The Travels of Peter Mundy, Vol-III, Part-I
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Peter Mundy was an East India Company factor and the son of a Cornish pilchard merchant from Penryn. He arrived in Surat on 30 Sept. 1628, and was sent to Agra in November 1630, where he remained until 17 Dec. 1631. He then proceeded to Puttana on the borders of Bengal, returning to Agra and Surat before returning to Dover on 9 Sept. 1634. He undertook further voyages to India, China, and Japan in April 1636. His travels are recorded in journals whose manuscripts are held in the Bodleian Library (Rawlinson A315) and the British Library (Harleian 2286, Add.19278-81). The Bodleian Library MS continues his narrative, including journeys to Denmark, Prussia, and Russia, from 1639 to 1648. It is written possibly by a clerk, with corrections by Mundy, including his own drawings and tracings of some of his routes. It ends in 1667 and contains miscellaneous notes made after his final return home about comets, sea-fights, accidents, and political events in London and Cornwall. The standard printed text of Mundy’s travels is Richard Carnac Temple’s edition (see below) which contains some of Mundy’s illustrations. Our selections from this text focus on his account of travelling through Gujarat and Malwa during the notorious Gujarat famine of 1630-32. But they also include sections from his other travels which deal with food, dearth of provisions during travel, encounters with plenty or excess, accounts of weather disturbances, and observations on the transport of goods and provisions. Primary Sources The Travels of Peter Mundy, in Europe and Asia, 1608-1667, 5 vols, ed. Richard Carnac Temple (Cambridge: Printed for the Hakluyt Society, 1907-1925) Suggested Reading R E Pritchard, Peter Mundy, Merchant Adventurer (Oxford: Bodleian Library, 2011). Palmira Johnson Brummett, The “Book” of Travels: Genre, Ethnology, and Pilgrimage, 1250-1700 (Leiden: Brill, 2009). Daniel Carey and Claire Jowitt, eds., Richard Hakluyt and Travel Writing in Early Modern Europe, Hakluyt Society, extra series, v. 47 (Farnham and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2012).
THE TRAVELS OF PETER MUNDY, IN EUROPE AND ASIA,1608-1667.
VOL.III, TRAVELS IN ENGLAND,INDIA,CHINA,ETC. 1634-1638 PART I. TRAVELS IN ENGLAND, WESTERN INDIA, ACHIN, MACAO, AND THE CANTON RIVER 1634-1637
Rareties att John Trediscans. In the meane tyme I was invited by Mr Thomas Barlowe (whoe went into India with my Lord of Denbigh and returned with us on the Mary to view some rarieties att John Tredescans soe went with him and one freind more, where wee spent that whole day in peruseinge [examining], and that superficially, such as hee had gathered together, as beasts, fowle, fishes, serpents, wormes (reall, although dead and dryed), pretious stones and other Armes, Coines, shells, fethers, etts. of sundrey Nations, Countries, forme, Coullours; also diverse Curiosities in Carvinge, painteinge, etts,.
Lobster boates. Beinge safely arrived and welcomed home by my friends, in feiwe dales after I returned to London to sell some Indian Commodities that would not off [go off, sell] in the Countrey, and tooke my passage in a Lobster boate. There are 2 of them that all the Sommer longe doe goe and come to the west countrey to carry away such Lobsters as are there provided against their Comeinge downe by men lefte there on purpose, whoe buy them of the fishermen, and keepe them in potts till they come for them. Theis boats may carry each about 100 dozen, somewhat more or lesse, and in one Sommer they may carry away about 14 or 15000 Lobsters att the least. They take them not aboard until the wynde be faire for them, and then they lay them on the Ballace [ballast, i.e., in the hold], and comonly within 48 howres they arrive att Weymouth. What [with being] in the boate and on Horseback before they arrive att London, there are neere part dead of them, which are little esteemed of and sold att low prices. With the rest the King's Kitchin is supplied and then the Court and Cittie.
Portland Heere bredd many Swanns, the Royaltie apperteyninge to Sir George Stranginge dwelHnge neere by. Theis have their Winges pinnioned or unjoynted to barre them from flyeinge away. They breede among the Sedges on the Shoare and feede on the rootes and tender part of the grasse that growes in the water. There come divers wild ones amonge them, and in winter flock thither in aboundance all sorts of Waterfowle.
Now back to Portland, and somewhat of what is in it and about it. In compasse it may bee 5 or 6 miles highe land, especially the Easter end, much noted by Seamen as one of their marks saylinge alonge the Chanell, it makeing an Excellent road betwene it and the mayne, with 2 Castles, one of each side, the one named Portland Castle and th'other Sandfoote Castle, whoe Commaund the said Road and landinge places thereabouts.
The like is on Weymouth sides on the bancks where now the Sea cometh not neere, nor the Springe or wash of it. I have scene in other places Rocks whollye compacted of shells, as well within as without. The reason may bee that those places in former tymes were under water, Oaze or Mudd, where those shelfishes did breede and feede. In tyme, the sea retireinge, as it is scene by experience, for where there was land and Townes now there is Sea, And where once shipps rode and boates did rowe are nowe howses built and corne reaped ; Many that are now Islands in former tymes questionlesse joyned to the Mayne. I say, the sea withdrawing it selfe, it was exposed to the heate of the Sunn, by whose virtue Mudde, shellfish and all became one Rock.
The Island, for soe it is also called, affoards noe fewell of Wood, there being very few trees or bushes on it. Perchance by industrey more might bee made to growe in it. But I rather thinck the Earth is naturally not soe apte to produce them, It beinge high, drye, a shallow mould, and somewhat stoney in most places. .... For Fewell they use Cowdung, kneaded and tempred with short strawe or strawe dust, which they make into flatt Cakes, and Clapping them on the side of their stoney walls, they become dry and hard, and soe they use them when they have occasion. The very same fewell, and ordered in the same manner, doe they use in India as [Pall] the Country over, by Hindowes [Hindus], and Baneanes [Banians, Banyd, Hindu trader] especially, which seemed strange to mee.3
The Pleasure boate. In the Interim, Wilham Courteene Esqr., Sonne to Sir William, being to take his passage on a small Vessell called the Pleasure boate, of about 7 Tonns, downe to Woolwich, to visitt the Shipps and to see in what readynes they were, I was willed by Mr Bunnell to goe downe alsoe in the same Boate, which if shee were not built for pleasure, yett I thinck it is one of her greatest imployment, fitted only for speedy saileinge and good accomodation of her passengers, most part of her beinge a great Cabbin, furnished with a Table, Carpett, Benches, Cusheons, Windowes to open and shutt, painted within and without, with two prettie litle brasse peeces on Carriages wherein Sir William and his friends often goe and disport themselves on the water from place to place. Her other great service, if not Cheifest, is to send advice etts. to Sir Willams shipps bound out or home, lyeing in the Downes or betwene London and Dover, of which I thinck that every moneth there is one shipp or other either goeing out or Comeing home.
Woolwich : The great ship on the Stocks. Att Woolwich wee found the Dragon, Sunne and Catherine, of whome haveing bene aboard and entertayned, wee went all a shoare to see the great Shipp now on the Stocks a building in Woolwich Docke, where Mr Pett the younger, Cheife Carpenter or Artist, shewed and related unto the Esquire what hee desired to see and heere concerninge her, then carried him to his howse, where wee sawe the Moddell or Molde of the said shipp, which was shewne unto his Majestic before hee began her. The said Modell was of exquisite and admirable Workemanshipp, curiouslye painted and guilte with azur and gold, soe contrived that everye tymber in her might bee seene, left open and unplancked for that purpose, verye neate and delightsome.
The 14th Aprill Anno 1636. Our whole Fleete sett saile from the Dowries about 3 of the Clocke in the afternoone. The Royall Mary bound For India wayed some 4 howres before us, Soe thatt when wee came aboutt the South Foreland opening of Dover roade, shee was run outt of sightt.
[The 30th April 1636.] The last of this month wee [Page 24] saw the Hand of Lansarote (one of the Canary lies) some 8 leagues offe ; high, Montaynous and Ragged land. This nightt Wee lost the rest of our Fleete very straungely by following the Catherine, Neither shee nor wee observing our Direct order. Here followeth an abstract of the Seamans [sic] observation taken from their Notes.
The 8th [May1636]. Att Nightt our only Consort the Catherine, having kept us company hitherto since wee lost our Fleete, finding by her sayling how much shee lost by staying For us, thincking belike wee mightt bee a great hindraunce unto her fetching uppe of the Fleete, uppon the sodaine shee sett all the sailes shee could make, and withoutt bidding us farewell left us all alone to try for our Selves, soe thatt Next Morning Wee could Not see her from Our Mayne topmast head. Whither shee went for the He of May^ or noe wee could not tell, for such a proposition there was, allthough not Determined off.
Great Tortoises : A sucking fishe. The 9th, 10th and 11th [May 1636]. Wee saw many Tortoises, and with our skiffe tooke 3 of them. The least Mightt bee aboutt 3/4 C waight [hundredweight]. They are like the land tortoises, having Fynnes in liew of Feete, and billed like a Hawke ; very good meat. Uppon one of them wee tooke the biggest sucking fish thatt I have yett scene, beeing Neare 14 Inches long, coullored like a Conger. There are commonly smalle ones found on sharkes backes with their bellies upward, as in the figure No. 1 underneath, having on their heads
[Page 27] as it wear the rooffe of a Dogges Mouth, as No. 2, with which they will cling and hold fast to any thing they meet withall, Soe thatt withoutt much violence they will not leave their hold. They are sometymes taken with hookes and lines, when if they can butt fasten on a rocke, the shippe side, etts., they will soe cleave too thatt they endaunger breaking the hooke or lyne.
Strange Sea Snailes, termed Carvells The 18th May . Wee saw a great many shell fish, or sea snailes, like those on the land, having att the mouth off the shell a lump of white tough Froth like Jelly, by which it swymmeth or fioateth. Pricking one of them, it distilled some Dropps of a perfit orientall azure, soe opened Divers of them and found thatt aboutt the head it yeilded that coullored licor, as allsoe purple, tawny etts., very lively and shyning. Whither this bee any kind of thatt shell fish called Murex (mentioned in Histories, outt of whome they Drew that pretious purple soe much esteemed of by the antients), I know not. The biggenesse and forme thereof I have hereunder sett.
Outt of Riders Dictionary, printed 1617, thus, among the names of Fishes—A purple Fish, a shell Fish, the licor where-of maketh purple or violett, Conchile conchilium : n. purpura pelagia Murex: The upper part of the fish purple Tracali.
The 23d Ditto [May 1637]. Wee accidentally and happily Mett with our Fleete againe, viz. Admirall, Vizadmirall, the 2 Pinnaces and 2 Dutch shippes in their Company, Soe thatt wee now only wanted the Catherine.
A great gust. Wee had this Day a very violent gust before wee Mett, which wee prevented [anticipated] in tyme. Butt our Viceadmirall by the said gust or Perry had her Maine topmast blowne by the board with the head of her Mayne, and lost allsoe a man which Fell into the [Page 29] Sea with the topmast and much off the Rigging. The Pinnace Discovery lost allso her Mayne topmast. Soe here wee had as well cause to bee sorry for their Mishappes as to bee glad for to [sic] our fortunat finding them. Immediately all the Carpenters in the fleete were sent aboard to helpe make all good againe, which they Did in a Matter of a Sevenights tyme, as well as the place would affoard. Wee in the Meane tyme lost Much of our way, bearing little sayle. They told us they wethered Lancarote and passed beetweene it and the gran Canaries.
Abstracte of the aforegoing Month of May, 1636. I. Wee lost our Fleete. Wee bore uppe aboutt 10 Clock at Night.
From the l0th May unto the 6th currant, we accompted our selves to bee in the Tronados, it beeing extraordinary variable weather, as Calmes, sodaine and violent gusts, the wind on all points of the Compasse in 24 howeres ; much raine, thunder and lightning. Shippes beeing usually 3 Weekes or a Month ere they can gett clear of itt ; att leastwise it hath bin soe when I have com this way, it beeing now the second tyme.
The 12th Currantt. Wee lay a Try and a Hull 2 watches and under our 2 Corses 4 watches, beeing very much Winde and Foule weather.
The 19th [August 1636]....From Portugall, Nor would not untill her arrivall at Goa.
Of Johanna Iland. The Hand of Johanna May bee aboutt 24 leagues in circuit very high land, all though the highest toppes of all are very greene and overgrowne with trees and bushes, occasioned by the Moisture of cloudes, Mists and Fogges which Frequently hang over and about them, which is allsoe the Cause of soe many little rivers and brookes thatt Discend From thence roundabout the Hand.
The walles of their houses yett remayne, very substantiall and Firme, of lyme and stone ; streets very narrow. Thatt generation beeing Dead and their offspring fallen to poverty, all is gon to mine, these now making use of the old walles ; none to bee seene new built. Butt those new houses they now make are of the leaves of the Coconutt tree, very prettily contrived and woven. The Inhabitantts are Mahometanes generally, poore, blacke, unhandsome and unholsome, as appeares by the sores and scarres that are uppon Many off them ; there beeing some Arabian Merchants here thatt goe and come at certaine Seasons, trading to the North end of St Lawrence [Madagascar] For ambargreece slaves, etts., where, by [Page 38] report, the people are more Civill and Industrious then those att Augustine bay where I was last voyage. [...]Wee here found very good Reffreshing, as good water. Beeves, goates, hennes, plantanes, Coconutts, Orenges, lymes and very good Toddy, Ryalles of eight beeing our best barter, viz., 2 Ryalles of eight For a bullocke, I Ryalle For a good goate, or 2 smalle ones, 5 or 6 hennes For I Ryalle ; Goates and hennes Deare ; all the rest reasonable.Wee had any thing (beeves excepted) in truck For Callico, Knives, Cotton, Woole, etts. Of the latter [cotton] here groweth some, allthough butt little, there beeing a few poore Weavers here.
A Cataracke of water, with other Curiosities of Nature. Near unto the queens towne or Chamoodo comes Downe a pretty brooke, and aboutt 1/4 Mile upp it makes 2 little Falles, under which are 2 pretty pondes where our Commaunders and people of all Degrees resort sometimes to Wash themselves. My selffe and 2 more went uppe a good Mile 1/2 above the said pondes, keeping along by and in the brooke untill wee were stopped at a place exceeding high and steepy on all sides. From whence came Downe 2 other falls off a wonderfull height, which maid the said River. The Fathermost by computation could not bee lesse then 20 Fathom perpendicular. For soe the streame Fell withoutt toutching any part of the banck From the toppe untill it fell into a Curious tancke or pond Neare circular. Some of the water in Falling that great Distance was soe Diffuzed and rarified that it resembled a pretty small shower of Raine, a Delicate coole ayre, a perpetuall Drumming Noise, butt above all, when the Sunne was opposite, there was at the Foote of the Fall presented to your view as perfitt a Rainebow in all his various glorious Coullours as that wee see sometimes in the cloudes, wanting only biggenesse. This Might not bee much above 15 or 16 Foote Diameter, occasioned perhappes by the opposition off the sunne beames (about 2 of the clocke afternoone) against thatt small Dispersed raine or Mizzle, backed with a black banke. It may bee artifically Don, For a man shall somtymes see a part off a Rainebow before a shippes [Page 40] bow in a head sea on the springes or water thatt the shippe hath Dashed and Driven in to a Mist. The place where these things are is allmost encompassed with very high banckes, having at the one side a spacious cave or grota. In my mind it is very fine place For awhiles solitarinesse, aswell For the rare and straunge prospect as For its extraordinary coolenesses, required and Desired in hott Countries. The manner therof I have here undersett in figure.
Perriwinckles in a Fresh water River. In the aforesaid River wee saw som Cray Fish, allso a small shellfish sticking and cleaving fast to the Rockes and stones, like as lympetts Doe with us ; butt these are of another shape, somwhatt like perriwinckles. Mee thought it straunge to find such in a Fresh River Far uppe from the Sea.
A strange Pond and strange stories of it. There is by report aloft among the toppes of the Hilles a large and Deepe tancke or lake, of which are told strange stories (beeleeved by some), as that it hath no bottome, butt thatt there is a passage From thence into the Sea and thatt certaine blacke Fowle ly hovering over it and take any sticks or leaves thatt should Fall into it to Defile it : superstitiousl great holinesse and respect to the said pond. The Chiefe of the Hand resorting hither once a yeare to wash themselves and to performe certaine ceremonies to it. They hold allsoe if any straunger should Chance to wash in it, it would bee polluted and thatt then the Hand would suffer Calamities, as sicknesse. Dearth, Death, Foule wether.
I went to the next towne called Villanee and by us the Kings towne, one of the 2 aforementioned, either of them having a pretty little Mosche with a smalle tower [...]It is the highest of the grassy hills. For the highest hilles of all are covered with trees as aforesaid ; The grasse [Page 42] here very rancke which they usually sett on fire, and then it springeth againe From the rootes Fresh and greene in a short tyme. Here they putt their Flockes and heards to Feed. From this hill inward I saw a reasonable spatious plaine, aboutt 5 or 6 miles in Compasse, where it seemes they sow graine, For it was Divided in to Squares and pertiones as our English Feilds, Plaines are here scarce excepting Neare the Sea Side. It is a very good soile For pasture allsoe, the lower Woodes betweene the hilles producing sundry sorts off Fruites, Flowers and herbes unknowne unto us : among the rest a Curious smalle and sweete Orenge, commonly by us called China orenges ; A white hunnisuckle of a pleasaunte smell, somwhatt like to that of a Muskrose The better sort of the Inhabitants apparelled like Moores [Muhammadans] , the poorer sort naked excepting somwhatt aboutt their middle, butt the Weomen cover over their brests and all, holding it a shame to have them, scene.
The 22d and 23d [September 1636] came sundry land Foule aboard, viz., a Hawke, a quaile, swallowes, and [Page 43] another straunge Foule with a bagge or receptacle in his throate. It was butt a small bird, not soe bigge as a turtle Dove, butt it would make an unmeasurable and an affrighting Mouth when it was offended, gaping in such an extraordinary Disproportionable wide manner that it seeme[th] this property was given to it as its speciall point of Deffence, viz., to affrightt rather then bite [...]
The 8th [October 1636]. Wee came within, under commaund of the Fort or Castle of Bardesse and anchored close under it. Then had wee the best peale of Ordnance that I ever yett heard. The Plattfforme within us, the Galleones without us and wee in the Middest, all sides letting Fly. Fo[r] with such a thundring Noise and redoubling eccho From the shore, thatt to them thatt knew us not to bee Freinds, it would appear as though wee were in a very hott Fight, the Fort and Galleones against us and wee against all.
Letter from the Viceroy of India to the King [of England, undated ? October 1636], Lisbon Transcripts, Books of the Monsoons,' Book 38 fol. 285. Great was the general rejoicing and satisfaction in this City [Goa] upon the arrival of the ships that your Majesty [Charles I] was pleased to send hither under command of Captain John Wedel, whom God brought safely to port.
And I in particular had great pleasure in learning of the good health enjoyed by your Majesty and your royal household, and in receiving from your Majesty the necklace and medallion of her most serene Highness the Queen [Henrietta Maria], an honour and favour that I esteem in a degree which befits a gift from such a hand, one which I may justly bequeath as [included in my] arms to my heirs as a lasting remembrance of so great an honour. This lays on me the obligation to attach myself loyally to your Majesty's service, and to seize every opportunity of forwarding it. And as it is customary with Kings as powerful and magnanimous as your Majesty for one favour to be a pledge of many others, I pray your Majesty to look upon me as one of the meanest of your servants, and this to me will be the greatest favour of all and the one that I shall esteem the most highly.
The said John Wedel and Nathaniel Montanei [Mountney], chief factor of the voyage, and the rest of the company were welcomed and treated with such courtesy and hospitality as befits subjects of your Majesty, and in accordance with what your Majesty directed in your letter. And although the order I received this year from the King my Master concerning the treaty with the English, concluded in these parts by the Viceroy my predecessor, gave me no further instructions than to cease hostilities, nevertheless, being under so great obligation to your Majesty, I took upon myself this weighty matter, and extended my commission to give free license to the men of these vessels to sell their merchandise and buy other commodities to their best advantage. And as to what lay in my power touching their personal needs, the equipment of their ships and the rest, they found in me all good will and a singleminded and sincere desire to make the Portuguese goods common to the subjects of your Majesty, whom God keep for the prosperity of your subjects,&c.
The Iland of Goa. Of the Iland and Citty of Goa, Inhabitantts, buildings, etts. Notable. The Iland of Goa lieth in 151/2 Degrees of North lattitude and about 34 1/2 Degrees East Longitude From Johanna, in compasse 8 or 10 leagues, somwhatt hilly, their skirtts with the vallies extraordinary Fruitffull by Nature and Art, having Many Fountaines and springs of sweet water, which seemed to mee somwhatt straunge, [Page 54] considering thatt in the Norther part of India, where I travelled soe farre and staled soe long, they were soe scarce thatt I could hardly see any. The toppes of the hills smooth, covered with grasse, in some places gravelly, in others rocky and stony. From whence they Draw such quantities of stone to supply their Edifices, viz., Churches, Castles, Citty buildings, countrie houses, the long Wall Crossing over the Hand From the Powderhouse to Santiago, the Causey built by the Conde de Linhares, the banckes towards the waterside in most places Walled uppe ; all these etts. of hewen stone of a reddish Coullour.
The Citty of Goa. The citty may bee in compasse some 4 or 5 Miles, the Middle part compacted, the skirts scattring-wise. Some faire streetes, store of strong and faire buildings, many goodly Churches, Monasteries and colledges, as faire to see to without as ritche and beautifully adorned within, founded on the most eminenst places of the Citty which standeth on sundry round rising hills, each off [the] toppes commonly crowned with one of these—The Cathe- drall Church, the Colledge of the Jesuitts, the Monastery [Page 55] of the Carmelites, the Nunnery, etts. The last was fired by accident att ourbeeing there, the structure Deffaced, Much goodes burned, spoyled and lost, butt noe body hurt. Many Castles and Fortes, as thatt of Bardesse to the Northward and [...]on the south side of the Comming in, another going over the barre, Augee [Daugim or] Madrededios, Santiago, etts. The last are att passages over to the Mayne, att some places not above a stones cast over, the Moores country adjoyning within a league thereaboutts Sundry tanckes in the Citty, some very full of fish, especially one then which I never saw soe little quantity of water soe stored ; others withoutt att their Countrie houses along by the waterside and among the vallies, as the Jesuitts and Friers houses att St Annes. At the [Page 56] Former the Commaunders, Merchantts, etts. were feasted by the Padres Jesuitts, and after Dinner enterteyned with good Musicke of voices, accompanied with the Harpe and Spanish gitterne [cithern] ; our Enghsh Musicke was allsoe there. The house is seated in a Most Delicious shady grove on the side of a hill replenished with Multitudes off tall spreading and allwaies flourishing fruite trees, pleasant springs, walkes, and a curious tancke lying under a rocke (whence the water Issues), quite overshadowed with trees.
In this gardein I first saw the pepper plant growinge uppe at the Foote of the Arrecca or betele Nutt tree, Clyming, spreading and Clasping like Ivy about the body of the said tree. I have not yett seene any tree which For straighttnesse, heightt and slendernesse may bee compared to the said Arrecca tree. This part of the Country affoards No pepper for Marchandize, only the plant to bee seene in some gardeins as a raritye.
Fruites, viz. Jamboes. Jambo trees, which then blossomed, when [and then I thincke Few trees More beautiffull to the Eye, the Flower of a good bignesse, fine forme and of an excellent vermillion Dye, very thicke sett, growing on the stalkes and biggest bowes, not at the very end of the sprigges as trees Doe bear with us. This Fruit is ordinarily now served att our table, in forme hke an apple or peare, of a whitish coullour with a Dash of red as some of our apples. It smelles beetweene a violett and a rose ; of a Pleasaunt fast, though somwhat Flashy [insipid] or waterish.
Cajooraes : of a straunge propertye. Cajoora trees, whose blossome casteth a Most Fragrant smell into the ayre, the Fruit somwhatt harsh in tast and strong, allthough it hath this property, thatt I thincke none elce [hath] the like, viz., thatt wheras the seedes or Kernells of other Fruittes grow within them, the Kernell of this growes quite withoutt it at the very end, resembling a French beane, though much bigger, and beeing roasted, eateth like a Chestnutt.
Jackes. Jacke trees, whose Fruitte groweth on the very body, stemme, or biggest braunches of the tree. There bee some thatt Wey Near 40 pound waight, and in my opinion is the biggest Fruit thatt groweth on trees, as I thincke the Cocotree beares the biggest Nutted Coconutts : its wonderfull benefit and use. Cocotrees have onely one stemme and No braunches or boughes at all, with a great bush att the very toppe.
It is in many places much commended For the great benefitt itt affoards to Mans use, and not undese[r]ved, For to my Knowlidg it affoardes Meat, Drink, and lodging, Oyle, Wyne, Milk, Sugar, etts., and good Cordage Made of the outtward rinde of the Nutte, which in Clusters grow outt att the toppe on a sprigge, as Doe allsoe the Papaes in a Manner, the tree Differing in leaves and height
Here are Divers trees thatt I saw not in North India, as Peares, soe here called, like those in Europe, butt of a very strong relish Jamblins, like unto wild Damzens, or a harsh plumme wee have in the West Countrye in coullour, forme and tast, butt have 7 or 8 stones each Jamboes of Mallacca : small red, of a tart tast, given commonly to the sicke A Delicate Fruit resembling a pine, butt when ripe it is sofft and of an Admirable tast, called Atae [Page 59] Pine Apples or Ananasses [ananas], allthough here sett last, yett deserves the first rancke For itts excellent refreshing tast and smell, senting and tasting [[? like]] (but Farre transcending) the Daintiest Mellon apple with us.
In most of their gardeins all the spaces beetweene the trees in [[? is]] covered with their plantts. And as I said before, I saw here Sundry sorts off Fruites which I had not scene in North India, butt For any thatt grew there, they Mightt here bee Found.
Plentifull provision. Provisiones ar[e] here Plenty and Cheape, as good white wheat bread, good beefe, hennes, pigges, Fruite, and wonderfull store of excellent Fresh Fish, in variety of which I Never yett saw place soe well and Constantly provided, brave Portugall wyne (like unto Vino garbo at Venice, not soe harsh Nor red) For about I2d a quart English, store of racke ['arak, arrack] and toddy, Cheape. Att our beeing here was launched a New Galleon off 14 Foote by the Keele, as they say, beeing First blessed, Christned, and named el buen Jesus by the Archebishoppe thatt came over in the Carracke [...]Shee was launched in a Device wherin shee was built, called a Cradle, which is a world of tymber Made uppe and fastned on either side to keepe her uprightt, and soe with Cables, Capstanes and a Multitude of people, the[y] Forced her into the Water, the way beeing first very well tymbred and tallowed. There was another on the stockes. They are very long a Doing and issue att e[x]cessive rates.
Elephantts. The Vice Roy hath a Couple of Elephantts which are putt to Worcke, as to draw tymber, etts., by Fastning unto it a rope of Cairo (of the coconutt), which the Elephant taking beetweene his Jawteethe, hee Draweth it on, helping and guiding itt with his trunck and tuskes
A straunge Fowle. On the backe side of the towne is a pretty spatious lake with wild Foule in it, and many faire buildings on the banckes beelonguing to particuler gentlemen. Here were 2 or 3 couple of a straunge and stately tame foule broughtt From Mozambicque. It is as tall as a Crane, somwhatt bigger, with great high tuffts on his head (like twisted bristles) as bigge as a Mans Fist.
The Portugall habitt seldome used by Weomen, except some few, and thatt on great Festivall Dales, att their Marriages etts. Butt the Men goe after their country Manner, the Most part with great long wide stuffe breeches downe to their shooes, and others as they Doe in Portugall.
The Pristine prosperous estate of the Portugalls in India Their Decaying att present, with the rising of the Hollander.
By History and report wee Doe find thatt in former tymes the Portugalls had a Flourishing tyme in these parts, beeing absolute Masters and Commaunders in these seas. Drawing all trade From all parts into their owne handes to their incredible benefitt. Then they triumphed like petty Romains, bestowing their wealth in building Churches, Faire Dwelling houses in the Citty and Countrie, in Ritche Furniture, planting gardeins, etts., spending their tyme in pleasure, ease and recreation. Nobody then to Disturbe them. Butt those Dales are past and their prosperous estate much abated by the comming in of the English and Dutch, who beegan to trafficke here aboutt 40 yeares since, and likely to bee yearly Worse and Worse with them, The Hollander having now beleaguered them in their owne port, who [Page 64] now com on as fast forward in these Countries as the other grow behind-hand.
Coines, Waightts and Measures att Goa, viz. Coines. A Cruzado, a peece of gold worth 12 sheraffines. A Sheraffine, commonly a valuation and constantly worth 5 tangas.
Carware. The 21th [January 1636/7]. Wee anchored among some small Hands thwart of a faire large bay Named Carware [...] It had a spacious plaine on each side with Woodes and trees in sundry places. [Page 71] The 23d [January 1636/7]. Wee came before Onore, a place of the Portugalls, about 21 leagues From Goa, Where lay 40 or 50 Frigatts laden with Rice bound for Goa.
The Mountaines of Ballagatt. Wee Dyned a little withoutt the towne, and having rested a while, Wee ascended a high and steepy hill aboutt 3 miles From the Foote to the toppe. This is part of thatt ridge of Mountaines thatt runnes all alongst these countries, called the Mountaines of Ballagatte, this beeing very wooddy with very faire high straightt timber trees and Much thicketts, the habitation of [Page 77] Wild beasts and Fowle. Of the latter Wee heard many unknowne and variable Note[s], especially one soe loud and shrill as I never heard the like. And Wee sawothers Flying, as bigge as turtle Doves, having a very long slender taile with a tufft at the end of it, soe thatt itt appeared to us as though there had bin some thing Made Fast to his taile with a small string, as per this Figure.
Greatt Mists and Dewes. Toward the toppe of the hill (5 miles) is a spring Making a little Rillett of Sweete Water, and on the toppe of all a Castle of Morter or Mudde walles. It Discends not presently [suddenly] ; neither is it plaine, butt hilly, with pretty store of Water. Beetweene here they sow some Rice. Thatt night Wee lay under a tree, butt towards Morning there was such a Mist and Dew, Incident to the toppes of these hilles, some cause of the Flourishing greenesse and growth of trees uppon them, that ours, beeing Mooved with a little gale of Wynde, lett fall Droppes in such aboundance thatt itt resembled a pretty shower of Raine, soe thatt wee Were gladd to remoove, having the last Journey gon aboutt 11 Miles.
The Palme tree on whose leaves they here write with Iron bodkins [stylus]. Hereaboutts wee saw a sort of Palme trees, whose leaves in this Country are used in steed of paper to Write uppon.
A Pepper gardein. The manner of the growing of the pepper plantt :
The Berry. Thatt afternoone Wee passed through the same Manner of Countrie, and by the way wee came to some pepper gardeins, which they keepe, Manure [cultivate] and Dresse For their benefitt [...]
Anthilles The 24th February [1636/7]. Wee came to a good tanck and there rested awhile, it beeing some 4 Miles From our last lodging. In our way Wee saw sundry straunge Anthills of 3 or 4 Foote highe. Full of little [Page 81] Spires From the Foote to the toppe resembling afarre offe the Modell of some structure or building. They are of tempred clay, hardned with the sunne, able to keepe outt Raine (I conceave), some 2 or 3 yards in Compasse and butt one entraunce.
His Dauncing and Singing Weomen. The king and his Nobles sitting in the Manner afforesaid, all the rest of the people stood on the lower ground on each side. Within them againe on either side stood Dauncing and Singuing Weomen off all ages, with ritch and Massy (I may say gold) girdles, Jewells, etts., there [these] beeing the beautifullest (it may bee presumed) that this Countrie affords, and For their lineamentts not to bee contemned, as not inferiour to any off other countries, wanting only our Coullour, which is supplied with a good Durable browne with some appearance off red among. However, they adorned and Well became the place. Beetweene all Was left a good space For the Daunces, shewes, etts., which were various ; his eares perpetually enterteyned with Noise, as Drummes, pipes, singing, etts.
The King invited us to Supper : our Furniture and our Fare. The 28th off February [1636/7]. The King invited us to supper, Where our table-Cloath and Dishes were of plantaine leaves sowed together. Wee had att least 20 severall sorts of Achare [achar], to say, pickled Fruits, as Mangos, Cardamum, greene pepper, etts., to relish Meates, As wee use olives. Capers, Cowcumbers, etts. In our Dishes Wee had Milk, both sweet and sower, and sirruppes of severall sorts. Rice wee had Dressed in sundry manners, all spred in Divers percells on the plaine leaves, as Was the achare. The King himselffe sate by us with a rod in his hand, pointing to this or thatt hee would have us eate, beeing Desirous (it seemes) Wee should fast of all. Our Drinck was such as hee himselff Drancke, even perfumed Water.
Strange accommodation and the reason of it. This was thatt Kingly banquett, Wherin was greatt variety, all though there were Neither table Nor stooles, trencher nor Napkin, knives nor spoones, Fish nor Flesh, Wine nor any strong Drincke (the greatest Want of all). For you must understand our Meat [food] was on a stone or brick bench. Wee sate on the ground. They neither eat Flesh nor Fish, Nor Drinck strong Drincke. Beesides, our toutching any of their Implements is odious to them, and thatt vessell, etts., held uncleane. And these are the reasons Why Wee were soe accomodated as you have before heard.
The King gave us his Firmaen. Our Dismission and leave to returne to Battacala againe. After supper hee gave us a Firmaen to build a house att Battacala, With permission of trade in his Country, telling us hee would give order to his officers there to agree with us Favourably concerning the Former Contract. Soe againe giving us Serpaus, viz., some guifts of Lynnen, licensing us to returne to Battacala againe. Wee tooke our leaves and Went home to our house.
Fighting of Elephant and Buffaloes : A Machine of timber. In this Interim the King had his Fighting of Elephantts, buffaloes, etts. The Manner of the Former is sett Downe in Fo : 54 of this booke. There Was allsoe in a spatious place before their Cheife Dewra [deurd, temple] or pagode A Fabricke or Machine of exceeding greatnesse and excellent Workmanship in Carving, itt beeing of Wood and stood on 6 greatt Wheeles, each 9 or 10 Foote high.
Greatt Store of smalle Swyne. Hogges, sowes, pigges, etts., greatt store going upp and Downe Streetes, butt many of them of soe smalle a size as I never saw the like, For the sowes thatt had pigges- seemed rather to bee the Pigges of some other Sow For their littlenesse.
The inhabitants Jentues and Moores. They are generally here Jentues or Hindooes of sundry sects. Here are allsoe many Moores or Mahometanes who have a small Mosche in the towne.
Writing on Palme leaves much used and little on paper : Master of the Roules. The Country people write on Palme leaves with an Iron bodkin, as before mentioned. They say they will endure 100 yeares. Att my beeing att Eecary I was att the Kings Secretaries, where in his house I saw many hundreds (I may say thousands) of those written palme leaves, beeing very long and Narrow, handsomely rouled uppe, those againe tied into bundles [...]
A Foule that beareth a ritche Sprigge. A Frenchman thatt was entertained here in the Countrie into our shippes killed a fresh water foule like a shagge in body, butt a longer taile. Hee bore thatt pretious sprigge of which I saw many att Agra ; much off them boughtt by the English and sent home For a Ritche rariety or Comodity. It is very long, very Narrow and very blacke, with a white stripe in the Middle, and within the white againe a very small line of blacke all From end to end. The Foule thatt beareth the white long sprigge like horse haires are common here, as allso in North India 4.
Dangerous people at Mondelly. The people on shore att this place are said to bee robbers and inhospitable, soe thatt No body landed. [Page 111] Cochin a kingdome allsoe and the name of a gieatt towne of Portugalls there.
The 27th March  Wee came to Cochin, anchored there, saluted the towne with our Ordnance, butt were nott answeared From thence, Soe some of our principalles went ashore to crave licence to buy reffreshing For our Mony, which was graunted.
Cape Comorin. Straung ragged land aboutt that Cape. The 4th of Aprill . Wee came to Cape Comorin. (This cape in East India and cape Blanco in West India on the coast of Peru are Directly opposite or Antipodes). Very high land and as ragged as Abboghurre in India. Among the rest there is one very high rocke or Peak resembling Paules steeple, butt I thinck 4 tymes as high. I thus Deciphered it with some part of the land adjoyning, thatt men may see whatt ragged land there is in some parts off the Worlds The rocke mentioned is sett Downe somwhatt More or less as it appeared, butt for the rest it is only to shew that such manner of ragged land there was, as I have elce where allso seene.
The 6th currant [April 1637]. The Planter took her leave of us and Followed her voyage For England. Her lading was Most part pepper, some Cinamon, Frankincense and gumlacke [lakh, lac], [Page 114] The 7th of April . Wee passed faire by the faire Hand of Zeilaon where groweth the best Cinamon in the world, and affirmed none good elce where. Linschoten commends it For the Fruittfullest, the most pleasant and most Delicious Hand thatt is in all these parts of the worlds This Morning wee saw a very high hill Farre within the land, resembling somwhatt the Crowne of our now new fashion hatts. Whither this bee thatt called Adams peake I know nott. It is somwhatt after this Manner, as allsoe the land about it. This and the former I have figured as 2 strange and contrarie [different] parcells of land.
Buckree Eede The 26th of Aprill . The principalis off the Fleete were invited to the Solemnization of Buckree Eede or of Abrahams Sacrificing his Sonne, butt whether Isacke or Ismaell I Did not aske 1
The Peoples Manner of obeisance. As the King passed, the people made their obeysaunce by lifting their Joyned hands over their heads. I have allsoe expressed the said solemnity by Figure here inserted explained by letters, viz.
The Kings sacrifice : 500 yong buffaloes. And soe hee proceeded to the Messitt, where hee alighted and entred, when presently [immediately] were sent in (by report) 500 yong buffaloes to bee sacrificed, wherof the king killed the first and officers appointed killed the rest, which was afterwards carried outt and Distributed among the people ; this latter passage by relation.
This, in conclusion, was the Manner of the King of Acheins riding in state to his Mosche or Messitt to celebrate his buckree Eede or feast of goates. For they hold (as I was told) thatt a goate appeared outt of the bush and not a Ramme. These being Mahometaines Doe in commemoration of Abrahams his offring his sonne keepe certaine festival] Dales every yeare.
Fighting of Elephantts Described. The 27th of Aprill 1637. The Commaunders which had bin yesterday to see the kings pompous riding to the Messitt came now againe to see the Fighting of Ephelantts [sic] to bee perfformed this Day. And ailthough in the Former part of this booke I breiffly Described how they Foughtt att Agra in Indian yett there beeing soe greatt Difference beetweene the one and the other, I will relate somwhatt of this as the More Noteable. Beeffore wee came the sport was beegun, the King beeing all ready satte on a Chowtree thatt stood on the great greene aforementioned. Rightt over against him stood, a good Distance offe, Nere 150 greatt Elephantts in a rancke, one by one, their heads inwards, which stand there to make the place while their fellowes fight.
A fresh River : Ordnaunce. Here is a pretty Fresh River aboutt a stones cast over ; A Barre very daungerous sometymes by report only For smalle vessells. Many plattfformes [for mounting guns] along in the Bay ; store of good Ordnance here and there, among the rest a greatt brasse gunne or [blank] lying by the court gate, sent by King James [Page 134] to the old King. The bore of itt was near 25 or 26 inches Diameter.
Mosches. Many Churches or Mosches of a pretty Forme like unto thatt Deciphered in the Kings riding in state aforegoing.
Inhabitantts. The Native inhabitants Mahometaines, ordinarily apparelled in blew callico, butt the better sort in Purple, tawny, etts., a very odde habitt, viz: On their heads shashes [turbans] twisted like roules like those wheron Maides carry their Milking pailes, which covereth not the Crowne of their heads ; on their shoulder a shirt or Jakett with monstrous wide sleeves close att the wrist ; a lunghee aboutt their Middle ; long swords by their sides somwhatt a[fte]r the Decan fashion, hanguing in a beltt over one shoulder very straungely ; allsoe Cresses [kris], a kind of Dagger, most commonly with very ritch hilts or handles, the blade going No farther then this marcke ; all the Men shaven clean off upper lippe and Chin, resembling soe Many Friers, and all barefooted from the King to the Begger as farre as I could here or see.
Oysters growing on trees. Wee sentt and broughtt wood From one of these little Hands, where wee Found pretty oysters growing on the stemmes of trees ; butt they grew within Full sea Marcke.
Great scallop shells. Here in the Oase were scalloppe shells, which by computation could nott wey lesse then 10 or 12 ll. each. Of these I have bin enformed by Portugalls, as allsoe by English, Thatt there are some as bigge as greatt bucklers and as heavy as 2 Men are able to carry. The Distance and Course is here omitted, which may bee remedied as aforementioned in our passage From Battacala to Achein ; the windes and weather variable From Achein hitherto with many gusts, thunder, lightning and raine (somtimes).
Pretty Fishing. Here they broughtt us More Fish, Fresh and Dried, which I conceave is their Cheifest Mayntenaunce, Killing them with Fishgaes in which they are very Dextrous, and a pretty sport it is to see them pursue the Fish with their little boates, who scudd before them as porpoises Doe before the stemme of a shippe in a gale of wynde untill they are strucke. They use allsoe netts, hookes and lynes.
There was likewise broughtt us From the shoare in those little boates Plantanes, Sugarcanes and pineapples , which they sow and plant in certaine plottes, Butt all thatt wee could Discover by sightt, as well Hands as Mayne, was quite overgrowne with trees and bushes.
Monstrous scallope shells. Here in the Oase aboutt low water Marcke were sundry couples of great Scallop shells, lying open, the Fish Dead long since it seemes. For the shells were much Decayed and worne with tyme and washing of the sea. One of the said shells I gott outt with some helpe, had it broughtt aboard, and presented it to our Admirall [Captain J. Weddell]. It was in length 6 of my spannes, which is above 4 Foote, and Mightt weigh att least one hundred waightt, by some thought Much More.
Anchored 3 leagues short of Macao : Warning to proceed no Farther. The 27[th June 1637]. Wee came by a small Hand called Monton de Trigo, and passing in among other Hands, wee came to anchor some 3 leagues shortt of Macao, and saluted the place with our Ordnance. Within a while came a boate unto us, warning us to proceed no farther till wee had order From the Generall of the Citty.
Ilands aboutt Macao. Beeffore Macao are many Ilands, some greater some lesse some inhabited, most part nott ; high uneven land, no trees, much grasse and plenty of water springs ; very stony, many great ones such as wee have in some part off the Westcountry, called Moorestones ; Many China vessells passing to and Fro, none coming near us except the aforementioned Watche [guard] boates or some other with the Governours leave.
A present of reffreshing. The 29th of June . The Citty sentt our Admirall etts. a presentt of refreshing, viz., 8 beeves, 8 Hogges, 8 Jarres sweet Meates, 8 bagges bread, with a proportion of Fruite.
A Sword Fish : White porpoises. The 11th currantt [July 1637]. There was broughtt aboard a smalle sword Fish : And the Porpoises here are as white as Milke, some of them Ruddy withall 4.
A Fleete of great China Juncks. The 30th [July 1637]. Wee removed and rode over against the east side of Macao, there being a fleete of 10 saile of China Junckes (greatt vessells) hovering aboutt us and many More an [at] Anchor under the land. Their intents wee knew nott. However, wee provided For them by reason of the advice wee had, as of the rumour thatt they should goe aboutt to fire us ; other hurt from them wee feared nott, were they 10 tymes as many.
[1st August 1637]. To Day one of our foremast Men Fell off of our foreyard (which was then acrosse) on the Forecastle, Flatt on his belly. It deprived him of his sences awhile, butt hee recovered againe.
The l0th August 1637. Wee went ashoare into an Inlett unto a village with our white Flagge, butt att the entraunce wee were Forbid to goe any Farther by one of the Kings small skulling Junckes deciphered in Folio 139, letter B. Butt Forward went wee, the people wondring and Flocking aboutt us. Here wee bought some few hennes, egges, etts., our white Flagge serving to little purpose, our white silver beeing all in all.
Chaa, what it is. The people there gave us a certaine Drinke called Chaa, which is only water with a kind of herbe boyled in itt. It must bee Drancke warme and is accompted wholesome.
A Church built of oyster shells. The walles of the said Pagode were built of extraordinary large and long Oyster shells, appearing handsome to sights In this poore Pagode were no Images, I say statues, only some few Defaced pictures hard to bee discerned.
Our Drincke was warme Rack [arak, spirits] outt of a straunge bottle. For on the one side it had a bigge hole wherin they putt kindled coales with a little grate for the ashes to fall Downe in to another place, the licor going round aboutt all within the said bottle. This allsoe serves somtyrnes to warme their Chaa aforementioned, which they allwaies Drinck hotte as the Turckes Doe Coffea, and I thinck used For the same, partly to passe away the tyme, butt Cheiffly For their stomacks sake, it beeing accompted very wholesome. Having before mentioned Chopstickes, I will Describe a ordinary Fellow, as boatemen, etts., how hee eateth [Page 195] his meat which is commonly on the ground or Decke. Hee taketh the stickes (which are aboutt a foote longe) beetweene his Fingers and with them hee taketh uppe his Meat, beeing first cut smalle, as saltporcke, Fish, etts., with which they relish their Rice (it beeing their common Foode). I say first taking upp a bitt of the Meatte, hee presently applies to his Mouth a smalle porcelane [bowl] with sodden Rice. Hee thrusts, Grammes and stuffes it full of the said Rice with the Chopsticks in exceeding hasty Manner untill it will hold No more. They eat very often and are great Drinckers, Festivall, Frolike and Free as farre as [we] saw. The better sort eat after the same Manner, butt they sitt at tables as we Doe.
Some lading sent aboard and provision. The 5th currant [September 1637]. Came Mr Robinson and Nurette From Cantan, and the Next Day came much sugar For lading and provisione For the shoppes [ ? shippes], among the rest the Chineses broughtt to sell peares, Chestnutts, Dried leecheeas as sweete as any Raysins of the Sunne ; they allsoe Make of them indifferent good Wyne.
Putt in execution. Five Junckes and a small towne burned : pillage taken. Soe thatt evening late some of our boates well manned and provided were sentt away ; and before Day they burned 5 smalle Junckes, wherof 2 were fitted with Fireworcks to have Don the like to us. They allsoe sett Fire of a smalle towne, tooke one man and aboutt 30 hogges and pigges, and soe came away.
Whatt Chucculatte is. Aboard this shippe was the first tyme I tasted Chacculatte, having formerly heard speake therof. It is made of a certaine graine growing in the West Indies, and in some parts there goeth currantt For Mony (as Almonds att Suratt). These they Dry, grinde to powder, boile in water, adde sugar, spice, odours, or other composition to it, and soe Drincking it warme in the Mornings is accompted very wholesome.
A Dinner how served in [Macao] Our Dinner was served in plate, very good and savoury to my Mynde, only the Manner much Differing From ours, For every Man had a like portion of each sort of Meat broughtt betweene 2 sillver plates, and this [Page 256] often Chaunged, For before a man had Don with the one, there was another service stood ready For him ; Allmost the same Decorum in our Drincke, every Man his silver Goblett by his trencher, which were no sooner empty butt there stood those ready thatt Filld them againe with excellent good Portugall wyne. There was allsoe indifferent good Musick of the voice, harpe and guitterne.
China Men sell their Children. The poorer sort of Chineses selling their Children to pay their Debtts or Maynetaine themselves (which itt seemes is somwhat tollerated here), butt with this condition, as letting them to hire or binding them servauntts For 30, 40, 50 yeare, and after to bee Freed, Some sell them outrightt withoutt any Condition att all, bringuing them wrapt uppe in a bagge secretly by Nightt, and soe part with them For 2 or 4 Ryalls of eightt a peece.
Pretty Fishes. In the said panne they allso putt certaine smalle Fishes as bigge and as long as a Manns little Finger, their scales some of Silver and some off gould coullour shining, boughtt and broughtt From Cantan, Fed with [Page 268] bread, Rice, etts. There they continue a long tyme and breed, running in and outt through holes and concavities of the said rocke, beeing Artificall Both off the tree and Fishes I brought aboard to the Admirall [Captain Weddell], butt in few Dales all Died For want off good looking unto, For they are very Nice [delicate] and tender to bee kept.
Provision Cheape. All sorts off provisiones here, as bread, Flesh, Fish, Fruite, etts., very Cheape. Ritche Inhabitants. The habitt of the weemen att Macao, abroad, at home. This place affoards very Many ritche Men, Cladde after the Portugall Manner. Their Weomen like to those att Goa in Sherazzees or [[? and]] lunghees, one over their head and the other aboutt their Middle Downe to their Feete, on which they were low Chappines. This is the Ordinary habitt of the weomen of Macao. Only the better sort are carried in hand Chaires like the Sidans att London, all close covered, off which there are [Page 270] very Costly and ritche broughtt From Japan. Butt when they goe withoutt itt, the Mistris is hardly knowne From the Maide or slave wenche by outtward appearance, all close covered over, butt that their Sherazzees or [[? shawls are]] Finer. The manner as lettre A in the Following Figure. The said weomen when they are within Doores wear over all a Certaine large wide sleeved vest called Japan kamaones or kerimaones, beecause it is the ordinary garment worne by Japoneses, there beeing Many Dainty ones broughtt From thence off Died silke and of others as Costly Made here by the Chinois off Ritche embrodery off coulloured silk and golde. I say they wear one of the said kimaones For their upper garment and their haire all made uppe on the Crowne of their heads, adorned with Jewells according to their abbillities. These kinde of Dressing, soe quickly to bee done, Doe become them soe well As others thatt bestow halffe a day aboutt themselves [...]
Japoneses. Some Few Japoneses wee saw in this Citty : most of them Christians. Those thatt are nott, shave the one halffe of their heads From the Crowne Forward, the rest of their haire tied beehind in a little knotte, butt very short. They were buskins like Mittens, in 2 parts, one For their great toe and the other For the rest.
Cloakes, etts., of Paper. The said paper is made by report off a certaine roote beaten smalle. I have allsoe seene Cloakes Made off itt as supple and plyantt as Cloath, which beeing oyled or gummed, keepe outt Raine very well.
[...][A] Japan[ese] in his Kimaone* or vest, with his Cotan by his side, and Dagger or Cuttbelly of whome I cannott say much. You may read off them att large in Mr Purchas his pillgrimage.
[...]An ordinary Chinese making his Salutation which is by laying one hand on the other. Drawing them with a shaking Motion towards his head, which they incline [Page 296] a little downeward. Their usuall word is Touzzee whhic hath somewhatt a like signiffication as Bezo las Manos in Spanish, or Tabee in Mallaya, which most commonly serves For good morrow, good even, how Doe you, you are wellcome, God bee with you, etts.
Their houses. By report off our people thatt were att Cantan, as allsoe of Many Portugalls thatt have bin there. Their houses generally consist off one Floore, as were all of theirs thatt hitherto wee have scene, or off one loft From the ground, very low ; and their streetes Narrow, some excepted.
Their habitt. The attire and habitt of the Chinois I conceave to bee off various Formes according to the Country and office thatt they are off or in, as by relation and pictures or Figures May bee gathered [...] The better sort of weomen, by relation off themselves, have their Feete straightt bound uppe From [Page 303] their Inffancy, soe thatt they beecome very short and smalle, some of them Not 4 Inches long and bad to Walke withall. I remember I saw one such when wee were among the townes and villages aboutt Tayffoo, much swathed and bound aboutt the Feete and lower part off the legge, as wee Doe For some greiffe [deformity] and infirmity in them, Foe soe this appeared to us, withall going very lamely. In Macao itt selffe few or No China weomen to bee scene, allthough off Men thousands who Dwell and inhabitt there, as Merchants, Brokers, shoppe keepers and handcraffts off all trades. Only, as aforementioned, Many poore Families, viz., Men, weomen and Children with their smalle Meanes live in little boates and gett their Maynetenaunce by transporting to and Fro goods, passengers, etts., in service off the Citty. Great eaters, Drinckers and Gamesters. The Chinois [is] a great (and offten) eater, Drincker and gamester. Soe thatt some will play away all thatt they have, then their Children, then their wives, and last off all themselves, and worcke them selves and all out againe in tyme. This by report they Doe att Jacatra [Batavia] and Bantam; perhappes Not soe much used here.
Provisiones. All sorts off provisions good and Cheape, as graine, Flesh, Fish, Fruite. Off the First, wheatt, Barly, Rice, etts. Off the 2d, Beeves, sheepe, goates, hogges, etts., geese, poultry, Duckes, etts. Off the 3d, sword Fishes, white porpoises, pillchards as wee have with us; and off other good Fish aboundance. Off the latter, peares, Chestnutts, leicheeas and sundry other sorts, especiallj Orenges, off which here such variety and soe good as I thinck no place in the world affoards the like; one sort called by the Portugalls Casca grossa beecause it hath a thicke skynne, to bee eaten alone, having a Dainety tast and relisheth like strawberries [...]fat Hogges
Blacke Flesht poultry. Here, as allsoe in India, are a kind off hennes whose Flesh and bones are blacke, as well alive as Dead and Dressed, appearing as though they had bin boyled in blacke licor, by Many accompted More Daynety then the rest. [Page 308] Pretty Orenges [...] Strange Crabbes [...]