Journal from Surat to Agra & Dehly By the Way of Ugein

About this text

Introductory notes

No date of publication is available about the Journal from Surat to Agra & Dehly by the way of Ugein.No information is available about the author,William Reynolds, besides it being stated in the book that he was a captain and a surveyor.It is a travelogue describing the author’s journey across India.Military details are given as well as those related to the viewings of the local inhabitants.Primary Reading Reynolds, William, Journal from Surat to Agra amp & Dehly by the way of Ugein.Secondary Reading Ovington John, A Voyage to Suratt, Bodleian Library.

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Journal from Surat to Agra &Dehly by the way of Ugein by Captain Charles Reynolds, Surveyor, begun the 12th March 1785.

Distance 12th March 1785.Began our march but as our camels were most of them new and untaught were obliged to halt at Verio on the north bank of the River Tappy about 31/2miles from Surat- The road is good but the Ghaut, apass, altho fordable at low water is so exceedingly muddy as to render it very inconvenient for the passage of eithet carts or loaded bullocks and would very materially obstruct the march of an army- The country about and the whole way well cultivated- Observed the lattitude-----24. 16 N At Noon Thermometer -------94



13th Halt to equip some camels we got here with saddles ---



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Note: 373/4

Saturday 19th March to the village, Tancaria sett off at 1/23 a.m. but not having permission to pass thro the suburbs, we were obliged to make a circuit by which our distance was encreased nearly acoss passed by Rufsool-a- Baug formerly. M Perrotte & from thence to the Village of Nandewal the distance from our last ground upwards of 5 miles- The whole of the road is good and the country cultivated; from Naudervall about a mile you pass the Village Anarpore and from thence to Pogatow som what less than 3 miles from Pogaton to Sitpon at 5 Miles Villages of Iuadar & Kingoolah on the left of the road abreast of the latter you pass a Nulli and about 1/2miles on the Southside of Sitpon the road crosses the Bookee River, dry- from Sitpon to Tancaria about 3 M - The whole of the days road very good for carriages. The soil is rich and a little rain renders it impassable for carriages. The bookee river in the rains swells


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Note: 373/4
Note: 161/2
Note: 5/1M

considerably and is often impassable for three or four days together. A confidential person from Futty Sing Guiccawar joined us here to provide us with necessaries thro' his country and a party of 18 horse and a few foot joined us from the amindar of Broach to excort us to Champanere. Latitude observed--- 21.56 N Thermometer---------94 Distance------------161/2Miles



Sunday 20th March to Meahgaum two miles and a half from Tancaria passed the village of Cummoly to the left of the road; from hence we passed thro the Village of Misraal 3/4 M distant and from Misraal to ever a large Village 2 M from ever to Cannera (which is the extent of the Broach Purgunnah this way) is about 3 miles about a mile farther we past by the deserted village Purgunnah on the left hand side of the road from


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54 M
Note: 111/2
Note: 651/2

hence to Mealgaum the distance 2 1/2 M. The whole of the days road good and fit for carriages- Mealgawn is the residence of Runmul Sing a gracias Rajah his civilities to travellers have always been remarkable and on this occasion were remarkably conspicuous. The country in general is open and well cultivated except a few inclosures near the villages. Lat(de) : observed 22.4. N Distance Miles Thermometer 86



Monday 21st March to Versalla or Bursall from Meahgaum 3 miles you pass the village Gunjuli about 3/4 miles to the right of the road from hence to Errater 1 1/2 miles from Errater to Hofsoondra 2 1/4 miles. The Runga Nulla runs on the Southside of Hofsundra from hence to Govindra on the Southern Bank of the Dhi [...]


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Note: 651/2
Note: 651/2

is 4 1/2 miles the river turns short off to the Nward and runs up to the Town of Ittalah which stands on the north bank distant from Goundra about 1 1/2 miles in this last space and near Gosindra you cross a small Nulla which falls into the Dhader from Ittolah to Versolla is 23/4 miles Ittolah is a large village totally inhabited by Bhilla and Graciahs- Our whole march today has been thro' a Bhiel country, but fortunately nothing lost. I have mentioned before a person arriving from Futty Sing to conduct us thro his country, and supply us with necessaries which from todays experiment, being the first days halt in his territories, appear but a mere making of civilities : for not a single blade of grass has been supplied to any of our horses the whole day, which is the only thing, besides wood, that we stand in need of from them. The first part of todays march through an open country, the latter somewhat enclosed

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Note: 771/2
Note: 111/2 89 Ms Wednesday
Note: Div is based on relevant selections by the PI of this project

6.1. Tuesday 22 March to Baroda [...]

Champaniere is 5 3/4 and to our encampment 5 1/4. The road the whole way good and the country well- cultivated (the soil much lighter). The latter part of our journey to day was remarkable pleasant the country being beautifully diversified with cultivated plains and groves of mango trees and affording a variety of pleasing views, the whole of which was terminated by Powa Ghurr Hill rising. Majestically by itself on a plain to the eastward- received a message from Futty Sing intimating his intentions of paying a visit tomorrow. Received news from Mr Anderson of Indias having commenced hostilities against Agra. Our people are allowed to pass through the gates into the suburbs and every appearance of civility is strictly observed by the Gucawan. Latitude observed - 22.22 N Distance- 11.3/4 Miles Thermometer Wth: Tattys 87 From Surat to Baroda- 89 miles From Broach to Baroda- 51 1/4

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Note: 101 M
Note: 101 M
Note: Div is based on relevant selections by the PI of this project

7.1. Saturday 26 March to Hallole [...]

is [...] : a very large tank with water close on on the left side of the road and a small Nulla little way to the eastward of it crosses the road- Road across is much the same as the last, but neither of them so bad as to be deemed of much consequence Thus far the country is woody on either hand, but open enough for baggage to extend itself on either hand there being no underwood and the country highly cultivated in general and the road good hence to Haunpore on the right is 2 1/4 Miles and s [...] farther on, the road crosses again the same Nullo that runs by Paunchdulla and about 1/4 Mile- further another small Nulla crosses the road, from hence 2 M, the road leads again across the aforesaid and on the left a small Nulla runs into it that runs on the left of the road about 1/2 M to the Village of He [...] through which it runs the latter part of the road from Hansode is thro a pleasant country beautiful shaded by fine mango trees immediately in the


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Note: Distance 101
Note: 103/4
Note: 1113/4

road is a little jungly, but without that which extends for a few yards only, is in the highest state of cultivation- The road from the numbers of Nullas etc would obstruct an army somewhat as the passes on both sides are thro defiles but of small content, and even here carriages can go with great ease, the soil sandy. Hallole is a very large village, and has a very fine tank, but dry when we passed it, India's bazaar was here when he was against General Goddart Champaniere is about 4 or 5 miles E of this on the east side of Powa Ghur Hill and close to the foot of it : from accounts here it is now quite in decay and has scarcely a decent house in it -The formerly it was the capital of Guzeras. Observed the Latitude 22.36 N Distance--103/4 Miles Thermometer with Tattys 86 Powa Gurr bears SE by E distant about 4 miles to the foot of the hill- It is a strong hold and has very


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Note: Distance 1113/4
Note: 1113/4 Sunday

few artificial works that are visible the upper part of it is a scarp rock of great height- In the center is a large rising on which is either a pagod or a tomb, and immediately below it, in the fort is the granary very conspicious appearing like a mosque with several domes the road up leads from Champa [...] and by reports is nearly 3 Coss in length, very steep and difficult of access in the way up is a fort called Lakercotte and a chasm in the rock over which the road is on a plank or two laid across. The upper Fort is called Logur, & is extensive and what is very remarkable, the hill as you alter its direction varies not in appearance it is totally distinct from the range and about the height of the mountains in the Concan, the commanding officer sent a party to relieve those that have accompanied from Broache as an escort. Sunday


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Note: Distance 1113/4
Note: 9 M 111 3/4 Monday
Note: Div is based on relevant selections by the PI of this project

8.1. Sunday 27 March [...]

the Cairwarra and the Nullas thro a small d [...] on both sides as before described, and except in the circumstance of baggage delaying the army by only a good pass, the road is perfectly good for carriages and altho there is a little jungle on the road sides, country is, as i have beforementioned, perfectly now cultivated and no further covered with trees that be aggreeable to the travellers, and not sufficient to make it any hindrance to an army. The village are large and most of them have water in their tanks even at this season which from the sandy soil and being so much shaded the water does not dry up as the open country, where the soil is different Mullaow a very large village bigger than Hollole has a large tank with a deal of water in it and a good bazaar. Latitude observed 22.41 N } Thermometer with Distance ------- Miles } Tattys----- 82


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Note: Distance1331/2

9.1. Barrea Dieugur Tuesday 29 th: March 1785

[...]Marched at 4 a.m. about 3 miles from our last ground is a well built by Demojee (which bears the name) Futty Sings Father who being distressed for water as he passed thro this country from Pauniput in 1761 after the defeat of the Maharattas by the Mahomedans built it for the relief of passengers- 1 1/2miles from hence is a small dry Nullah and 3/4 further on another; from hence 3/4 mile is the Village of Gorlah on the right of the road consisting of a few thatched huts. 5 miles from hence on the bank of the river Punnahdry stands the village of Ranny poora and 3/4 miles from hence Raltryallie Village 23/4 from this/


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Note: Distance1331/2
Note: 1331/2

N.E./ is the entrance of the town at Barrea thro a gateway that fills up the space between two hills on both of which is a redoubt. The town to the eastwards is enclosed by a built wall with towers as far as the plain reaches (about 300--) then a breast work ascends the hills to the right and left and joins the aforementioned road the hills on which they stand are of no great height and command the whole town compleatly their defines are of no strength : The town is large and considering its situation well built and peopled in the east side is a large tank with plenty of water. The whole of todays road is thro an exceeding thick wood and the road intersected by a vast number of water courses the whole of which at this season of the year are dry and even by digging little water can be had as the beds of the whole of them are all rocky about a foot and half below


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Note: Distance 1331/2
Note: 1331/2

the surface. The road is however tolerably good for carriages. On the banks of the Punnah we were met by the Rajah's Dewan with a party of horse and a Byrak of Arabs and Sindias who escorted us to our ground, after making the Rajah's compliments & his offers of every friendly assistance- About 5 in the afternoon the Rajah came out mounted on his elephant attended by a number of very fine troops Arabs and Sindies, besides a prodigious concourse of villagers to see us we being the first Europeans that ever travelled this road, we were ofcourse considered by them as great curiosities. The Rajah is a well made man about 5(Fi)7 about 35 years old and an handsome person, and in every respect has much the manners of a gentleman, he was very minute in his enquiries, and seemed to be exceedingly pleased with his reception and of us, as he frequently expressed during the conversation he told us that the elephant which he rode on was given him by Sindea


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Note: Distance 1331/2M
Note: 1331/2

for the assistance he afforded him in getting supplies thro the country when he was opposed General Goddard that the Bhuls taken advantage of the Check General Goddard gave India when he encamped on his ground had risen and plundered some of his convoys and that in consequence of it was at one time in India's camp at 5 siers for the Rupee & till he excorted his influence ( and the whole of the inhabitants are devoted to him) that Sindia's Army was reduced to very great distress and that if our army had followed the pursuit that India would have been obliged to have retired precipitately to Malwa or risque a battle for from Currowley till you reach near Dohud( days march beyond Barria) water is so very scarce that it will barely supply the inhabitants & the Bheels would ofcourse have taken advantage of his situation and have distressed and plundered him very much in his retreat.Powa Ghur was


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Note: Distance 133 /2 M
Note: 153/4
Note: Distance 1491/4

taken from justwentsings ancestors by the pattans and he is now only remaining branch of the family he has two daughters, but no son, so that most likely this place on his death will fall into the hands of Sindia. Latitude observed--(21.47 N) Distance ----------(15 3/4) Barrea distant from Surat 149 1/4 miles distant from Broach 1111/2 miles distant from Baroda 601/2 miles

10. Barrea Wednesday 30th March 1785.

Halt about 11 a.m. returned our visit to the Rajah who received us in a very agreeable easy manner; we stayed with him till about 2 when we took our leave. In the evening about 6 he came again to the camp in a private manner to


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Note: Distance 149 1/4
Note: 149 1/4

take his farewell his whole behaviour has been remarkable polite, and every suitable return was by us. He received a handsome present when he made his visit, and these presents as they are indispensable and always expected, is paying at a cheap rate the protection they afford us.

11. Coomaria Thursday 31st March

Marched at 4 a.m. at 31/4 miles from Barrea or the left of the road is the village of Danguru its tank close on the road, but little water in it the further you pass the Village of Polore, on east side of the road in detached huts from hence 21/2 [...] is the Village of Nayserrah at which a small rivulet crosses the road and about 100 yds further on is a small Nulla that falls into it and continues for some distance on the left of the road close to it further is a Nulla which crosses the road and continues at


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Note: Distance 1491/4
Note: 1491/4

[...]about ¾ miles N of Coomaria is the River Hurrup or Hurrupa which has some stagnate water in it, and this is the only water procurable in this neighbourhood, the tank being quite dry. The river is remarkably rocky except immediately where the water is lodged and which is not a space of more than 50 yards by 15 over [...]


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Note: Distance 1491/4
Note: 11 3/4
Note: 164 M

[...]The whole country is very stoney and even on the surface of the cultivated spots are covered with stones many of which are as large as a man’s head. The country from Malaou thus far wretchedly off for water which is heightened this year from a scarcity of rain last season. Coomarria is a large straggling village of hutts for a considerable distance near the village [...]

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11.3. Dohud Friday 1st April 1785 [...]

[...]Daowud is a very large town pretty well built and has a large bazaar on the west side is a very large tank full of water on which we found abundance of Gam [...]e


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Note: Distance 161 M
Note: 16
Note: 177 M

Dohud is the proper boundary in this direction between the Provinces of Malwa and Guzerat as the name signifies; but by many and particularly the Guzeratees insist on Guzerat’s extending to the eastward as far as the Mhye River which crosses the road at 55 ½ miles from hence. The country round about here altho’ full of small risings is cultivated and pleasant and affords a pleasant relief from the disagreeable and wretched country which we have just left [...]


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Note: Distance 1901/4
Note: 131/4
Note: 2031/2

12.1. Pitlawad or Pitland Monday 4 th April 1785

[...]Marched at 4 a.m. about 1/2 mile from Tandlah [...] the river Pautte about 60 or 70 yds has some water it in several places, from hence 4 1/2 miles the road ascends a gaut which is about 600 yds long, the road is pretty good up, tho steep and stoney in several places for short spaces. Between Pautte River and the foot of this gaut the road crosses over four small Nullas rock [...] and scarcely any water in either of them from the gaut about 6 M you pass the village of Coriah on the left of the road and from hence to Pitland is one mile e [...]


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Note: Distance 2031/2
Note: 2031/2

first 3 1/2M of the road the country is pretty level and open from whence the whole way till near Coriah the country is remarkably full of gullies and the road in many places either leads over risings or immediately round the foot of them, from Coriah to Petlawad the country plain and road very good. Pitlawad is at present a good town, but being plundered about 8 years ago by the present Jabbuah Rajah/ Bhemsing/ it has not recovered its former state, formerly it was a town of great consequence and the grand mart for all goods between Malwa and Guzerat, it is surrounded by risings grounds and the country must consequently in the rains be a perfect swamp. An unfortunate accident happened in the evening, the shoe maker belonging to our party fell into a well, and the not above 5 minutes under water and every endeavour humanely exerted by W Cruso to save him the poor fellow was past recovery. I imagine he must have struck against some thing in the way down as it was very deep & had several pieces of the earth projecting from the sides. Our situation is very disagreeable for altho we escaped the dreaded visit from


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Note: Distance 2031/2
Note: 14
Note: 2171/2

the Rajah last night we cannot from the badness of his charachter deem ourselves safe while in his country and we are besides surrounded by a sett of petty Rajahs who are at variance. In our way from hence to the Mhye River, which bounds the Rajah's territories towards eastward, we must unavoidably pass the town of [...] in possession of Calliansing who is a relation of the Rajahs & formerly a Nafsal, but has thrown of his alegiance lately and report makes him full as little to be depended on; and as they are all poor it is but reasonable to suppose that our baggage is an object of their attention. The Rajah of Rajode our next halting place is also engaged in the disputes. Latitude observed--23.7 N Distance--14 miles Thermometer with Tattys 85 [...]


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Note: Distance 289 M
Note: 289 M

13.1. Ugein

[...]Monday 11th April 1785 early this morning set off towards the city and its environs. A little to the Nward of the town on the western bank of the river Seffra Mhadajeer Sindia building a fort called Mhadoo Gur in the center of which he is also erecting a citidal for the security of himself & family in cases of necessity and I imagine occasioned by the lo [...] approach of our troops under Colonel Camac during the expedition in Malwa. The place was begun by Jwara a gaut according to a gaut fort to the Nward, and with the particular instructions of Sindia himself it appeared that the outer wall has originally been intended to include a place of worship; part of the south & east sides of it are on the banks of the Suffra and on the other is a ditch with a good scarp and intended to be filled with water from the river the work is now only level with the surface & from its center


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Note: Distance 289 M
Note: 289 M

can never I think be considered as a place of any strength any further than what the ditch may give it. The citadel or palace in the center of it is a square of about 130 yds with a gateway in the center of each face defended by a two good round towers as also a good round tower on each angle. In the western gateway which is much the largest on each side is a place of security for himself & in case of any siege at present the house if any is intended is not begun & the offices occupy the whole of the curtains. This work is raised about 35 feet is built of good, hard, cut stones, but has no ditch nor does it appear that any is intended. The scarp of the ditch of the outer work is also built in the same style at present the work is stopped on account of the workmen making some deviation, from the original plan; from hence we proceeded about 5 miles on the bank of the river (Nwesterly) to a place of a most extraordinary & peculiar construction in the bed of the river said to be built by Sultan. Nassorul Dien Gullecyay son of Ghias Uldein, and called Calliah dye or sadumpore. The river in its original course runs to the eastwards ofit on the banks of it is the dwelling & appears to have been intended as a place of retirement & has nothing remarkable in it either in its construction or appearance but has been originally so well built that without repairs it is still almost perfect as it would have been at first. The wall that surrounds it by the force of the freshes


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Note: Distance 289
Note: 289 M

is destroyed in many parts on the west side of this passage is a channel of about 100 yds broad cut down to a level with the bottom of the river in the opposide side & evidently ap [...] intended as a place of retirement during the heats. Arches are small reservoirs for water which formerly had fountains & thro which the water is continually running. These rooms are on the western side of the channell and the space between them and the dwelling is occupied by tanks, fountains, cascades and small streams in which the water as through the rooms is continually in motion. To the southward of these rooms/ from which quarter the water is supplied/ is a bridge across the channel from the main land to the house which by means of this channel is on an island. In the rains the whole of the rooms & all the works except the house & bridge are constantly under water, and threshes were frequent


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Note: Distance 289 M
Note: 289 M

[...]This place was built in in the 905th year of the Hegira the present year is 1199- From this place we crossed the river and returned by a high way to the east side of the town in our way thither crossed two Nullas [...]


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Note: Distance 289 M
Note: 289 M

[...]The town has but few capital private buildings, but still the building in general are not to be called mean The only ones that convey any idea of opulence belong to Ranny Khan and Mirza- Rham Beg favourites of Scindia, and at present in the army with him Agra. On the western side of the city, Scindia has begun a new place which for the same reason as the one on the fort is at present at stand- The lower part is well built with large stones and in a good task to which the upper stories bear no proportion being of brick and in a remarkably mean manner- From hence we proceeded to the river and passed the mausoleum, erected by Scindia to the memory of Ranjomee [...]


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Note: Distance 289 M
Note: 289

[...]The bazaar is a fine broad sheet well paved with stone sloping a little towards the centre. We found great quantity of fruit here- and procured a considerable number of apples from the common bazaar, also abundance of mulberies, grapes, sweet-oranges- and here are also the small china oranges, but at present not ripe- On the north side of our encampment is a handsome garden built by Ranny Khan upon the banks of the river- it abounds with fruit


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Note: Distance 289 M
Note: 289

trees and rose trees, and I had the pleasure to see 12 @ 13 apple trees loaded with fruit as also the finest sett of cypress trees that I ever remember to have seen- The apples are in general small about the size of a walnut without the shell but pretty well flavored- 'Ugein is a very antient town the houses in general built with wood and brick except the lower part a little above the foundation being of large stones- it is- astonishing from whence they procure the timber as the country all about is quite clear of trees except a few immediately about the villages, and even wood for fuel is scarce that since our leaving Nowlye- Our victuals have been dressed with goobur or dried cow dung'- [...]


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Note: Distance 289 M

[...]Report makes Ugein larger than Surat- but I don't conceive it to be nearly so large altho: in our manner of passing thro it it is impossible to determine. The River Siffra is about 120 yards over and falls in the Chumbell southward & northward of the gaut, the water is much too deep to ford [...]


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Note: Distance 289 M
Note: 289 M

[...]The houses at Ugein have pitched and tiled roofs. The earth about Ugein is improper and does not answer for either brick or tiles and the construction of the flatt roof houses in the villages is occasioned by the want of timber [...]


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Note: Distance 311 Miles
Note: 21
Note: 332 Miles

Storm arose carrying before it such clouds of dust that a tent was not visible at 60 yards distance, it continued till near 5 and several of our small tents were blown down- A good deal accompanied it, altho the greater part of it passed close to the Sward of us- It began at S.W. I varied round to east from whence it blew the strongest- a deal of thunder & Lightning accompanied it, & after so long a march gave our weary followers a deal of trouble, & will occasion our halting tomorrow [...]


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Note: Distance 3861/4
Note: 15
Note: 4011/4

14.1. Puttoundee Thursday 21st April 1785

[...]Marched at 3 a.m. from the Purrole 3 1/4 the road crosses a Nulla and a little further on, passed a deserted village a small Nulla close to it, crosses the road, and 1/2 mile from hence between two hills on the right of the road in the village of Nelakheira about two miles south of this, is the town of Cottah which is also on high road to Ragoo Gur and has a good bazaar from Nelakhura 3/4miles is the village of Mahomedpoor- about a quarter of a mile on the left of the road-2 3/4 miles from hence in the village


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Note: Distance 401 1/4 M
Note: 401 1/4

of Chancoria close on the left of the road, it is a large village and has a fort on a mill to the westward that commands the town the villagers and troops were all under arms at the different avenues of the village/ imagining us to be part of Dewjee Gollahs troops in order to protect their grain. Hay etc it being an invariable rule even in their own country from hence 13/4 is the village of- Seearch a little on the right of the road and from hence 2 miles and upwards is the village of Bhundmey poora on the left of the road at some distance from hence 1/4mile is the village of Joorey about half a mile on the right of the road and 1/4 from hence is the Village of Lagur from hence to Puttondee to the eastward of which we encamped is 1 3/4 miles the road to day immediately after quitting our ground led up a small hill by a very bad road full of loose horses and continued so till near Nelakuria from whence till close to Lagun the road is good and the


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Note: Distance 4011/4
Note: 14
Note: 415 1/4

country in general pretty well .Cultivated here to Road again lead- up a Hil [...]l

Pattoundee is a pretty good village but the inhabitants before our arrival had all fled for fear of the Maharrattas, by 11 they all returned to their dwellings on a promise that they should receive no molestation from any of our people [...]

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Note: Distance 506 1/4
Note: 506 1/4

14.4. Bunnygah Thursday 28, April 1785 [...]

The road from hence 1 1/4 mile another Nulla crosses the road no water from hence 2 1/4 miles is the village Brody on the right of the road from hence a little more than 1/4 M a small Nulla crosses the road- from hence 2 1/2 miles is the town of Soporee or Sipperee close on the right of the road- from hence about 1/4 mile a small Nulla crosses the road, from hence two miles is the village of Butonora on the right of the road, from hence 1/4 mile is the village of Choota Nahowrey or Nowrey, the road leads thro it- from hence 1 1/2 miles is the village of Bunney gah to the Nward of which is our encampment-the road today the whole of the way good and the Country in general open- altho but little cultivated. Sipperee is a large town and has formerly been of consequence- at present it is much fallen to decay, it belongs to Sindia as well as Bunneygah, and is the head of a purgunnah


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Note: Distance 506 1/4
Note: 12 3/4
Note: 519 M

Purgunnah- Sipperee is famous for bows & arrows, as well as matchlocks- The road at Sipperee divides the one leading to Nurwur and the other road we passed or are upon Col. upton and Colonel Morgans detachment when they returned from the western side of India is struck off in the Nurwur Road. Latt. Observed 25.31 N Distance- 12 3/4Miles Thermometer Tattys 83 [...]


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Note: Distance 519 M
Note: 16
Note: 535 M

15.1. Berrye Poorah Saturday 30th April 1785.

[...]Marched at 3 a.m. Two miles and a half from Dologur is the Village of Choorpoora 1/4 M. from whence the road croses a small Nulla in which is a little water- From the Nulla 1 3/4 miles is the village of Currotra, from hence 1 1/4 mile a small Nulla crosses the road and further on about four miles is the town of Curreyney it has the remains of a fort on a hill, and the town is enclosed with a wall of loose stones, it


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Note: Distance 535 M
Note: 535 Miles

is a place of little consequence, from hence about 5 miles is the town of Mohana, to the Sward of which about 3/4 mile is the river Parr which falls into the Sind about 3 Coss above Nurwur at a place called Purratcha, from Mohana about half a mile the road crosses a rivulet which joins the Parr- It is called Mauwull- And about 3/4 mile the River Cudhur crosses the road and continues close on the left part our encamp ment- The road to day cannot be called bad at the same time there are many parts of it that would make it very inconvenient for cannon on account of the rockiness of it- Mohona is a large town walled in and has besides a citadel within- It is the residence of an Independant Rajah, his districts small extending only to four or five villages near Mahona.


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Note: Distance 535 M
Note: 16
Note: 551 M

16.1. Berrye Sunday 1 (st) May 1785

[...]Marched 1/4 before 3 a.m.- One mile from Berrye poorah the River Cudhur crosses the road also a small Nullah just before you reach it and another just after crossing it from Cudhur River 2 1/4 miles the road runs between Auro Hills and after passing them the village of Reynka is on the side of the east one on the left hand- from hence 2 1/4 miles the road leads close to the right of another conspicuous hill from hence 11/4 mile the road ascents and half of a mile further is another trifling ascent and 3/4 mile from hence a small rivulet crosses the road


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Note: Distance 551 M
Note: 551 M

from hence 13/4M, is the town of Doohaw in Doohaung close under which to the east ward runs the river from hence 11/4 mile a small Nulla crosses the road here the road begins to rise gently and continues so for 31/2 miles when it descends a little but about immediately again begins to rise in this little hollow a small Nulla crosses the road from the beginning of the last ascent 1 mile the road again descends along the side of the hill by a very bad road at the foot of which the river crosses the road about half a mile from hence the road again ascends a small way and this latter space is closely environed with hills from hence something less than half a mile a small Nulla crosses the road and about 3 1/4 miles from hence is a rising or small hill behind of which is the town of Berrye The


[Page 111]
Note: Distance 551 M
Note: 551 M

first two miles of todays march, the road was very full of small loose stones but of no material consequence, from hence the road continues very good for about 4 miles, when it begins to be exceedingly stony, and bad, and continues the whole way, but particularly so where I have noticed either ascent or descents – The descent by the last river is incomparably the worst of the whole and this road is by no means to be attempted with cannon either in the face of an enemy, or if common expedition is required, and even if leisure be admitted, it will be almost next to a miracle if they can be transported without breaking their carriages. At this place as well as Doohaw or Doohaung are several furnaces for extracting the iron from the ore, which is found in a number of mines in great quantities amongst the hills, a little more than 2 coss to


[Page 112]
Note: Distance
Note: 551 M

the eastward of this, but in no other place as I could learn – The ore is brought from the mines on bullocks, a load in general about 4 Surat maunds, for each load at the mine 3 ½ pice and on an average yields about 22 or 23 siers of good iron The furnaces are worked with charcoal, which is brought from about the neighbourhood of Choorpoora / mentioned in our yesterday’s March / near Dologur, each house has a separate furnace – They are small not working more at one time than one bullock’s load, the number of hands at present does not exceed 60 families, formerly a prodigious number resided both here and at Doohaung, but are reduced by the late famine to their present small numbers [...]


[Page 114]
Note: Distance 551 M
Note: 551 M

[...]Berrye is also a very large town and has several good buildings it is enclosed with a wall of loose stones and had a gurry some of the Nullas has very little stagnate water which appeared rather to have been from a fall of rain some days since, rather than which is usually the case at this season of the year so that I shall remark this days march as having no water except from wells to the N.E. of the town, close is a Hindoo siraw of a circular form now in decay and must originally have been too small to be very convenient [...]


[Page 118]
Note: Distance 581 1/4 miles
Note: 581 1/4 miles

17.1. Gualeer or Gonleer Tuesday 3rd May 1785

Gualeer is a very ancient fort and formerly below it hav been a town of great extent - The first is upon a large flat hill/ no great height comparatively with the length of it extending about 1 3/4 miles N and south, but considerably narrower E & W : it is fortified close along the edge of the rock/ which in most places of it is perpendicular for a great height/ and occasions the direction of the wall to be very irregular, there is a large gateway to the N.E. and a smaller one to the south- and also another on the North W side. The north end of the fort is considerably the highest and most of the buildings and places are in this part of which there are several- it is also by much the most difficult of access- The S.W. part & some places about the centre of the west face appear


[Page 119]
Note: Distance 5811/4M
Note: 5811/4M

to be accessible for a surprise but even here the ladders must be very long as the wall all around appears of a great height- The party sent by Colonel Pophum under Captain Bruce surprised it at the S.W. part Sindia afterwards when he took it from the Rana of Ghode- Attacked it both on the W & East faces, and appears by the considerable space of new wall at both places to have been very much battered - A small river winds round part of the south and the whole of the east face round to the N.W. course but affords little protection being shallow & when we passed it was quite dry- It is about 300 yards from the fort- The present town which is under the N end of the fort is enclosed with a wall which joins the fort, it is within the river & a little of it extends round part the N.H. course- The remains of the ancient town are to be seen for a very considerable extent and a number of Mogul tombs and places are scattered about


[Page 120]
Note: Distance 5811/4M
Note: 5811/4M

the plain now totally distinct from any part of the town among the number is the tomb of the Peer, Shah mahomed Ghore it is a very handsome building and in good repair it stands on the east of the fort, & in the inclosure round the tomb is the tomb of the most famous singer ever produced in Hindostan called Tansye, he was patronized by this Holy man (Shaw Ghore) during his life & when he died was with Sultan Acbar at Lahore who out of respect to the Peers memory ordered the body of Tansye to be transported to Gualeer in order to be burried by the side of his Patron- This little tomb is visited with great veneration by all the singing votaries that pass this way, and a tamarind tree which shades it is supposed to possess the virtue of making all those good singers that eat of its leaves, so that it is generally kept pretty well stripped of its leaves and when they fail the back


[Page 121]
Note: Distance 5811/4M
Note: 5811/4M

is often taken to suppy the deficiency besides these buildings, there are in the town many other sirears & other public buildings & among them not least worthy of notice is the Jumma Musjeed a handsome building with two minauts, built in the time of by a private person it is neat but not to be spoken of in comparison with the one at Ahmedabad Gualeu has always been a state prison and the unfortunate Rana of Ghode and his wife, are now confined in it on seperate apartments and are not allowed to have any intercourse whatever with each other. The Town was formerly famous for handecrafts people particularly in iron but the constant scenee of trouble for years past, in which this part of Hindoostan has been involved added to the late dread full famine, has so depopulated this place that scarce any in that line at present are to be


[Page 122]
Note: Distance 5811/4M
Note: 5811/4M

met with and those that remain are in the service of Sindia who now has a small foundery here for brass guns the whole face of the country is showed with skulls and skeletons of the poor wretches that have fallen sacrifices to the famine.

18. Choundah Thursday 4th May 1785

Marched at 3 a.m. four miles and a half from Gualue is the village of Mullawby, from hence nearly 31/4miles is the village of Bombole or Bumon, from hence 41/4miles is the village of Noorabad situated on the north bank of a river over which is a neat stone bridge. The river about 50 yards broad & some water in it is standing pools. The bridge was built by a private person (TWP)


[Page 123]
Note: Distance 5811/4M
Note: 5811/4

and is at present in perfect repair. The approach is thro a parcel of gullies but the road is good and they are of but little consequence from hence 3 1/4 miles is the village of Gurriydeah and from hence is a river about 80 yards broad thus far is the publick Road but as it was represented to us as longer we struck off to the left to the village of Choundah which is the northern bank of the same river and distance from whence we turned off from the high road about 2 1/2 miles including the turnings and windings but in a direct line not more than 1 1/2 miles- Our baggage came a more direct road to Choundah- The road the whole way remarkably good and the country plain- And in many ports cultivated- The whole has been formerly cultivated but the destruction of the famine has put it beyond the power of the remaining inhabitants. Latitude


[Page 124]
Note: Distance 5811/4
Note: 171/2
Note: 5983/4

Latt. Observed 26:28 N Distance-- 17 1/2 Miles Thermometer Tattys 90 [...]


[Page 125]
Note: Div is based on relevant selections by the PI of this project
Note: Distance 598 3/4
Note: 598 3/4

Hollow ways in some places very deep and- continous thus till it reaches the banks of the Cowaney river which is distant from last place about 1 1/4 M, here is a very good bridge in perfect repair over the river, from the bridge the road- along the plain & about 200 yards from it is the village of Pepersaw in the left- From hence about 2 1/2 is the vil of Putchokeera on the Right, from hence 1 1/2 mile is the Village of Chooloo, here is a siraw from hence 41/4 miles is the village of Heyntiree on the south bank of the river- Chumbull the approach to which is through a prodigious number of Gullies & hollow ways/ The Road for guns leads about 3/4 miles to the Ww. of Heyntiree from hence to our ground of encampment is one M The river Chumbull is the same we crossed the\ day before we reached Ugein, it is here about 800 yards broad and has a constant running stream


[Page 126]
Note: Distance 598 3/4
Note: 598 3/4

[...]The road the whole way was very good except the approach to the Chumbull, but even here in the high road I have mentioned that goes to the westward of Heyntiree it is good- The village of Papersaw is the only village of any consequence in our road to day and the bowary river has plenty of Water in several places- Our baggage came this high road we came by a different one & crossed the- River Cowary at Hingoluh- this road is good but carts or carriages of any kind will find the Peepersaw Road the best and the- difference in pointof difference is very trifling. Todays encampment the worst. We have had not a single tree for cover, or any thing to be procured for our followers or battle- The water half a mile from us, and the whole of the place an entire bee of Land which moves in clouds


[Page 127]
Note: Distance 598 3/4
Note: 16 1/4
Note: 613 M

with every breadth of wind and contributed, much to the intense heat we suffered the whole day. A detachment from Sindia's Army encamped in the bed of the river under the command of Chundaroh appa'she Jagheirdar of Gualeer etc . A number of Cannon passing to & from some going against the Ragoo Gun Rajah &half a dozen new brass guns about three flounders exceedingly well made, cast at Gualier, on their way to Sindia's Camp. Latitude Observ : 26. 4 N Distance : 16 1/4 Miles Thermometer : 99 [...]

[Page 128]
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Note: Distance 615 Miles
Note: 615 Miles

18.6. Munneah Saturday 7th May 1785 [...]

between two hills, the one on the right has a tomb upon it that may be seen at some distance from the opposite side of the Chumbul. The Town of Dolepoor or Dolegun is on the right upwards of 1 1/2 Miles- from hence 3 M is a siraw/ called Sandrygey Siraw/ close on the right of the road- From hence 3/4 Mile is the Village of Saundho close on the right of the road from hence 4 1/4 Dhundole close on the right of the road from hence one mile is the village of Miles is the village of Bhaunpore about a quarter of a mile to the right of the road from hence 3/4 mile is the Village of Munneah one Encampment on the north side of the town road today exceedingly good and the Country plain & in many parts cultivated except near the Village of Bichuah round about which is a continuation of gullies and some of them deep but the road although in the


[Page 129]
Note: Distance 615
Note: 615

bottom of some of them is still good for- carriaged all thro- Dolepore is a large town lately held in Jaghire by Mahomed Beg- Humdanny at present in the hands of Sindia- it is a place of great extent and bears visibly the marks of having been a place of consequence , it is not walled in bal has several garries or small forts within the town and are to the northward of it of we great strength- There are besides, the remains of main Mogul buildings round the town. We put up in a garden of Humdancy's it is small and now going to decay but affords us a good retreat against a violent N.W. Wind which begun at 11 at night and lasted near half an hour bringing with it immense quantity of dust but no vain- These winds are very frequent to the W of the Chumbul and are called Audy's. Latt


[Page 130]
Note: Distance 615 13
Note: 628 Miles

Lattitude Observed.. 26. 50 N Distance------------ 13 miles Thermometer--------- 88

19. Cooboolpoor Sunday 8th May 1785

Marched a 3 a.m. one Mile & three quarters from Munneah crossed a small dry Nulla from hence 1 M is the Village of Beggir Choley a small dry Nulla passes under it across the road from hence 3/4 miles is the Village of Burrey too close on the left- from hence 1 1/4 M is a river ( the name of which I could noot learn) it is about 300 yards wide, and has water in it in several places- here is a fine stone bridge in perfect repair, but at present of no use the river having deserted its former course and now runs clear of it to the N end of the bridge ( it has 20 large


[Page 131]
Note: Distance 628 M
Note: 628

arched on the opposite on N bank of the river is the village of Jajoo from hence near 1 mile is the village of Hosountah on the left of the road about 1/2M from hence, about 1/2 mile w the village of Sayen on the right from hence a little more than a mile the village of Beyten on the left from hence 13/4 miles in the vill of Teyher close on the right a little more than 3 miles further on a river called Carey nuddey passes the road it is about 1300 yards over and has a stone bridge on the left of the present road which is broken and of no use the water of it is brackish and comes from a salt lake to the W of Saypore. The village of Possta is on the north bank we here intended to have halted, but were prevented by the want of fresh water from hence 1 M is the village of Ramgur on the left & further on- 3/4 M : is the village of Cooboolpoore


[Page 132]
Note: Distance 628 M
Note: 628

We halted here and put up in a tomb on the right of the road, we cud not pitch our tents here which very fortunately saved our people a deal of trouble as at 5 in the evening we were visited by another Andy or NW Wind stronger than the one last night is lasted about half an hour the road the whole way very good a few Holloway & a little on this side Munneak and some also on this side Iagoo much frequented by a Banditti of a Muwattees, Iauts & who are generally on horse back and much infest the road, but none made their appearance to us Iagoo has formerly been a large place and has at present the remains of a very handsome Siraw not much destroyed, besides many other Mogul buildings on the right side of the town all the rest of the villages are but of little note Tauje Gunje the famous mausoleum of Shaw Jehans Queen at Agra


[Page 133]
Note: Distance 628 M 16 1/2
Note: 6441/2miles

Agra visible from here to the N.N & Lattitude Observed- 27. 4 N Distance------------16 1/2 miles Thermometer W, Tattys to the soor of the Tomb-(84 degree symbol)

20. Akberabad or Agra monday 9th may 1785 [...]

marched at 1/2 past 3 a.m. two miles & a half from our last ground is the village of Mayaun on the left, from hence 1/2mile is the village of Rotah- From hence3/4M is a Scraw close- in the left of the road, from hence nearly 3 miles the road leads between two small hills- from hence nearly 1/2mile is part of Agra called Shah Gady Mundey and Hazaret by hundey, offending about half a mile further from hence about 100 yards, is a small rising in


[Page 134]
Note: Distance 6441/2
Note: S
Note: 6521/2miles

on the left right of the road [...]you reach the gate of the town Momtaarabad at the Shah gadey Mundey, the road on each side is full of the remains of places of pleasure or the tombs of Moguls. Several of the garden walls & terains in their space are in good order- after leaving Hazaretry Mundy till you reach Taaje Gunje is thro and over the ruins of the town of Agra [...]


[Page 135]
Note: Distance 652 1/2
Note: 652 1/2

21.1. Agrae

We were lodged by Sindia's order in the famous mausoleum- Which is one of the delightful buildings that can well be conceived and I think I may venture to say the world- Cannot produce its equal- The pile is within about the tomb is so exquisitely inlaid immense and the workmanship with different kinds of stones representing flowers & in their natural colours with all their natural folds and as big as nature, that a skilful painter would I think find it difficult to throw his shades or represent nature with more justness, at the same time he never can possibly come up to the neat appearance they have on the white marble ground of the first sort-From the beautiful polish it admits of, in short neither pen or pencil can give any competent Idea of it- It is about 225 feet high


[Page 136]
Note: Distance
Note: 6521/2

to the ball on the top and basis equal in proportion standing upon a- Marble platform raised about 18 feet of- An hundred yarde square at each angle of which stands a beautiful marble - Minaret with a winding stair case to the top: it is about 120 years old and little the worse although little attended to- The whole is of the finest White Marble and every part of it for neatness and exactness of workmanship may vie with the more laboured work. Agra formerly a royal residence to the Mogule has been a very considerable city much larger than Surat as may judged from many parts of the walls still standing - at present the only remains of it is a Baazac and a few old houses Inhabited by a few wretched Mogule. The remaining extensive space is either a heap of


[Page 137]
Note: 6521/2
Note: 6521/2 miles

rivers or immense gullies plowed up by the rains in making their way to the river Iumma and even in many parts so fatally is it destroyed that scarce a vestige of a building is to be seen. The famine which raged here before east rains contributed largely to complete the ruin of this devoted city and the few remaining wretches are now dying daily in great numbers. Taaje Gunge being upon the banks of the river we had constantly the melancholy sight of carcases floating down the stream covered with Vultures or crows or laying upon the side of it devouring by the dogs and other animals- The country in general is scarcely inhabited, but Agra in particular seems to have suffered beyond all comparison gow


[Page 145]
Note: Distance 701 M
Note: 151/2
Note: 7141/2 miles

22.1. Pulwull June

[...]About five miles from Hoorial passed the village of Buncharee and at the same distance further on we passed thro' the village of Ruttakeira and from hence about 3 1/2 miles is the village of Muttoowle from whence 2 1/2 miles we passed the village of Keera or Keoraky Siraw from its having a siraw for the accomodation of travelers- from Keera 1 1/4, the town of Pulwull -We halted in a Fackeers' Tope on the north side of the town intending to proceed in the afternoon about & coss further on- but a heavy rain- coming


[Page 146]
Note: Distance 7161/2 M
Note: 18
Note: 7341/2 M

on prevented us & as the Fackeers Place afforded no shelter against rain we moved into the town to a good siraw where we remained till next morning Pulwull has been a very large town, and is the capital of a Purgunnah, as it is much in ruins, but considerably better with respect to inhabitants than any town we have yet passed since we left Muttoora- The country all today's march totally waste & scarcely inhabitants to be met with - The road remarkably good [...]


[Page 147]
Note: Div is based on relevant selections by the PI of this project
Note: 7341/2 M
Note: 7341/2

[...]The distance about 13 miles from Pulurull- It is quite barren of trees and has a place without for the accomodation of travellers- From Bellumgur to Fureedabad is about 5 1/2 miles which is a large toure and famous for bows and arrows- On the west side is a large tank and on the southern bank of which is a beautiful grove of trees on a rising ground where we halted and passed a very agreeable day- The part of Fozedaar is for the security and to protect the environs of the capital which are now and ever have been since the decline of the Empire much infested by robbers a particular tribe of whom called Goojers inhabit a small range within a mile or two of the road in many parts or between Furreedabad and Dehli- a party of some of


[Page 148]
Note: 7341/2 M
Note: 7341/2

principal consisting of fourteen were discovered by some of the Beleingur Rajah's people sitting together near a village where they had been to collect a tribute a considerable party was immediately on this information sent to secure them but not withstanding the superiority of their number and being armed with matchlocks & while the Goojers had only their swords, they had not the spirit to effect it and the Goojers made good their retreat for a very considerable distance till only four of the party remained/ the other ten being picked off by the fire from the Prajahs people one of which seeing no prospect of escape surrendered himself prisoner and was immediately put to death before his companions faces. This made the remaining three desperate and after a short continuance of their march they took port in a tomb which had an upper story and maintained it against the dastardly [...]


[Page 149]
Note: Distance 7341/2
Note: 181/2
Note: 753

[...]The country this day's march in the same uncultivated and wretched state as the last scarcely a house in an hundred inhabited- Furrubad is the usual 4th stage from Mutturra to Dehli Distance 18 1/2 miles


[Page 150]
Note: 753 M
Note: 753

23.1. Dehli or Shah Jehanabad June [...]

Marched at 1/2 past 2 a.m. put upon the palace built by a Sufder Jung the grand father of the present Nabab of Azuff ul Dewlah. It is a very spacious building consisting of a number of different squares- All the buildings of it are on ground floor and it is large enough to contain with case ten thousand troops- This is I believe the only remaining palace of the Old Emiers standing in Delhi about four miles from Furreedabad we passed a rivulet over which is a bridge of 3 arches and about a mile further is another with alike bridge called Booreaky-


[Page 151]
Note: Distance 753
Note: 753

Booreaky Pool on the north side of this stream is a siraw and garden called Cojah ka Siraw and Cojah ka baug from hence you pass the villages of Budderpore Tujeunt and Loochgunge till you arrive at Kissindass ka Tullon about 7 miles from Shah Ichanabad. The ancient town of Dehli extended from this tank to the present town but not a single house is at present to be met with in this space and the only remains are some tombs the most considerable of which is the tomb of Humaioon the father of Acbar it is a noble fabric & has hitherto perfectly withstood the ravages of time it is about 3 1/2 miles & of Ichanabad near it to S.W. is also an elegant tomb the considerably less than the former one over the Khan khanam and is also in perfect repair- a small stream runs to the S ward


[Page 152]
Note: Distance 753
Note: 753 M

of it over which is a bridge called Barra Poola having 12 arches/ about 2 or 3 miles to the west of this is seen rising the oblisk of Coolub ul Den which I had not an opportunity of examining- About half of a mile from Humaioon's Tomb you pass close the Puranna Keela- It is still almost entire and inhabited by the villagers it is famous on account of the Death of ac [...] who fell out of the window of this palace and was killed by the fall on approaching the town the Jumma Musjeed or grand mosque built by Shah Jehan presents itself a beautiful object and is well worth the attention of the travellers. Shah Ichanabad is surrounded by a wall which is very extensive and infinitely better peopled than Agra or any other town in our way since we left Chumbul-it is however in general meanly


[Page 153]
Note: Distance 753
Note: 753

Built and the few houses of any consequence being low roomed houses and surrounded with very high walls canot course contribute but little & its appearance - The Choke or Bazaar is very full at market time in the evenings and is a matter of wonder from whence they collect in such immense crowds- Still not with stan(din)g the populousness of the town there are many parts that are so very unsafe that the inhabitants dare not venture themselves in for fear of being carried off by the Goojers -who make their way over the wall at pleasure one of these dangerous places lead us behind the House we lived in. The royal palace is within the fort and totally concealed by the immense height of the walls- The fort is very handsme building and very well as the inclosing wall for a palace but not at all calculated for defence- it is of a great


[Page 154]
Note: Distance 753
Note: 753 M

extent and stands within the town wall on the banks of the river Jumma- Its built of red stone and the [...] of which there are a great number at the gates and on the tops of the towns are all of white marble- From this fort is a bridge that communicates with a small fort surrounded by the river, called Selingur, being built by Shah Selim it is but small and by the accounts I could get nearly filled up with earth- From the appearance of the country about the Old Fort or Purranna keela, I think the river has formerly run under the eastern wall of it, but is now nearly a mile distant. The Jumma at Shah Jehanabad is fordable before the rains and runs into many small channels opposite the town about 9 or 10 miles to the southwards of Shah Jehanabad about 2 miles to the west of the road you pass the remains of a very extensive


[Page 155]
Note: Distance 753
Note: 17

fortess called Tugluckabad built by Tugluck Shah but he dying before it was quite finished it was never inhabited: We rode up pretty near on our return from Delhi, it is an astonishing pile but much gone to decay and reported to be the retreat of many of the Goojers but none of them made their appearance in the middle of it there appears to have been a large palace , but it being late in the evening, we could not get a more distinct view of it. Shah Jehanabad by the medium of three observations 28.41 N Distance from Fureebad 7 Miles 770 Miles from Surat Signed Ch. Reynolds Surveyor

This is a selection from the original text


camp, death, decay, deserted, distress, ghat, journal, rain, ravage, remains, surveyor, transport, travel, unfortunate, village, water

Source text

Title: Journal from Surat to Agra & Dehly By the Way of Ugein

Author: Captain Charles Reynolds

Publication date: 1785

Provenance/location: This text was accessed through the British Library at Mss Eur B13 :India Office Records and Private Papers: No. K114

Digital edition

Original author(s): Captain Charles Reynolds

Language: English


Texts collected by: Ayesha Mukherjee, Amlan Das Gupta, Azarmi Dukht Safavi

Texts transcribed by: Muhammad Irshad Alam, Bonisha Bhattacharya, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Muhammad Ehteshamuddin, Kahkashan Khalil, Sarbajit Mitra

Texts encoded by: Bonisha Bhattacharya, Shreya Bose, Lucy Corley, Kinshuk Das, Bedbyas Datta, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Sarbajit Mitra, Josh Monk, Reesoom Pal

Encoding checking by: Hannah Petrie, Gary Stringer, Charlotte Tupman

Genre: India > non-fiction prose > travel narratives and reports

For more information about the project, contact Dr Ayesha Mukherjee at the University of Exeter.