more time; Aere vel marmore perennius, viz. His gift of twenty pound per annum for ever, to the foure Churches in Newcastle.

    Dignum laude Virum, Musa vetat Mori.

    There is a Tombe (as is reported) belonging to the Fitz-Williams not placed, who going Embassador into Scotland, dyed, and was interred in Saint Nicholas.

  2. Is Allhallowes, omnium animarum, Panton theon, from the ancient name of that part of the Towne Pampeden; having a broad and square Church, and more populous then all the three other Parishes, and able to contain more people then the rest, having three Galleries.

    There is few Monuments or Tombes in it. Onely one stately Tombe of that worthy benefactor, Roger de Thornton, having a large jet stone, curiously ingraven with his Armes, and the Armes of that noble Family [Page 16] of the Lord Lumley, who married a daughter of Thorntons. He dyed in the Reigne of Henry the seventh.

    There was one Thomas Smith, Shipwright, of this Parish, that gave foure pound eighteen shillings ten pence, yearly, for ever, to the distressed poor of that Parish.

  3. Church is Saint Johns, a pretty little Church, commended by an Arch-Prelate of this Kingdome; because it resembleth much a Crosse. In this Parish the Earles of Westmorland had his house, as others; good benefactors to this Towne.
  4. Saint Andrews, the ancientest of all the foure, as appeareth by the old building and fashion of the Church. In it is to be seen a pardon of a Pope for nine thousand yeares to come.

    Likewise there is an ancient large Stone of one Adam de Athell of Gesmund, with this inscription, Hie jacot Dominus Adamaus de Athel, Miles qui obiit, Anno, 1887.

The Parson of the Towne is the Bishop of Carlile, who hath his Vicar or Substitute, and a faire old house belonging to the Vicar.

[Page 17]


I COME, in the next place, to describe every part of this Towne, what it was in the times of the Heptarchy of this Kingdom, and in after succeeding ages.

First of Pampeden, alias Pantheon, It hath retained his name, without much alteration, since the Romans recided in it. After the departure of the Romans, the Kings of Northumberland kept their recidence in it, and had their house, now called Pandon-Hall. It was a safe bulwarke, having the Picts Wall on the North side, and the River of Tine on the South. This place of Pandon is of such antiquitie, that if a man would expresse any ancient thing, it is a common proverb, As old as Pandon. In it is many ancient buildings, houses and streets; Some Gentlemen of Northumberland had their houses in it. There is an ancient place called the Wall-Knowle, called since, Saint Michael upon the Wall-Knowle, having a high and strong Tower, now called the Carpenters-Tower, adjoyning to that place upon the Town-Wall. There is below, towards the River of Tine, an ancient Religious House, called Trinity-House, (not many houses in England named by that name) now converted to another use, [Page 18] for the Masters of TrinityHouse, which have many priviledges and immunities granted unto them for services done by sea.

In this part of the Town of Pandon, below, is many narrow Streets or Chaires, and ancient buildings; through the midst of it the River of Tine flows and ebbs, and a Burne runs, called Pandon-burne. This place, called the Burne-Banek, stands very low; It is recorded, that in Edward the thirds time an hundred and forty houses was drowned by overflowing of water; since the houses towards the Key side are heightned with ballist, and a high stone Wall, without which Wall is a long and broad Whars or Key, which hindereth the like inundation.

In the upper part of this Pandon is an ancient Religious House, founded by the Kings of Northumberland, now called the Mannours, (formerly Saint Augustine Friers) where the Kings of Northumberland was enterred; since, in succeeding ages, inlarged and beautified with stately buildings, Cloysters, and a faire Church. The kings of England, since the Conquest, kept house in it, when they came with an Army Royall against Scotland; and since the suppression of Monasteries, made a Magazine and Storehouse for the North parts. Now of late that princely fabrick demolished and layd levell with the ground. The pride, covetousnesse, luxury, and idolatry of these houses brought a sudden ruine upon themselves and houses.

[Page 19]

In this place of Pandon is a Bridge called Stock-Bridge, where Fishers come up with their fish, and sould them here.


THE antiquity of this Towne is known to be from that time, that the Romans had command in the Northern parts, who built the Picts Wall. After their departure the Saxons became masters of this countrey; then the Danes. The Danes being vanquished and expelled this land, the English enjoyed it, untill William the Conquerour made all England vassals, and obey his Norman laws, as far as the River of Tine. King William overthrew the Northern forces in GatesideFoil, neer Newcastle. Since which time, great is the priviledges that Kings and Princes hath endowed this Town with.

Robert sonne of William the Conquerour built the Castle, called NewCastle, against the often inrodes of our neighbouring Scots.

King John gave the first Grant to Newcastle, and endowed it with many priviledges and immunities to the good men of the same.

[Page 20]

King Henry the third made it a Corporation, whereas formerly it belonged to the County of Northumberland, as by Henry the thirds Charter doth appear,— Noveritis nos concessisse & demisisse, & hae Charta nostra confirmasse pro nobis & haredibus nostris, probis hominibus nostris, de Novo-Castello super Tinam, & haeredibus corum villam nostram cum Novo-Castello, cum omnibus pertinentibus suis ad seod firmum, & c.

The Town of Pampden was granted to the beloved Burgesses, and good men of Newcastle, in King Edward the firsts reign, as by his Charter appears,—Sciatis quod dedimus & concessimus, & haee Charta nostra confirmavimus, pro nobis, & haeredibus nostris, dileetis Burgensibus, & probis hominibus nostris ville Novieastri super Tinam, onmes terras & tenementa cum pertinentibus in Pampeden in Biker, juxta predictam Villam Novicastri, & c. Et quod predicta Villa Novi-castri, & terrae, & tenementa predicta in Pampeden, unica Villa de cetero sint, & unus Burgus, ad uniendum & concludendum dictae Villae Novicastri in angmendationem, emendationem, & securitatem, ejusdem Villae, & c.

All the Kings and Queens of England successively granted unto the Town some honour or priviledge, and inlarged their Charters.

Edward the third gave them the Forth, for the good services of the Townes-men.

[Page 21]

Edward the fourth gave them power to choose yearely Mayor and Aldermen, in lieu of Baylisses.

After Kings granted to the Mayor and Communalty, all the Royalties of the River of Tine, from SparrowHawke, unto HeddonStreames; and that no ship load and unload any manner of goods, wares, and marchandizes, in, or any place of the River, but onely at the Key of Newcastle. Also granted Commissioners to measure Keeles.

King Edward the sixth grants the Town of Gateside to be united to the Town of Newcastle. Repealed by Queen Mary.

Sir Thomas White, Lord Mayor of London, gave one hundred pound yearely to the chief Cities and Towns of England, for ever, to be lent to foure Clothiers Merchants for ten yeares without interest. The Town of Newcastle enjoyeth her hundred pound in her turn; The first hundred pound which came to Newcastle was in 1599. The noblest gift that ever was given in England by any subject. Some think, in time, it will ingrosse the most of the money in this land.

[Page 22]


THE ancient parts of the Town of Newcastle was in the upper parts of it, about Newgate, where are many old houses and cottages, which served these religious houses with provisions: This part of the Town is called to this day, the Hucksters Booths. These people, in those dayes, had their livelihood from those Fryers and Nuns that lived in that part of the Town.

In after ages the Burgesses and good men of the Town began to trade, and venture beyond the seas, into sorraigne places; they builded many ships; procured a Charter from the Kings of England to carry Fels beyond seas, and bring in sorraign commodities. The Staple was then at Antwerp in Brabant, called Commune totius Europa Emporium. This Charter of the Merchant Adventurers, was the first Charter that was granted by any King to any Town. After which Grant, this town flourished in trading: builded many faire houses in the Flesh Market. (then called the Cloath Market.) The Merchants had their shops and warehouses there, in the back parts of their houses, the River of Tine slowed and ebbed. where boats came up with commodities; which trade of merchandizes [Page 23] continued many years. In that street the Mayors, Aldermen, and richest men of the Town lived. In after times, the Merchants removed lower down towards the River, to the street called the Side, and Sandhill, where it continueth unto this day.


Now let us describe unto you the other Streets and Markets in this Town: First of the Sandhill, a Market for fish, and other commodities; very convenient for Merchant Adventurers, Merchants of Coales, and all those that have their living by shipping. There is a navigable River, and a long Key or Wharfe, where ships may lye safe from danger of stormes, and may unlode their commodities and wares upon the Key. In it is two Cranes for heavy commodities, very convenient for carrying of corn, wine, deales, & c. from the Key into the Water-Gates, which is along the Key side, or into any quarter of the Town.

In this Market place is many shops and stately houses for Merchants, with great conveniences of water, bridge, garners, losts, cellars and houses of both sides of them. Westward they have a street called the Close. East, the benefit of the houses of the Key side.

[Page 24]

In this Sandhill standeth the Town-Court, or Guild-Hall, where is held the Guilds every yeare by the Major and Burgesses, to offer up their grievances; where the Major keepeth his Court every Munday, and the Sheriffe hath his County-Court upon Wednesday and Fryday.

In it is kept a Court of Admiralty, or River Court, every Munday in the afternoon. This is a Court of Record for inroling of deeds and evidences.

There is a Court of Pye-powder, during the said two Faires, Lammas and Saint Luke; All the priviledges and power that a Court-Leet can have, is granted to this Court.

Under the Town-Court is a common Weigh-house for all sorts of commodities. King Henry the sixth sent to this Town, as to other Cities and Towns, brasse weights according to the standard.

Neer this is the Townhouse, where the Clarke of the Chamber and Chamberlains are to receive the revenues of the Town for coale, ballist, salt, grindstones, & c.

Next adjoyning is an Almes-house, called the Mason de Dien, builded by that noble benefactor Roger de Thorneton.

Above which is the stately Court of the Merchant Adventurers, of the old Staple, resident at that flourishing City of Antwarpe in Brabant; since removed to [Page 25] the more Northern Provinees under the States. Their Charters are ancient, their priviledges and immunities great; they have no dependance upon London, having a Governour, twelve Assistants, two Wardens, and a Secretary.

There is an old Chappell upon the Bridge.

Next West is a street called the Close, where are many stately houses of Merchants and others. The Earle of Northumberland had his house in this street.

Neer the Sandhill East, is Allliallows Banck, or Butehers Banck, (where most Butchers dwell) the way to Allhallows Church: the South side of which is many Chaires or Lanes that goeth down to the Key side.


NEXT up street is the street called the Side. In the lower part of it standeth a faire Crosse with columnes of stones hewn, covered with lead, where is sold milk, egges, butter, & c.

In the Side is shops for Merchants, Drapers, and other trades. In the middle of the Side is an ancient stone house, an appendix to the Castle, which in former times belonged to the Lord Lumleys, before the Castle was built, or at least coetany with the Castle.

[Page 26]

Next up the Town North, is Middle-street, where all sorts of Artificers have shops and houses.

The West side of this street is the Oatemeale Market.

On the East side of it is the Flesh Market, I think the greatest Market in England, for all sorts of Flesh and Poultry that is sould there every Saterday; the reason is not the populousnesse of the Town that makes it, it is the people in the Country, (within ten miles of the Town) who makes their provision there, as likewise all that lives by Coale-trade, for working and conveying Coales to the water; as also the shipping which comes into this River for Coales, there being sometimes three hundred sayles of ships. In this Market is kept two Faires in the yeare, for nine dayes together; one of them at that remarkable time of the yeare, the first of August; the other is held the eighteenth of October, upon Saint Lukes day.

Next above North, is the Bigg and Oate Market every Tuesday and Saterday in the week.

In which street is an ancient house, with a large gate, called the Scots Inn, where the Kings, Nobility, and Lards of Scots lodged in time of truee or league with England.

[Page 27]


EAST again is Pilgrim Street, the longest and fairest street in the Town. In it is a Market for Wheat and Rye every Tuesday and Saterday.

Likewise an house called the Pilgrims Inn, where Pilgrims lodged that came to visit the Shrine in Gesmond, or Jesu de Munde, which occasioned to call this street Pilgrimstreet.

In the upper part of this street is a Princely house, built out of the ruines of the Black Fryers.

Both East and West of this street is many passages into other parts of the Town; as the neither and higher Deane-Bridge into the West; the Mannour Chaire upon the East, having a way to that sumptuous building of the Minorites, of old called Saint Augustin Fryers; also a street called Silver Street, having a passage down to Pandon.


UPON the West of the Town is Denton Chaire, which goeth into West-Gate Street, which is a broad street, and private; for men that lives there hath imployment [Page 28] for Town and Country. The Earl of Westmerland had his house in this street, and other Gentlemen.

In this street is an Hospitall, called the Spittle; In the East of that Chappell is the place for electing of Majors, Aldermen, Sheriffes, and other Officers in the Town, next Munday after Michaelmas Day. In which place is made of late, a famous Grammer-School, WritingSchool, and houses within the Spittle for the Masters. Protos Archididascalos, or the first head School-Master, was that Reverend Master Robart Fowberry, a learned and painfull man to indoctrinate youth in Greek and Latine.

In the North side of the street towards WestGate, is an ancient building, called now, Bennet Chessie Fryers, where now the nine Crafts of this Town have their meeting houses. It was called in old time, the Grey-Fryers.

In the South West of the Town is the White-Fryers, and neer that a street called Baylisse-Gate, which in former times belonged unto the Castle and County of Northumberland: there is a Postern Gate, where prisoners taken in time of hostility with Scotland, (and selous of the County of Northumberland) were brought in privately into the Castle in Newcastle, where the common Gaile for the County is.

Neer this street is two wayes which goes down into the Close; the Long Staires and Tudhill Staires.

[Page 29]


Now let us speak concerning the Government of this Town. The first Grant was, Burgensibus & probis hominibus Novieastri super Tinam, To the Burgesses and good men of the Town of Newcastle: Out of whom yearly was chosen Baylisses, which is the ancient Officers of Cities and Towns in England.

King Edward the fourth out of his abundant grace and favour to the aforesaid Town, Burgesses, their heires and successours, grants yearly to choose a Major and six Aldermen; and that the aforesaid Major and Aldermen, for the time being, or any four, thre, or two of them, have full power and authority to enquire, hear, and determine all manner of complaints and causes, appertaining to the office of a Justice of the Peace. Instead of Baylisses is chosen a Sheriffe yearly.

King Richard the second gave the Sword to be carried before the Major, which represents royall power and authority, delegated by Charters to them, their heires and successors, from their Soveraign.

The power of a Major is great, the highest dignity or honour that can be bestowed upon a City or Town; according to that office amongst the Romans, of Propraetors, and Proconsuls; who had in all Countries and Kingdoms under their command their Viceroyes or Representatives.

[Page 30]

In after times upon a division among the Aldermen, there were foure Aldermen more added; so now it is governed by a Major, Recorder, ten Aldermen, and one Sheriffe. Their Officers are two Clarks, one for the Town Court, the other for the Town Chamber.

The Officers that attendeth upon his person, is a Sword-bearer, with a Cap of Maintenance, a WaterBaylisse, seven Serjeants, in their Gowns and Maces. All these nine Officers goes before the Major and Aldermen in their gownes to Church, and at any solemnity.

In former times the Aldermen of the Town had their Searlet Gownes, but the proud Scot got them by Conquest, as they did other Ornaments of the Town, thinking no English in authority, worthy to weare Seerlet but themselves, and so they continued lording over us for two yeares, untill they were hyred out as they were brought in, being a mercenary Nation, for any Nation for mony.

There are twelve Trades or Crafts, which are chief in electing of Major, and other Officers, viz. Drapers, Mereers, Glovers, Taylors, Boothmen, Shoomakers, Bakers. Tanners, Sadlers, Butchers, Smiths, and Dyers.

There is the By-crafts, which are fifteen in number, every one of them hath their Meeting-houses in the Towers of the Wall, and are called at this day by the name of the By-crafts; their ancient names is after the name of the founder.

[Page 31]


THERE is foure and twenty Wards in the Town, every Ward hath his Tower or Gate in the Walls, which they were to keep in times of hostility with the Scots, whereof these are some.

  • White Friers Tower Ward.
  • Nevils Tower Ward.
  • West-Spittle Tower.
  • Stanke Tower.
  • Pink Tower.
  • Gunners Tower.
  • West-Gate Tower
  • Durham Tower.
  • Thickets Tower.
  • Carlile Tower.
  • Barthram Mumbugget Tower.
  • Evers Tower.
  • Saint Austines Tower.
  • Walke-Knowle Ward, & c.
[Page 32]


THE Port or Haven of this River is able to receive Ships of foure hundred tuns, having Rocks on the North side of the Haven, and Sands upon the South, dangerous in a North-East Wind.

Incidit in Seyllam, qui vult vitare Charibdim.

Upon the North side of the Haven, is an ancient strong Castle, the Seat of the Priour of Tinemouth. King Henry the eighth coverted the Castle from a Priory, to be a defence for the River and Country, against Forraigne Invasions.

  1. The Southside of the River is Warwickshire, in the County of Durham, where is many Salt-Pans, which makes white Salt out of Salt Water, boyled with Coale.
  2. An other Commodity that this River bringeth forth, is Coale in great abundance; most of the people that liveth in these parts, lives by the benefit of Coales, and are carried out of this River into most parts of England South-Ward, into Germany, and other transmarine Countries.

    [Page 33]

    John Johnston out of the Poëms of the Cities of Britain,


    Seated upon high rock she sees Dame Natures wonders strange,
    Or else to others, wittily, doth vent them for exchange;
    In vain why seek you Fire, from Heaven, to serve your turn,
    The ground here either keeps it close, or quickly makes it burn.
    Nor that which folk with stony flash, or whirlwind grim affrights,
    But giveth life to earthly things, and minds to living wights;
    This melteth Iron, Brasse, and Gould, so pliable and soft,
    What mind th' allective shade of Gould, stirs not, nor sets aloft.
    Nay more then so, men say it doth, dull Mettals change to Gold,
    To say therefore it is a God, our Alchymists are bold.
    If God he be as thou glv'st out (great Master) of thy word,
    How many Gods than doth this place, and our Scotland afford?
    [Page 34]

    Many thousand people are imployed in this trade of Coales; many live by working of them in the Pits; many live by conveying them in Waggons and Waines to the River Tine; many men are imployed in conveying the Coales in Keels from the Stathes aboard the Ships: one Coale Merchant imployeth five hundred or a thousand in his Works of Coale; yet for all his labour, care, and cost, can scarce live of his Trade; nay, many of them hath consumed and spent great estates, and dyed beggers. I can remember one, of many, that raysed his estate by Coale-trade; many I remember that hath wasted great estates. I shall illustrate this by a story of two Spaniards brothers, which travelled into the West Indies, with that estate and means which they had acquired; One of the brothers was a Miner, to imploy many slaves in silver Mines; the other brother was to be an Husbandman, to provide Corne, Sheep, and other provisions for the Miner and his men; much silver was got out of the ground by those Miners; the Husbandman got monies out of his stock for his commodities. After many yeares delving and labouring in these silver mines, at last, the Mines was exhausted and decayed, and all the money which he had got for many yeares labour and cost, was run into his brothers the husbandmans hands, and all his stock upstanding, he living all that time of the profit that his ground yeelded.

    [Page 35]

    So it is with our Coale-Miners, they labour and are at a great charge to maintain men to work their Collieries, they wast their own bodies with care, and their Collieries with working, the kernell being eaten out of the nut, there remaineth nothing but the shell, their Collieries is wasted, and their monies is consumed: this is the uncertainty of Mines, a great charge, the profit uncertain.

    Some South Gentlemen, hath upon great hope of benefit, come into this Country to hazard their monies in Coale-Pits. Master Beamont, a Gentleman of great ingenuity, and rare parts, adventured into our Mines with his thirty thousand pounds; who brought with him many rare engines, not known then in these parts; As the art to boore with, iron rodds to try the deepnesse and thicknesse of the Coale; rare engines to draw water out of the Pits: Waggons with one horse to carry down Coales, from the Pits, to the Stathes, to the River, & c. Within few years, he consumed all his money, and rode home upon his light horse.

    Some Londoners of late, hath disbursed their monies for the reversion of a lease of Colliery, about thirty yeares to come of the lease; When they come to crack their nuts, they find nothing but the shells; Nuts will not keep thirty yeares; there's a swarme of wormes under ground, that will eate up all before their time, they may find some Meteors, ignis fatuus, in stead of a Mine.

  3. [Page 36]Commodity that this River bringeth forth is Grindstones, which is conveyed into most parts of the World; according to the Proverb, A Scot, a Rat, and a New-Castle Grindstone, you may find all the world over.
  4. Commodity of this River, Is the great plenty of Salmond, taken in this water; which serveth this Town, and other parts.

Upon the South side of this River stands a Town, called Jarro, where lived that Venerable Bede, admired for his learning, in those times of darknesse. Camden entituleth him, The singular Glory, and Ornament of England. Malmesbury, Vir erat quem mirari facilius, quam dignum praedicari possis, qui extremo natus orbis Angulo Doctrinae, corusco terras omnes perstrinxerat.

Beda lived in the time of the Saxons Heptarchy in England, in the Kingdom of Northumbers, seven hundred yeares after Christ.

This River hath two heads, or maine streames, South Tine, which runs through Allendale; North Tine, which runs through Tinedale; they meet West of Hexam, and salute one another.

[Page 37]


OUR most provident and glorious Creator hath so furnished all Countries with severall Commodities, that amongst all nations there might be a sociable conversation and mutuall commerce, one people standing in need of another, all might be combined in a common league, and exhibit mutuall succours, Non omnia sert anima tellus. From the Indies, gould, silver, gems, drugs, & c. From Italy, silkes. From Spaine, fruits, saffron, sacks. From Denmarke, amber, cordage, firs, and flax. From France, wines, and linuen. From England, wooll, tinn. From these Northern parts, coale, salt, grindstones, & c. Which trade of coale began not past fourescore yeares since. Coales in former times was onely used by Smiths, and for burning of lime; Woods in the South parts of England decaying, and the City of London, and other Cities and Towns growing populous, made the trade for Coale increase yearely, and many great ships of burthen built, so that there was more Coales vented in one yeare, then was in seven yeares, forty yeares by-past; this great trade hath made this part to flourish in all trades.

Camden calls Newcastle, Ocellus, the Eye of the North, the Harth that warmeth the South parts of this [Page 38] Kingdome with sire; An Aegypt to all the Shires in the North, (in time of famine) for bread. All quarters of the country comes with money in their purses to buy Corne to seed their families this summer.

This Town hath been famous in soure ages of the world.
  1. In the time of the Romans, being in these parts, being the utmost limits of the Roman Empire.
  2. Famous for the Monasteries in old times.
  3. This Town famous, being a bulwarke against the Scots; all the power of Scotland could never win it, since the walls were built; but of late being assisted by the English, was stormed, our churches and houses defaced, the ornaments of both plundered, and carried away, the crowne of our heads is fallen, woe now unto us, for we have sinned.
  4. Famous for the great trade of Coale, White-Salt, Grindstones, & c. which they furnish other countries with.
Newcastle likewise excells in foure things before spoken.
  1. The Town, Walls, Gates, Towers and Turrets.
  2. Saint Nieholas Church Steeple, caput inter nubila condit.
  3. The Tine-Bridge, consisting of eight stately Arches, Towers and Houses.
  4. [Page 39]The long and faire Key, for ships to unload their commodities.

The Revenues of the Town is not great, considering the disbursements for repairing of Streets, High-wayes, Bridges, maintenance of Ministers, Schoole-Masters, Poore, & c.

The Armes of the Town is the three Castles Argent in a Field Geules.

Camden. Newe. 22. grad. 30. min. Long. 54. gr. 57. M. Lat.

Hues. Newcast. 23. grad. 10. min. Long. 55. gr. 20. M. Lat.


GATESIDE, a Burrow upon the South side of the river Tine, an ancient inhabited place, a parish of it selfe, in the Bishopprieke of Durham. King Edward the sixth, united it to the town of Newcastle; since, Queen Mary gave it again to the Bishops Sea of Durham.

The suburbs out of Newgate and Pilgrim-Street, are ruinated in these late warres; neer unto the Barras-Bridge is an Hospitall dedicated to Mary Magdelane. There is many closes in that part, and large fields of [Page 40] meddowes, called the Castle Leases, belonging to the Town; the gift of King John (as some say) to the good men of Newcastle.

There is a Postern between New-Gate and WestGate, which goeth into a Close, called the Warden-Close, where the Warden of the Priour of Tine-mouth had his house, garden, fishponds, & c.

The suburbs of Sand-Gate escaped the fury of these Warres, except some neer the walls of the Town, which was fired. One remarkeable thing is recorded of two Carpenters, hewing of a tree, bloud issued out of the timber in what part of the wood they cut.

Below East, is the Ballist Hill, where women upon their heads carried Ballist, which was taken forth of small ships which came empty for Coales; Which place was the first Ballist shoare out of the town: since which time, the trade of Coales increasing, there is many Ballist shoares made below the water, on both sides of the River.

Upon the North side of the River is the Ewes Burne, over which is a wood Bridge, which goeth down to a place called the Glasse-Houses, where plaine Glasse for windowes are made, which serveth most parts of the Kingdom. Below East is many shores built for casting of Ballist out of ships, which brings profit to the town, and the occupiers of the same.

[Page 41]


THE North parts of England hath been in the Romans time, and in after ages, the Bulwarks and Fortresses of England, against the inrodes of the Scots; Newcastle for the East parts of this land, and Carlile for the West.

The two great Princes of the North, were the Earles of Northumberland at Alnwick, and Westmerland at Raby Castle in the Bishopprick of Durham. The first famous for the great overthrow he gave Malcolme, King of the Scots, and his Sonne Edward, slain at his Castle of Alnewick. The second Earle made famous for taking David King of Scots prisoner, and the overthrow of his Army at Nevils-Crosse, neer Durham.

The Lord Dacres, and Lord Lumleyes were famous in their generations; the first lived in Cumberland, in his many Castles, the other in the Bishopprick of Durham, in Lumley Castle; both of them having lands in Northumberland, who held their land of the King in Knight service, for his warres against the Scots.

The Bishops of Durham had their Castles in the frontiers, in Norhamshire and Elandshire.

The Nobility and Gentry of the North, are of great antiquity, and can produce more ancient Families, [Page 42] then any other part of England; many of them Gentry before the Conquest; the rest came in with William the Conquerour. The Noblemen and Gentry of the North, hath been alwayes imployed in their native countrey, in the warres of the Kings of England, against the Scots; all of them holding their lands in Knights service, to attend the warres in their own persons, with horse and speare, as the manner of fighting was in those dayes.

Some Gentlemen held their lands in Cornage, by blowing a Horne, to give notice that the Scots, their enemies, had invaded the land. The Scots their neighbouring enemies, hath made the inhabitants of Northumberland fierce and hardy, whiles sometimes they kept themselves exercised in the warres; being a most warrelike Nation, and excellent good LightHorsemen, wholly addicting themselves to Mars and Armes, not a Gentleman amongst them, that hath not his Castle or Tower; and so it was divided into a number of Baronies: the Lords whereof, in times past, before King Edward the first's dayes, went commonly under the name of Barons, although some of them were of no great living. It was the policy of the Kings of England, to cherish and maintain Martiall Prowesse among them, in the Marches of the Kingdome, if it were nothing else, but with an honourable bare title. Some Gentlemen of the North are called to this day Barons.

[Page 43]
The Ancient Families and Names of the Gentry are many, which hath continued from William the Conquerour, unto these late dayes.
  • The Grayes of Chillingham, and Horton, Barons of Warke-castle.
  • Ogles of Ogle-castle.
  • Fenwickes of Wallington.
  • Widdrington of Widdrington-castle.
  • Delavale of Seaton-Delavale.
  • Ridleyes of Williams-Weeke.
  • Muschampes of Barsmore, the chiefe Baron of Northumberland in Edward the first's reigne.
  • Mitfords of Midford.
  • Fosters of Edderston.
  • Claverings of Callalie.
  • Swinburnes of Swinburne, now of Capheaton
  • Radliffes of Delston.
  • Harbottle of Harbottlecastle, extinct.
  • Haggerston of Haggerton.
  • Hebburne of Heburne.
  • Blankenship of Blankenship.
  • Fetherstonhaugh of Fetherstonhaugh.
  • Herons of Chepehase.
  • Horsley of Horsley.
  • Craster of Craster.
  • Laraines of Kirkharle.
  • [Page 44]Collingwoods of Eslington.
  • Whitfield of Whitfield.
  • Carnaby of Halton.
  • Lisles of Felton.
  • Strudders of Kirknewton.
  • Selbyes of Twisel.
  • Eringtons of Bewfrom.
  • Weldon of Weldon.
  • Bradforth of Bradforth.
  • Rodom of Little Haughton.
  • Carres of Ford-castle.
  • Creswell of Creswell.
  • Halls of Otterburne.
  • Thirlwall of Thirlwall-castle.
  • Killingworth of Killingworth.

These ancient Noble Families continued many years valiant and faithfull unto the Kingdom of England, and flourished all in their times; untill the two powerfull Earles of the North rose in rebellion in Queen Elizabeths reigne, who drew along with them many Gentry of the North, who overthrew themselves and confederates, and many ancient families of the North. Since many ancient names have been extinct, for want of Heires Male, and have been devolved upon other names and families.

Since the union of both Kingdoms, the Gentry of this Country hath given themselves to idlenesse, luxury [Page 45] and covetousnesse, living not in their own houses, as their ancestours hath done, profusely spending their revenues in other Countries, and hath consumed of late their ancient houses.

The Castles in the North are many and strong.

Morpith-Castle, so called, from the death of the Picts in that place.

Alnewick-Castle, where the Earles of Northumberland kept their Court; famous for two battels fought against the Scots, who received a shamefull overthrow, by the valour of the Earles of Northumberland.

Upon Tweed and Borders, are Wark-castle, a Barony of the Grays. Norham-castle belonging to the Bishops of Durham. Barwick upon the left banck and river, a strong Town of Warre, opposite sometimes against the Scots; the farthest bounds of the English Empire. Upon Till (a River falling into Tweed, above Norham) is Ford-castle. To the West beyond the River, riseth Floddon-Hill, made famous by the death of James the fourth, King of Scotland, slain in a memorable battell by Thomas Howard, Earle of Surrey, Generall of the English, in the reigne of Henry the Eighth.

Upon the East Sea is Bambrough-castle, and Dunstonbrough-castle, builded by the Saxons, and sometimes the Royall Seats of the Kings of Northumbers. [Page 46] Bambrough-castle afterward converted into a Priory, and did homage and vassalage to their Lord Priour.

Many battells and skirmishes hath been in this North, and alwaies hath been victorious against the Scots. Besides the forenamed battels of Alnewick-castle, and Floddon; at Solommosse fifteen thousand Scots were put to flight, eight hundred slain, and one and twenty of their Nobles taken prisoners, by the English.

There was Lord Wardens of the East, West, and middle Marches appointed, who had power by Martiall Law to represse all enormities and outrages committed in the Borders. They had their Laws, called Border Laws.

In the North toward the Borders, is many Hills; one of them most eminent, called Cheviot Hill, upon the top of it is Snow to be seen at Midsummer; and a Land mark for Sea-men that comes out of the East parts from Danzieke, through the Baltick Seas, and from the King of Denmarks country; it being the first land that Marriners make for the Coast of England. These Chiviot Hills is made famous for the hunting of the Earl of Northumberland: at the hunting the Earl Duglas of Scotland who met him with his forces, and engaged one the other, where was great bickerings and skirmishes, to the losse of many men; where both Earles fought valiantly, called to this day Cheviot Chase.

[Page 47]

There is many Dales, the chief are Tinedale and Reedsdale, a country that William the Conquerour did not subdue, retaining to this day the ancient Laws and Customs, (according to the County of Kent) whereby the lands of the father is equally divided at his death amongst all his sonnes. These Highlanders are famous for theeving, they are all bred up and live by theft. They come down from these Dales into the low Countries, and carry away horses and cattell, so cunningly, that it will be hard for any to get them, or their cattell, except they be acquainted with some Master Thiefe; who for some mony (which they call Saufey mony) may help they to their stoln goods, or deceive them.

There is many every year brought in of them into the Goale of Newcastle, and at the Assises are condemned and hanged, sometimes twenty or thirty. They forfeit not their lands (according to the tenure in Gavelkind) the Father to Bough, the Sonne to the Plough.

The people of this Country hath had one barbarous Custome amongst them; if any two be displeased, they expect no law, but bang it out bravely, one and his kindred against the other, and his; they will subject themselves to no Justice, but in an unhumane and barbarous manner, fight and kill one another; they run together clangs (as they terme it) or names.

[Page 48]

This fighting they call their Feides, or deadly Feides, a word so barbarous, that I cannot expresse it in any other tongue. Of late, since the union of both Kingdoms, this heathenish bloody custom is repressed, and good laws made against such barbarous and unchristian misdemeanours and fightings.

In this North Country groweth plenty of hadder or ling, good for Cattell to feed upon, and for MoorFowle, and Bees; this hearbe yeeldeth a flower in June, as sweet as Hony, whereof the Picts in time past did make a pleasant drink, wholsome for the body of Man.

Upon the West parts of Northumberland, the Picts Wall is, out of the ruines of which is built many Towers and Houses in that part where the Picts Wall stood; in some of the wast ground the Wall is to be seen of a great height, and almost whole, many stones have been found with Roma upon it, and all the names of the Roman Emperours, Consuls, and Proconsuls, both in Stone and in Coine of Silver and Brasse, with their Emperours Image upon them; So the Picts Wall goes through Northumberland into Cumberland, where I end my Peregrination and Travell, keeping my selfe within the limits and bounds of Northumberland.

This is the full version of the original text


authority, corn, plenty, profit, river, trade, travel, war, waste, water

Source text

Title: Chorographia OR A SURVEY OF NEWCASTLE UPON TINE. The Estate of this Country under the Romans. The Building of the famous Wall of the Picts, by the Romans. The Ancient Town of Pandon. A briefe Description of the Town, Walls, Wards, Churches, Religious Houses, Streets, Markets, Fairs, River and Commodities; with the Suburbs. The ancient and present Government of the Town. AS ALSO, A relation of the County of Northumberland, which was the bulwark for England, against the inrodes of the Scots. Their many Castles and Towers. Their ancient Families and Names. Of the Tenure in Cornage. Of Cheviot-Hills. Of Tinedale, and Reedsdale, with the Inhabitants. Potestas omnium ad Caesrem pertinet, proprietas ad singulos.

Author: William Gray

Publisher: S.B.

Publication date: 1649

Place of publication: Newcastle

Provenance/location: Date: 1649 Bibliographic name / number: Wing / G1975 Physical description: [8], 48 p. Copy from: Harvard University Library Reel position: Wing / 456:18

Digital edition

Original author(s): William Gray

Language: English

Selection used:

  • 1 ) whole


Texts collected by: Ayesha Mukherjee, Amlan Das Gupta, Azarmi Dukht Safavi

Texts transcribed by: Muhammad Irshad Alam, Bonisha Bhattacharya, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Muhammad Ehteshamuddin, Kahkashan Khalil, Sarbajit Mitra

Texts encoded by: Bonisha Bhattacharya, Shreya Bose, Lucy Corley, Kinshuk Das, Bedbyas Datta, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Sarbajit Mitra, Josh Monk, Reesoom Pal

Encoding checking by: Hannah Petrie, Gary Stringer, Charlotte Tupman

Genre: Britain > surveys description maps

For more information about the project, contact Dr Ayesha Mukherjee at the University of Exeter.