Tārikh-i- Firishta / Gulshan-i-Ibrāhīmī

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Introductory notes

Firishta, or Muḥammad Ḳāsim Hindū Shāh Astarābādī (c.1572-1624), his family being recently domiciled in Aḥmadnagar in the 1580s, was in the service of Murtaḍā Niẓām S̲h̲āh (1565-88). He fled, along with the gharibān and gharīb-zādā (the foreigners and their descendants), during a forced migration from Ahmadnagar to Bījāpūr in 1589. In 1589, Firishta was presented at the Bīdjāpūrī court, and on 8 January 1590 began service under Ibrāhīm ʿĀdil Shāh. Firishta acted as a go-between, later in 1590, for Burhān Niẓām S̲h̲āh who was seeking Bīd̲j̲āpūrī support. His history the Guls̲h̲an-i Ibrāhīmī / Tārikh-i- Firishta is in two parts, the first dated 1606-7 and the second, newly titled, Taʾrīkh-i Nawras-nāma, dated 1609-10. This brief extract, from his narrative of the conquest of Sindh by Akbar in 1591, and the defeat of Mirza Jani Beg (d.1601) of the Turkhan Dynasty, the last independent ruler of Sindh, portrays the disruptions and shortages caused by these territorial wars.


Wa Mirzā Jāni dar Muharram-e- sanah-e- alf October 1591 A.D. be kinār-e-āb-e-Sind āmdah dar zameene ke atrāf-e ān āb-o- challeh 0bood farood āmad wa Khān-e- Khānān dar barābar āmdah ou rā muhāsirah namood wa muddat-e du māh har ruz jang shudeh…… dar ān ayyām mardum-e-Sind rāh-e-āmad-o-shud-e-ghalleh bar lashkar-e- Khān-e Khānān chunān bastand ke nāne beh jāne arzān gashteh bood:

hast zān tangi jahāne tang dil / gursuneh nālān wa sairān sang dil
har ke rā didār-e- nān boode hawas / qurs-e- khur dar āsmān deede wa bas.


1.In the Muharram of 1000(A.H.)/ October 1591 Mirza Jāni arrived at the banks of the river Sindh at a spot which was surrounded by water and mire. Khān-e-Khānān also arrived and put him under siege. And for two months fighting continued (between them) every day. During those days, people of Sindh had sealed the route of transportation of provisions for Khān-e-Khānān’s army so completely that life had become cheaper than a bread.


That scarcity put the world in great anguish; those who
starved were in difficulty and the satiated were stone-hearted.
One who desired the sight of bread
Was constrained to look only at the tablet of the sun (that has a resemblance with bread) in the sky.

This text is an English-language translation of the original version:

This is a selection from the original text


bread, provision, scarcity

Source text

Title: Tārikh-i- Firishta / Gulshan-i-Ibrāhīmī

Author: Firishta, Muḥammad Ḳāsim Hindū Shāh Astarābādī

Editor(s): Md. Ehteshamuddin, Azarmi Dukht Safavi

Publication date: 2016

Original compiled c.1606-1610

Edition: 1st Edition

Provenance/location: Original compiled c.1606-1610

Digital edition

Original author(s): Firishta Muḥammad Ḳāsim Hindū Shāh Astarābādī

Original editor(s): Md. Ehteshamuddin Institute of Persian Research, Aligarh Muslim University , Azarmi Dukht Safavi Institute of Persian Research, Aligarh Muslim University

Language: English


Texts collected by: Ayesha Mukherjee, Amlan Das Gupta, Azarmi Dukht Safavi

Texts transcribed by: Muhammad Irshad Alam, Bonisha Bhattacharya, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Muhammad Ehteshamuddin, Kahkashan Khalil, Sarbajit Mitra

Texts encoded by: Bonisha Bhattacharya, Shreya Bose, Lucy Corley, Kinshuk Das, Bedbyas Datta, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Sarbajit Mitra, Josh Monk, Reesoom Pal

Encoding checking by: Hannah Petrie, Gary Stringer, Charlotte Tupman

Genre: India > chronicle histories

For more information about the project, contact Dr Ayesha Mukherjee at the University of Exeter.