The merchants map of commerce

Map of Commerce
wherein the
universal manner and matter
relating to
trade and merchandize
are fully treated of,
standard and current coins of most
princes and republicks observ'd,
the real and imaginary coins of accounts
and exchanges express'd,
the natural products and artificial commodities and
manufactures for transportation declar'd,
the weights and measures of all eminent cities and towns
of traffick in the universe, collected one into another, and all reduc'd
to the meridian of commerce practis'd in the famous city of

London. Thomas Horne 1700
[Page 125]

1. CHAP. LXXXVIII. Of INDIA, and the Provinces thereof.

The East-India is commonly divided into two Parts, viz.

The one is India within Ganges, or that part thereof which lieth on the Westside of the River of Ganges, which containeth 15 Provinces.

  1. Dulsinda.
  2. Pendab.
  3. Mandao.
  4. Delly.
  5. Agra.
  6. Sanga.
  7. Cambaia.
  8. Decon.
  9. Canara.
  10. Malabar
  11. Narsinga
  12. Oristan
  13. Botanter
  14. Patanaw
  15. Bengala

In which is Places of Note,

• Caximir, Cascimir, or Chusmur,  , • Roree,  , • Nigara,  , • Seftan,  , • Multan,  , and • Duckee. • Labor,  , • Saltan-paure,  , and • Athee. • Mandac,  , • Molton,  , and • Scernus, Polymbothy. • Delly,  , • Tremel,  , and • Doceti. • Fatapore,  , • Agra,  , • Hendee,  , and • Biani. • Azmere,  , and • Citor. 

The Province of

  1. Sinda, in which is found • Tata,  , • Lawribander,  , • Calwalla,  , • R. Redempore,  , and • Nuraquemire. 
  2. Guzarat, in which is found • Diu,  , • Sauran,  , • Boldra,  , • Ardovat,  , • Madabat,  , • Saringa,  , • Periano,  , and • Sarkeff. 
  3. Cambaia, in which is, • Cambaio,  , • Barocho.  , • Swalley,  , • Surat,  , • Neriand,  , • Doman,  , • Campanel,  , • Dacaiotote,  , • Netherby,  , • Bandore,  , and • Tanai. 

In which is Places of Note,

• Bidoe,  , • Visapore,  , • Danagar.  , • Decan,  , • Syntacora,  , • Goa,  , • Chaul,  , • Balagnate,  , • Brampore,  , and • Sara. • Melinda,  , • Onor,  , • Baticalia,  , • Mangalor,  , • Mayendre,  , • Lispor,  , and • Solsettee. 

Is divided into seven Provinces, viz.

  1. Cononor.
  2. Callicut.
  3. Cranganor.
  4. Cochin.
  5. CaiColam
  6. Conlax.
  7. Travancor

where is

• The City of Cononor,  , • Cata,  , • Peripatan,  , • Marabia,  , • Tramopatan,  , and • Main. • Pandarane,  , • Tanor,  , • Partangale,  , • Chatua,  , • Chale,  , • Capacote, , and • Calicut. • Cranganor, a City of that Name. • Augmale,  , and • Cochin. • Caia-Colam, the chief town • The City of Coulan. • Travancer, the chief City,  , and • Qualicare. 

In which is of Note,

• Cael,  , • Golconda,  , • Chamdagrin,  , • Prepeti,  , • Chahambaram,  , • Madura,  , • Gingi,  , • Tanaor,  , • Moliapur,  , • Choromandel,  , • Casta,  , • Negapatan,  , • Tarnassari,  , • Bisnagar,  , • Penegardo,  , and • Narsinga, the chief City. • Oristan,  , • Cateoba,  , • Angeli,  , • Bacalli,  , • Sinnergan,  , and • Senerpate. • Bottia,  , • Clamur,  , • Kucares,  , • Couche,  , • Gouren,  , • Rame,  , • Recan, , and • Tripura. • Patane,  , • Banaras,  , • Siripur,  , and • Ciandecan. • Bengala the City,  , • Gouro,  , • Catigan,  , • Taxd ,  , • Porow Crande,  , and • Poror Pequeno. • The Islands in the Gulf of Bengala, are, 

The other is India without Ganges, or that part thereof which lieth on the Eastside the River of Ganges, which containeth six Provinces.

  1. Brama.
  2. CouchinChina
  3. Cambaia
  4. Jangoma
  5. Siam
  6. Pegu.

Where is Places of Note,

• Melintay,  , • Miranda,  , • Bacan  , • Cavilan,  , • Pro [...], , • Tangu,  , • Ana,  , and • Brema. • The City of Couchin-China. • Campa,  , • Cambaia,  , • Gudurmuch,  , and • Coul. 

In which is the Provinces,

• Jangoma,  , • Lonea,  , and • Curroy, 

In which is

• The Kingdom of Malaca, where is the City of • Malaca,  , • Sincapura,  , and • Polazimbilam,   , • Jor, alias Johor, a City so called in that Kingdom, , • Kingdom is Patana, where is the City of Patane,  , • The Kingdom of Siam, where is • Socotai,  , • Quedoa.  , • Tana,  , • Lugar,  , • Calantam,  , and • Siam,   , and • The Kingdom of Mountay, where is the City of Odia, alias Udie. 

Is divided into five Kingdoms, viz.

  1. Verma, the chief City thereof is Verma.
  2. Machin. the chief City thereof so called.
  3. Orachan, the chief Towns therein are • Dianga,  , • Sundina,  , and • Arachan. 
  4. Martuan, the principal City therein so called.
  5. Pegu, in which is • Cosmi, , • Jocabel, , • Diun, , • Coilan, , • Lanagon, , • Dala, , • Silvamped, , • Mecao, , • Siriangh, , and • Pegu, the principal City. 

INdia is bounded on the East with China, on the West with the River Indus, on the North with Tartaria abovementioned, on the South with the Ocean, taking his name of Indus, a famous River here running 1000 miles ere it meet the Ocean; it lay after the conquest thereof by Alexander the Great for many years undiscovered, the Merchants only thereof were found to bring their native Commodities to Sarmacand, and Cambalu aforementioned, to exchange against such Commodities as those Countries afforded, as to the common Empories, and likewise to Ormus, where they provided themselves of all Aegyptian and Arabian Commodities, by which means knowledge was got of their Countries; but the great worth and wealth thereof was not fully known and discovered to us till of late years, by the Navigation first of the Portugals; then of the Dutch and English, this Country became better surveyed, finding that the same afforded and abounded in all manner of Minerals, (Lead and Copper only excepted) with all manner of Cattel (Horse excepted;) with all manner of precious Stones, with all manner of Spices, some Drugs, and other Commodities, as in their particular Provinces shall be more particularly remembred.

The famous River Ganges runneth through this Country, to which the Indians go in Pilgrimage, as if the water washed in or drunk could bring Salvation to them: this divideth India into two parts, called India intra Gangem, and India extra Gangem, both which include many large Provinces and Kingdoms; and first India intra Gangem hath nine principal Kingdoms, which I will briefly, following some Authors opinions, pass cursorily through.

First Narsinga, the chief City Maleaper; or St. Thomas where they hold the Body of this Apostle was burnt, though the Spaniards hold his Body was found under I know not how many fathom of ground in Calamana, by devout Fryers, that after the religious receipt of the Sacrament of their WaserGod, digged for him and found it; vide Mase Jesuit. The second is Malavar, and the third Ballasia, in which are found three famous MartTowns, Cochin and Calicute, and Conanor: the last having a large and safe Haven, commodious for the Trade of these Countries, distant from Calicute 30 miles, and Calicute distant from Cochin 80 miles: Calicute, by reason of its great concourse of Merchants is here a famous Mart, and extendeth it self for three miles all along the shore, principally affording to Christendom that sort of Pepper, taking its name hence of Calicute Pepper, also Callicoes Cloth, and the other sort of Pepper of the name of this Country of Malavar.

The fourth is Cambaia, a Famous Kingdom, very rich and populous, the chief City is also of the same name, and one of the richest of these Countries, containing 800000 persons.

The fifth is Mandao, wherein is the City of Mandao, being 30 miles in compass, which held out a Siege of 12 years against the Mogul, who is King hereof, as likewise of those former Provinces named.

The sixth and seventh is Bengala and Aristan, where is found the Cities of Cattigan and Satigan, and principally for Trade that of Bengala, on the Banks of a Gulph known by that name; and Orissa inhabited by Christians of St. Thomas so called, because he converted them.

The eighth is Canora, under the command of the Mogul; the most Famous Cities are Ultabat, Lispor, Melinda, &c.

The ninth is Dellia, the chief City being Dellie, the sometimes residence of the great Mogul, the other famous Cities are Tremel, Fatabar, and Chesmer, famous for the study here of Magick: all these mighty Provinces have been conquered by the Great Mogul's Forces within these 90 years, to the astonishment of all India.

India extra Gangem contains 12 potent Kingdoms, and all under the command of the potent Kings of Barma, which cursorily I will also run over.

The first is Macin, famous for that Sweetwood which this Country doth produce, called Aloes or Lignum vitoe, valued at its weight in pure Silver, serviceable only here for the pompous Funerals of great Princes; the chief City is the said Macin.

The second is Aracan, wherein is the City of Ava, which through the World is so famous for the abundance of Gems.

[Page 126]

The third is Cambaia, famous for this City of Cambaia, a place of great Traffick, which affords plenty of Gold, Silver, Aloes, and many other Commodities of great worth.

The fourth is Couchin China, aboundeth with the like Commodities brought to CouchinChina, the chief City of this Kingdom; and much frequented by Merchants of all Countreys for Porcelane and Chinadishes here made, and much in esteem and use in these Countries.

The fifth is Barma, made famous only within 60 years, for the Princes hereof have vanquished all the former Kingdoms, and made them Tributaries to this Kingdom and this Scepter.

The sixth is Siam, once the Lady of all India, now subject to Barma: the principal Cities are Mollacia, in compass 20 Miles, a Town of great resort for Merchants for the Traffick of Spices, and now in subjection to the Portugals. The next is Siam, situate on the River Mean, which every year overfloweth the Country for 120 miles: and lastly, Odin, on the River Cuipomo, on which 200000 Boats are found daily to be set on work, and contains 400000 Families; and is now known the residence of that Famous and Fortunate King of Barma, beforementioned.

The seventh is Pegu, which gives name to a principal City, having a rich soil and harborous Seashore; the principal known Haven is Martaban; and here is also Lasmin a City of great Commerce. This Country hath suffered much by Sword, Pestilence, and Famine within these late years, and is now, as the rest, a Province of this aforesaid powerful King of Barma.

Now having thus surveyed India in the general and in gross, as it is divided into Kingdoms and Provinces, it will be requisite it should next be surveyed in the particular, so far as it may concern our present purpose, which is the Commerce and Trade thereof; so far forth as it is at this day known to our Nation, wherein I could wish my Experience better to shew the particulars thereof, in consideration of the large extent of ground that is comprised under this name of India, stretching it self from Taurus to the Ocean one way, and from China to Persia, which is near 4000 miles another way, at which place it will be fittest for me to begin my Trade, and see what may be observed therein. Yet before I enter into this discovery, and give a particular relation of such materials, wherewith Trade is in it self practised through this large tract of Lands, Islands, and Seas; and before I shew the matter wherewith this Trade is in all this Country driven, it will not be improper I should also see who they principally are that manage this Trade, and to whom this great Traffick appertaineth, either as they are Natives and here born, or as they are Strangers and here are induced to reside, attracted thereto by the sole motive of the great Commerce and rich Commodities found either naturally here growing, or artificially here made and produced.

This Country then, as I said before, aboundeth in the general with all manner of Minerals, Copper and Lead excepted; with all sorts of Cattel, Horses excepted; with all manner of Spices, with many sorts of Drugs, Cotton, Cloth, precious Stones, &c. to which may be added the want of Wine and Wheat that here they have, that so this Country may be beholding in some sort to others, as others are for her commodities to this. These being then the prime Commodities wherewith Trade is here maintained, I will note the Traders and native Merchants that are here resident, which properly I may account to be of five several sorts, all acknowledging several Rites, Religions, and Customs; and therefore partake of so many several forms and manners in the managing of their Affairs of Merchandizing. The Gentile Merchants are the first, and are found of great Eminency in some parts of this Tract. The native Christians converted by the discipline of St. Thomas, are the second, who in many places are found to manage a great and ample Trade through this Country; the third are the Mahometans, Persians, and Tartarians, especially since the great Victories of the Mogul, found here also of great quality and estate. The fourth are the Jews, who live straglingly dispersed over and through all parts of this Country, and in every Prince's Dominions exercise the same. The fifth are Moors and Arabians, who some 200 years past seized on some HavenTowns here along this Coast, driving the Natives into the Inland parts, and at this day are seen to be very great Merchants. The sixth are the Portugals, who possessing some few SeaTowns commodious for Traffick, brag of the conquest of the whole Country, which they are in no more possibility entirely to conquer and possess, than the French were to subdue Spain when they were possessed of the Fort of Perpignan; or the English to be Masters of France, when they were only Sovereigns of Callis. And now to the Cities of this Tract, where at this day is found a Trade to be practised, and first ofDiu.

This is a selection from the original text



Source text

Title: The Merchants Map of Commerce wherein the universal manner and matter relating to trade and merchandize are fully treated of, the standard and current coins of most princes and republicks observ'd, the real and imaginary coins of accounts and exchanges express'd, the natural products and artificial commodities and manufactures for transportation declar'd, the weights and measures of all eminent cities and towns of traffick in the universe, collected one into another, and all reduc'd to the meridian of commerce practis'd in the famous city of London

Author: Lewis Roberts

Publisher: Thomas Horne

Publication date: 1700

Edition: 1st Edition

Place of publication: London

Provenance/location: This text was transcribed from images available at Eighteenth Century Collections Online:

Digital edition

Original author(s): Lewis Roberts

Language: English

Selection used:

  • 1 ) pages 125 to 126


Texts collected by: Ayesha Mukherjee, Amlan Das Gupta, Azarmi Dukht Safavi

Texts transcribed by: Muhammad Irshad Alam, Bonisha Bhattacharya, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Muhammad Ehteshamuddin, Kahkashan Khalil, Sarbajit Mitra

Texts encoded by: Bonisha Bhattacharya, Shreya Bose, Lucy Corley, Kinshuk Das, Bedbyas Datta, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Sarbajit Mitra, Josh Monk, Reesoom Pal

Encoding checking by: Hannah Petrie, Gary Stringer, Charlotte Tupman

Genre: Britain > Historical narratives

For more information about the project, contact Dr Ayesha Mukherjee at the University of Exeter.