The Voyages and Travells of the Ambassadors Sent by Frederick, Duke of Holstein
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The Voyage and Travellers of the Ambassadors Sent by Frederick, Duke of Hostein, published in the year 1669.Written by Adam Olearius. It is a narrative account of various travellers to several countries including India. Adam Olearius was born in 1599. He was a scholar who was a part of Frederick III’s court and it was through the king’s patronage that he would be able to take part in various expeditions. He also did important work as Frederick III’s librarian. He died in 1671. His principal work is The Voyage and Travellers of the Ambassadors Sent by Frederick, Duke of Hostein. The work offers a detailed look at various kingdoms;what is of particular interest is the state of the Mughal kingdom then and how dual conditions of abundance and dearth are witnessed by various dukes whose accounts are compiled by Olearius. Primary Source Olearius,Adam,The Voyage and Travellers of the Ambassadors Sent by Frederick, Duke of Hostein, EEBO, Copy from University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign Campus) Bib name / number: Wing / O270 Suggested Reading MONSERRATE, A., HOYLAND, J. S., & BANERJEE, S. N. (2003). The commentary of Father Monserrate, S.J., on his journey to the court of Akbar. New Delhi, Asian Educational Services
THE Voyages and Travells OF THE AMBASSADORS Sent by FREDERICK DUKE of HOLSTEIN, to the Great Duke of Muscovy, and the King of Persia. Begun in the year M.DC.XXXIII. and finish'd in M.DC.XXXIX. Containing a Compleat HISTORY OF Muscovy, Tartary, Persia. And other adjacent COUNTRIES. With several Publick Transactions reaching near the Present Times; In VII. Books. Whereto are added The TRAVELS of JOHN ALBERT de MANDELSLO, (a Gentleman belonging to the Embassay) from PERSIA, into the East-Indies. CONTAINING A particular Description of INDOSTHAN, the MOGUL'S Empire, the ORIENTAL ILANDS, JAPAN, CHINA, &c. and the Revolutions which happened in those Countries, within these few years. In III. Books. The whole Work illustrated with divers accurate Mapps, and Figures. Written originally by ADAM OLEARIUS, Secretary to the Embassy. Faithfully rendred into English, by JOHN DAVIES, of Kidwelly. The Second Edition Corrected. LONDON, Printed for John Starkey, and Thomas Basset, at the Mitre near Temple-Barr, and at the George near St. Dunstans Church in Fleet-street. 1669.
To the Right Worshipful, The GOVERNOUR and FELLOWSHIP of ENGLISH MERCHANTS, for discovery of New Trades, in MUSCOVY, RUSSIA, &c.
Right Worshipful, HAd these been the Travels of some private Person, I should have contented my self with a personal Dedication thereof. But being the accompt of a Solemn Embassy, sent to two of the greatest Princes of Europe and Asia, upon so Publick and Noble a Design as that of the Silk-Trade, carried on with vast charge and many difficulties, for several years, the address of my Endeavours herein is most properly due to that Body of Merchants, to whom the advancement of our Trade into those Parts is particularly recommended.It is not unknown to you, what opposition this Negotiation met withall from the several Parties therein concern'd; and consequently, you can best judge, what advantages may be made thereof, in order to the Interest of this Nation.
The Travels of particular Persons have their benefit and delight; but those of Ambassadors have this further recommendation, that they contain such Discoveries, as having been made to Them, out of a deference to their Publick and Sacred Character, were not to be expected by any others, Travelling only upon a Private Accompt. They were first published by Adam Olearius, a Person, by his near Relation to the Embassy, (whereof he was Secretary) his Knowledge of the Mathematicks, but particularly his Acquaintance with the Languages of the Countries, through which they Travell'd, perfectly accomplish'd for a Work of this Nature.
What he writ of these Travels in his own Language, the German, was so kindly receiv'd, that it soon after Travell'd into several others, which gave some encouragement to the [...]endring of them into English; the more seasonably at this time, in as much as this Kingdom, especially this City, begins to disperse its Industrious Inhabitants, and spreads the Wings of its Trade into the most remote Cantons of the World. Which that it may do, till its Wealth at home, and Honour abroad, be so highly improv'd, as that this Corner of the Universe may give Laws to the Noblest parts thereof, shall be the constant and earnest wish of, Right Worshipful, Your most humbly devoted Servant, JOHN DAVIES.
TO THE READER
Hhi>ISTORY hath this advantage of Philosophy, that it instructs more efficaciously; this, of Romance, that it is more divertive; inasmuch asExamples make a deeper impression than Precepts, and Truth Instils into rational minds a satisfaction, which they find not in Fables. But Travels have this over and above, that they do both incomparably better than History. For as, on one side, a man, reflecting on the Policy and Morality of divers Nations, deduces thence useful Lessons of Prudence, and delightfully surveys the strange Circulations of humane Nature; so, on the other, he finds the greater divertisement in the Relations, out of this regard, that he participates of the Pleasure, which charms the Travellers, but not of the hardships, hazards, and inconveniences wherewith they are attended.
The Travels into Muscovy and Persia, publish'd by Adam Olearius, have been so well receiv'd by such as were able to judge of the worth of that Piece, that I dare presume, others will take it kindly, to find, in this Edition, what he had promis'd the World in his first. The aboad he had made at Moscou and Ispahan, and the knowledge he had acquir'd of the Language of the Country, had, as he affirmed then, brought him acquainted with the mysteries of their Religion; but printing his Book in some hast, he omitted many things, which he should otherwise have inserted. He hath since done it at leisure, so fully, that it seems to be quite another Relation, in as much as, considering this Revision, what is now publish'd is both a more curious, and more compleat Piece. They will find that he hath added thereto the Maps of LIVONIA, MVSCOVY, the CASPIAN-SEA, PERSIA, and the INDIES, and, what may be justly accounted the greatest curiosity, the Course of the Great River WOLGA, whereof there had been little seen in these parts before, and without which, it were impossible to track the Travellors through all those remote Countries. Besides which, there is, in this Edition of ours, a Map of CHINA, and several other pieces of Sculpture, for the further satisfaction and entertainment of the Reader.
There is no necessity of repeating here what the Preface of the first Edition entertain'd the Reader withall, concerning the occasion of the Embassy, sent by the Duke of Holstein into Muscovy and Persia; the endowments and worth of that great Prince; the noble design he had fram'd to himself, for carrying on the Silk-Trade by Land; the difficulties, or rather impossibilities, which happened in the prosecution thereof; the insolent, rash, and extravagant carriage of the Ambassador Brugman, his treacherous designs, and unfortunate end: But I cannot forbear giving some account of the Illustrious John Albert de Mandelslo, the Heroe, of the Travels into the East-Indies, which title I give him, in regard there are in his Travels some miraculous adventures.
MANDELSLO, a Gentleman well born, had his Education at the Duke of Holstein's Court, to whom he had been a Page. Hearing of an Embassy intended for Muscovy and Persia, he would needs be one in it; and as if he were that Vertuous Man, who looks upon the whole World as his Country, he would not depart, ere he had obtain'd his Prince's leave, to see the other parts of Asia. During his aboad at Ispahan, he got acquainted with some English Merchants, who, speaking to him of the Indies, rais'd in him a desire to go thither. The King of Persia, to engage his stay at his Court, proffers him a Pension of ten thousand Crowns; he slights the favour of so great a Prince, gets on horse-back, with no great Sums about him, and sets forward on his Journey, with a retinue of three German Servants, and one Persian, who was to be his Guide and Interpreter, but forsook him, when he stood in most need of his service and assistance. It was also a very strange Adventure, which made him find civil entertainment and hospitality at Surat; made him subsist at the charge of others; conducted him by Land to the Great Mogul's Court; brought him safely back again to Surat; preserv'd the ship he was in after so many tempests near the Cape of Good-Hope; and miraculously deliver'd him at his first arrival into England, when he was given over for irrecoverably lost in the very haven, as may be seen neer the end of his Travels.
To these Mandelslo had a particular inclination, and knew so well how to make his advantages thereof, that Olearius himself makes no difficulty to confess, that he met with, in his Notes, many things, which might have been added to his Relation, and have found a kind reception even among the more Curious, had he been as forward to have his Travels publish'd, as he had been to prosecute them. But Mandelslo, instead of giving the world that satisfaction, and continuing with his Friend, who might have further'd him in his design, left the Court of Holstein, where he found not employment proportionable to his merit, and betaking himself to another Profession, he got into a Regiment of Horse, commanded by a German, who, purely by his Military accomplishments, had rais'd himself to one of the greatest dignities of France. He had therein the Command of a Troop, and, being a person of much courage, and endu'd with all the qualities requisite to the making up of a great man, was likely to have rais'd himself to a more than ordinary fortune, when coming to Paris to pass away the Winter, he there died, of the small Pox.
Being at Surat, in December 1638. he made a kind of Will, concerning his Papers, which he put before the beginning of his Relation, wherein he desir'd his Friend Olearius, not to suffer it to be publish'd, in regard he had not had the leisure to digest it into order, or if he did, that he would rather regard therein his reputation after his death, than the friendship they had mutually promis'd one another, and faithfully improv'd, during the four years of their joynt-Travels.
Mandelslo was no great Scholar, but could make a shift to understand a Latin Author, which helpt him much in the attaining of the Turkish Language, wherein he came to a considerable perfection. His Friend taught him also the use of the Astrolabe, so that he was able to take the Longitudes and Latitudes that are in several places of his Book, and without which it had been impossible for him, to be much skill'd in Geography, which makes the most considerable part of this kind of Relations.
Olearius hath indeed been very much his Friend, not only in reforming and refining his Style, which could not be very elegant in a person of his Profession, but also in making several observations and additions thereto, printing it in Folio, in a very fair character, and adorning it with several pieces of Sculpture.
Olearius's kindness to his Friend, in enriching his Relation, with many excellent remarks, taken out of Emanuel Osorio, Maffaeus, and the chief Voyages of the Dutch, gave the French Translator thereof, A de Wicquefort, occasion to augment the said Book with whatever he found excellent in all those, who have given the best account of the East-Indies. So that it is to him we are oblig'd for the exact description of the Province of Guzuratta, the Kingdoms of Pegu, and Siam, &c. the state of the affairs of Zeilon, Sumatra, Java, the Molucca's and Japan, as also for the Religions of these people. So that there is, in this Edition of ours, especially as to the Travels of Mandelslo, a third part more than there is in the largest of the German Editions.
The Reader will find therein many things, which will haply seem incredible to him, as, among others, he may haply be astonish'd at the wealth of a Governour of Amadabab, and at that of a King of Indosthan, as also at the vast revenues of the Provinces and Lords of China and Japan; but, besides that there is nothing of Romance in all this, and that there is no comparison to be made between the wealth of Europe and that of Asia, there are many persons, in France and England, that will justifie our Relation, though it said much more than it does.
I might here trouble the Reader with what I find in the Learned Isaac Vossius's Observations upon Pomponius Mela (Lib. 3. c. 5. v. 16. concerning the length and breadth of the Caspian Sea, wherein he differs from our Author, and prefers the measure of it by our Countryman Jenkinson, before that of Olearius. But I choose rather to referr the more critical to the place it self, and leave them to satisfie their own curiosity, by conferring what is there said by Vossius, with the account given by Olearius, of the said Sea, pag. 190, 191, 192. of this English Edition of the Travels.
I have only this to add that the French Translator, de Wicquefort, promises the world (if it be not abroad already) a Piece of his own; which coming out under the authentick name of History, will contain some thing beyond what may be expected from a Relation.
1. THE TRAVELS OF THE AMBASSADORS FROM THE DUKE of HOLSTEIN INTO MUSCOVY, and PERSIA. The First Book.
THE Most High and Mighty Prince, Frederick, by the Grace of God, Hereditary Prince of Norway, Duke of Sleswick and Holstein, of Stormarie and Ditmars, Count of Oldenburg, &c. having built the City of Frederickstad, in the Dutchy ofHolstein, would settle there the Trade of Silks, the most important, no doubt, of any in Europe. Persia is the Kingdome, which of any in the World, yeilds most of it, upon which accompt, the said Prince resolv'd to court the friendship of the Sophy. But in regard there were several reasons, why the Silks could not be brought home by Sea, and that, to transport them by Land, he stood in need of the permission of the Czarr, or great Duke of Muscovy, he thought fit in the year 1633. to send a solemn Embassy to those two great Monarks.
He employ'd in this Embassy, Philip Crusius, a Lawyer and his privy Councellor, and Otton Brugman, a Marchant of Hamborough, whom he honour'd with the quality of Councellor. On the 22. of October in the year aforesaid, they departed from Gottorp, the place where Duke Frederick made his residence, and went to Hamborough, where they took order for their Voyage.
There they entertain'd their retinue, which consisted of 34 persons, and departed thence the 6. of November. The next day they came to Lubeck; the 8. to Tavemund, where the Ambassadors took into their service an experienc'd Sea-Captain named Michael Cordes, who was to be their Pilot, especially upon the Caspian Sea.
The 9. we took leave of our Friends, who had come along with us from Hamborough, and embarqu'd in a Ship called the Fortune, whereof John Muller was Commander. We took abord along with us Wendelin Sibelist, a Physician, who was going to Muscovy, to be principal Physician to the Great Duke.
We got out of the Haven about 2. in the afternoon, and anchor'd in the Road at 8. fathom water. About 9. at night, the wind South-West, we set sail, and made that night 20. leagues. The next day, the Ambassadors thought fit to make some particular Orders to be observ'd during our Voyage, so to prevent the disorders which are but too frequent among those, who ordinarily leave not their own Country, but out of a hope to live with greater freedom elsewhere; and to see the execution of them the better performed, they named several Officers, giving the Secretary of the Embassy the quality of Fiscal, and to Wendelin Sibelist, and Hartman Gramam, our Physician, that of Assessors. They discharg'd their places well, and Justice was [...]o duely administred, that at the end of our Voyage, which was but of five dayes, the penalties [Page 2] came to above 22. Crowns, which were put into the hands of the Captain, with order they should be equally distributed between the Poor of Riga and Lubeck.
The same day, toward evening, we pass'd by the Island of Bornholm, leaving it a good league on the right hand. That Island is conceiv'd to be distant from Lubeck 40. German Leagues. The length and breadth of it is neer the same, viz. 3. leagues; it hath a Royal Palace, named Hammershausen, belonging to the King of Denmark. Towards the North-side of the Island are the Rocks called Erdholm, well known by reason of the frequent wracks, which make them so much the more formidable to Mariners in the Autumn, in regard the darkness of the nights keeps them from being discover'd, and that all about them those that sound meet with no bottom.
The 11. at noon, we were at 56. degrees of latitude, the weather continuing fair; but, towards night, the wind, still at South-West, rais'd such a tempest, that we were forc'd to take in all our sails, and go before the wind till the next morning. Those among us who were not us'd to the Sea, were so sick, that some vomited blood: but in regard we had the wind a-stern, it's violence hindred us not from keeping on our course, and making fifteen Leagues that night.
Some are of opinion, that the stinch of the salt water, corrupting in the sink, is that which provokes such vomiting. Others, on the contrary, affirm, that it is caused by the violent agitation of the Ship, which makes the head turn, and the stomack to cast up what is in it. But certain it is, that both contribute thereto, in as much as if the agitation trouble the brain, the stinch also offends it, and makes those heart-sick whose smelling is subtile, provoking vomiting, even without any violent motion, wherever they are, not only at Sea, but also any where else. Those who conceive, that people are not subject hereto upon Rivers are deceiv'd; for, besides that experience hath evinc'd the contrary, we have there the same motion, and fresh water being corrupted, stinks no less than the salt:
The 12. we had so great a calm, that the Ship being as it were fastnen'd to the same place, we had the convenience to bring our Musical Instruments upon the deck, to sing a Te Deum, and to give God thanks for our deliverance, out of the imminent danger we had been in the night before.
About noon the wind came to South, which carried us to the Cap de Demesnes, in Courland, where we cast Anchor, and staid all night. The next day 13. the wind West, we weighed Anchor, doubled the Cape, enter'd into the Bay, and came, the 14. before the Fort of Dunemunde, so called, because situated at the mouth of the River Dune, where that River enters the Baltick Sea, within two leagues ofRiga, And forasmuch as the thick mist hindred those of the Fort from seeing us, we caus'd the Trumpets to sound, to oblige them to send us a Pilot, without whose assistance we should hardly have got into the Haven. Those who had the oversight of the Customes, came immediately to search our Ship, but finding no Merchants goods in it, for which they might challenge ought, they return'd back, and sent us a Pilot, who conducted us that night as far as before the City of Riga. The Ambassadours being got ashore, at the entrance of the City found a coach, which the Governour had sent to meet them: but in regard they were not far from their Inn, they would make no use of it, and so kept on their way afoot.
The 21th. the Magistrate sent his Presents to the Ambassadors, viz. an Ox, some Sheep, some Poultry, Hares, Patridges, and other Fowl, Wheaten and Ry-Bread, and half a Tun of Rhenish Wine. The 24th. The Ambassadors entertained, at Dinner, Andrew Erichzon, the Governour of the City, as also the Magistrate, the principal Minister, who amongst the Lutherans is look'd upon as a Bishop, and some Officers of the Garrison.
During our abode in this City, which was almost five weeks, in expectation the Fens of those parts should be frozen up, and the snow cover the Way, which we were to Travel in Sledges, we augmented our retinue with some necessary persons for that great journey, and we had the leisure to learn the condition of the City, whereof we shall here give a short description.
Clytraus, in his History of Saxony, p. 19. says, That the City of Riga was built by Albert the third, Bp. of Livonia, in the Year 1196. but Alnoul, Abbot of Lubeck, an Author of the same time (as living under Otho IV.) says, in the continuation of the Chronicle of Helmold, 1. 7. c. 9. that it was built in the year 1189. by Bertold, Abbot of Locken, in the County of Shavenbourg, in the Diocese of Minden, of the Order of White-Friers, successor to Menard in the Bishoprick of Livonia, the seat whereof he setled at Riga. In the Year 1215. it was rais'd to an Archbishoprick, and made Metropolitane of all Livonia, Prussia, and Curland. The Knights of the Espadon, and, afterwards, the Master of the Teutonick Order in Prussia, have, many times, divided the administration of Justice and the Soveraignty in that place, with the Archbishop, till that, in consequence of the Reformation of Religion, both lost the Authority they had in this City. It was forc'd afterwards to have recourse to the Crown of Poland, whose it became by a voluntary rendition, made in the year 1561. occasion'd by the War with the Muscovite. Since that, Charles, Duke of Sudermania, having usurp'd the Crown of Sueden, from Sigismond, his Nephew, who had been called to that of Poland, thought it not enough to fortify himself in the possession of what he had usurped, but conceiving he might turn into an Offensive War, that which even in the Defensive was criminal, he enter'd Livonia in the Year 1605. where he besieg'd the City of Riga. He was forc'd to raise the siege; as also to do the like in the year 1609. but Gustavus Adolphus was so fortunate as to take it, in the year 1621. Ever since that time, the Suedes have been in possession of it, though without any Title thereto; the Treaty agreed on between the two Crowns in the year 1635. allowing them the possession of it no longer than till the Peace, which was to be made between the two Kings, should restore it to it's lawful Prince, or bestow it on him who was possess'd of it. The Suedes discover how unwilling they would be to restore it, by the care they took when we were upon our Travels, to carry on the Fortifications thereof. They consist, on the land side, of six regular Bastions, with their Half-moons, and their Counterscarps Palisadoed. It's situation is very pleasant, in a spacions Valley, upon the River of Dune, which in that place, is a large quarter of a League broad. It is very populous, and very considerable because of its Commerce, as well with the English and Hollanders, and the Hansiatick Towns, in Summer time, while the Baltick Sea is Navigable, as with the Muscovites when the frost and snow can bear Sledges. The Traffick of it is so great, that it hath almost as many Shops as Houses. All Provisions are very cheap, because there is such an abundance of all, that an Ox may be bought for three Crowns, a Hog for one, and Fowl and Venison proportionably, all the Country Peasants thereabouts having the liberty to Hunt, though they have not any other. Since the last reduction of it, they have no other Religion there than the Protestant, the Magistrate and Inhabitants being all Lutherans, and so zealous in their way, that they no less hate those of the Reformation, than they do the Catholicks, and Muscovites. There is no Inhabitant almost but understands the Highdutch, the Sclavonian, and Curland Language; but the Magistrate in his publick Acts makes use only of the Highdutch. The same is used by the Ministers in their Sermons, unless it be that for the meaner sort of people, who understand not the Highdutch well, there are Sermons made in the Sclavonian and Curland Language, in two several Churches.
Decem. 14. we dispatch'd away 35 Sledges, with part of our Train and Baggage, and the next day, the Ambassadors follow'd, by the way of Derpt. The 18th we came to Wolmar, a small Town, distant from Riga 18 leagues, and so ruin'd by the Muscovites and Polanders, that the Inhabitants, to avoid the injuries of the weather, have been forc'd to make little buildings of wood upon the ruines of better foundations. The Governour came to meet us, and entertain'd us kindly. The 20th we got six leagues farther, to the Castle of Ermes, belonging to Colonel De la Barre, who treated us most magnificently.
The 21th we got four leagues to the Castle of Halmet, where we saw a young Elk, which was higher than a Horse, brought to us while we sate at Table. The 22th we got four leagues further, to the Castle of Ringen; and the 23th we reach'd Derpt or Torpat. This City is within 6 leagues of the Castle of Ringuen, upon the River Eimbec, between the Lakes of Worzero and Peipis, in the heart of Livonia. Its buildings are very antient, but extremely ruin'd by the War. The Muscovites, who call it Juriogored, were possess'd of it, till the year 1230. in which the Master of the Teutonick Order took it, and rais'd it to a Bishoprick. John Basilovits, Great Duke of Muscovy, retook it the 19th of July 1558. without any resistance, through a pannick fear of the Bishop, the Nobility and the Inhabitants, who rendred it upon the first Summons. In the year 1571. Reinold Rose, a Gentleman of the Country, attempted to put the City into the hands of Magnus, Duke of Holstein, but this design being discovered, he was cut to pieces by the Muscovites, who thereupon exercis'd all manner of cruelties upon the Inhabitants of that City, without any distinction of age or sex. It return'd to the Crown of Poland, with all the rest of Livonia, by the Peace made between the Great Duke, John Basilovits, and Stephen Battory, King of Poland, in the year 1582. Jacob de la Garde, General of the Suedish Army, took it from the Polanders, in the year 1625. since which time the Suedes have kept it, but by a Clause in the Treaty of 1635. viz. Until it should be otherwise dispos'd of, according to the event of the present War. The late King of Sueden, Gustavus Adolphus, founded an University there, in the year 1632. at the instance of John Skytte, whom the said King made Baron of Duderof, and, afterward, Senator of the Crown of Sueden, as a gratification for the pains he had taken, in laying the first foundations of Learning in him. But the University is not much known, either for the reputation of its Professors, or number of its Scholars; there having not been above ten Suedes, and haply as many Finlanders, who ever could be perswaded, there was any thing to be learnt in those quarters.
Having kept Christmass at Derpt, we left it Dec. 29. and got, the 3d. of January 1634. to Narva, where we were forc'd to stay almost six moneths, in expectation of the Suedish Ambassadors, who were to go along with us to Muscovy. But though we had here, as well as at Riga, all divertisements imaginable, keeping open house, and having Musick at Meals, the Ambassadors entertaining all persons of Quality, and endeavour'd to abate the wearisomness of our stay there, by banquets, hunting matches, and walking, for which there were dayly appointments made; yet did that course of life, with the impatience we were in to go on in out Travels, become in time insupportable to us. Upon which consideration, as also that it was conceived in a manner impossible the Suedish Ambassadors should come before the Spring; that then the way between Narva and Novogorod would be very ill for travelling, and that in the interim our people had daily quarrels with the Souldiers of the Garrison; it was resolved, that on the 28th. of February, Mr. Paul Fleming should be sent away with part of the Train and Baggage, and that he should goe by Sledges to Novogorod. Dr. Wendelin made use of that convenience, and so took his way for the City of Mosco. We had had yet another inconvenience, in that, Provisions failing us, our Pourveyors, who were Muscovites, were forc'd to go 8 and 10 Leagues from the City to get Fowl and Mutton. And in regard we could not so soon expect the Suedish Ambassadors, ours went with a retinue of twelve persons to Revel, where they were receiv'd with the shooting off the great Guns, complemented, and entertain'd with Presents, by the Magistrate, the Governour and principal Citizens, who did us much honour during the stay we made there, which was six weeks. Of Revel, Narva, and the rest of Livonia, we shall speak in the ensuing Book.
May 10. Philip Scheiding, Governour of Revel, named to be Chief of the Embassy which the Crown of Sueden sent to Muscovy, had information that his Collegues were come to Narva; so that being ready for his journey, we left Revel the 15th following, the Governour causing the Artillery to be discharg'd at our departure. We came to Narva the 18th and within a League of the City, met with Colonel Henry Fleming, Eric Gyllenstiern, and Andrew Bureus, design'd for the Embassy of Muscovy, with a very gallant retinue. The Governour caus'd all the great Guns to be discharg'd at our entrance, as he had done the first time. The Ambassadors resolv'd the next day, that to go to Novogorod, they would take the way of Carlelia, by Sea, or the Lake of Ladoga; whereof they sent notice to the Governour of Novogorod by an Express, that he might take order for our reception, and that we might not be stay'd upon the Frontiers. For it is the custom of Muscovy and Persia to make stranger Ambassadors stay on the Frontiers, till the Governour of the Province hath sent intelligence to the Court of their arrival, and receiv'd orders from his Soveraign, for their reception and entertainment. The reason whereof is, that the great Duke of Muscovy, as also the King of Persia, defrays the charges of the Ambassadours, both as to Provisions and Carriage, from their coming into their Countreys, and to that end allows them a Conductor, whom the Muscovites call Pristaf, and the Persians, Mehemander, who provide for their entertainment and conveyance of their baggage, and have a party of Souldiers for their Convoy.
The Suedish Ambassadors, having dispatch'd a Messenger to Novogorod, left Narva the 22th. of May, by the way of Kapurga, where they made accompt to pa [...]s over Whitsuntide, so to be nearer the Frontiers of Muscovy. In the mean time, we stay'd at Narva; where I had the curiosity to go, May 24. being Whitsun Eve, to Russian Narva, and there to observe the Ceremonies of their Anniversary, and their Devotions towards their deceas'd Kinred and Friends. The Church-yard was full of Muscovite women, who had spread the Graves with Handkerchers, whereof the Corners were fring'd with silk of several colours, upon which they had lay'd dishes full of fish broyl'd and fry'd, Custards, Cakes, and painted Eggs. Some stood; others kneel'd, making divers questions to their Kinred, weeping over their Graves, and expressing their affliction by dreadful howlings; but with so little attention, that they slipp'd no occasion of speaking, nor indeed of laughing with those of their acquaintance who pass'd by. The Priest, attended by his Clerks, walk'd up and down the Church-yard, having in his hand a Censer, into which he ever and anon cast little pieces of Wax, to cense the Sepulchers. The women named to him, those of their Kinred and Friends whom they would recommend to his prayers, pulling him by the surplice to be serv'd one before the other. The Priest did this devotion very slightly, and with so little attention, that he was but too well pay'd with the piece of Copper they gave, so far was he from deserving the Provisions they brought him, which his Clerks had a care to secure for the advantage of their Master.
The 26th We did our Devotions, and having sent away our baggage, and part of our train, by water, as far as Neuschans, we left Narva the 28. Colonel Port, Governour of the place, did us all possible honour at our departure, and accompany'd us to Gam, which is a fortified place, or rather a Fort, in the Province of Inguermannia, not 12. (as the Baron of Herberstein says in his travels of Muscovy) but three leagues from Narva, upon a small River called the torrent of Gam. 'Tis a small place, but encompass'd with a good Wall, and fortified with five Bastions built of stone, having near it a Village inhabited by Muscovites, but subjects to the Crown of Sueden. There we took up fresh Horses, which brought us to Kapurga, six leagues from Gam, whether we got the 29th. Burgislas Rose, Governour of the Fort; received us kindly, and treated us sumptuously, both that night at Supper, and the next day at Dinner. We departed the 30th. at three, afternoon, being to Lodge that night at the house of a Bojar, or Muscovite Lord; but in regard we had still seven Leagues to go, we were forc'd to travel all night, and could not reach it till three next morning. The Bojar entertain'd us nobly, and gave us the divertisement of two Trumpets while we were at Dinner. And to honour us the more, as we [Page 5] riss from Table, he caus'd his Wife and Daughter to come in; they were very rich in Cloaths, attended by a Gentle-woman or waiting-maid, who was extremely deformed, the more to set off the beauty of the Ladies, who indeed needed not that foil. They drank each of them a Cup of Aquavitae, and presented each of them as much to the Ambassadors. This is the greatest honour the Muscovites think they can do strangers; unless it be, that, to make it a transcendent civility, they also suffer them to be kiss'd. This civility Count Alexander Slakou did me, when the Duke my Master sent me since into Muscovy, in the year 1643. in acknowledgement of the honour he had receiv'd in our Court, during his Exile. This Bojar's name was N. Basilovits. He was a very handsome person, and of an excellent good humour. He told us he had been in the Wars of Germany; that in the year 1631. he was at the battel of Leipsig, and shew'd us the scars of the wounds he had receiv'd there.
The last of May, at one afternoon, we took leave of him, and got four Leagues that day, to Johannestal, or St. John's Valley, so called from the name of Baron John Skytte, who was then going to build a little Citie there. There it was we met with the first persecution of Files, Gnats, and Wasps, which the Fens thereabouts produce in such quantity, that a man hath much ado to make his party good against them. There we received intelligence, that the Suedish Ambassadours expected us at Neuschans, which caus'd us to be on our way June 1. by three in the morning. Neuschans, by others called Nie, is a Fort, two Leagues and a half from Johannesthal, upon a Navigable River rising out of the Lake Ladoga, discharging it self into the Gulf of Finland, and serving for a common Frontier between Carlelia and Inguermannia. The Suedish Ambassadors departed thence after a conference of two hours had with ours. We follow'd them the next day, June 2. and came the same day to Noteburg, where we stay'd above six weeks, in expectation of the Great Duke's orders for our reception. The Governour of the place, John Kunemund, cross'd the River in a Boat, made, and cover'd like a Gondole, to come and meet us. The Suedish Ambassadors kept open house during their stay at Noteburg, and every meal sent their Mareshall, a place like that of High Steward in the Courts of Germany, and the Gentlemen of their retinue, to invite and conduct to them the Ambassadors of Holstein.
June 17. came to Noteburg Mr. Spring, Farmer General of the Outland customs of Sueden and Livonia, one of the Ambassadors design'd from Sueden, for Muscovy. June 25. the Suedish Ambassadors had intelligence that the Weywode or Governour of Novogorod had sent a Pristaf, to receive them upon the Frontiers, which oblig'd them to depart the next day to go to Laba. Ours accompany'd them four Leagues from Noteburg, and permitted me to follow the Suedes even to the Frontier, to see the Ceremonies of their reception. The 27. at four in the morning, we came to the River which is about 40 paces broad, and, in that place, serves for a Frontier between Sueden and Muscovy. The Ambassadors having understood, that there were on the other side of the River seventeen Boats, for their waftage over, sent immediately their Interpreter to the Pristaf, to desire him to send some of them to bring over the baggage, so to facilitate their reception. The Pristaf, who was an aged man, made answer, that he durst not do it, and that they were not to imagine, the expences of one day, which they should not think much to lose, would be any inconvenience to the Czaar his Master (so the Muscovites call their Prince) and that he must begin with the reception of the Ambassadors. About noon he sent to them his Interpreter, with four Musketiers, whom they call Strelits, whereof he had about thirty to wait on him at this Ceremony, to tell them, that he was ready to give them reception. One of the Ambassadors made him answer somewhat roundly, yet civilly enough, that they had been five weeks upon the Frontiers, and that the Pristaf could not take it ill, if they made him stay one day; That his Collegues being then taking their rest, he could not make him an absolute answer, and that he should have notice, when they could pass the River with their convenience. The Ambassadors were indeed asleep, which happen'd as well in regard they had travell'd all night, as that, being come to the Frontiers of Muscovy, they comply'd with the custom of the Countrey, where sleep is as necessary after Dinner as in the Night. One of the Suedish Ambassadors ask'd the Interpreter, when those of Holstein would be receiv'd; he told him he could not tell, but, as he thought, it would be three weeks first, that is, after the arrival of the Suedish Ambassadors at Moscou, because the same horses and carriages were to bring them thither. About 4. afternoon, the Ambassadors gave notice they were ready to crosse the River, and that the Pristaf had no more to do but to receive them; whereupon they, with their Interpreter, went into one Boat, and I with some of their Gentlemen into another. The Pristaf got into another, accompany'd by fifteen Muscovites in very good order; but to express the greatness of his Prince, the Boat-men, who were instructed how to behave themselves, put off so slowly that they could hardly quit the shore, forbearing ever and anon to row, purposely to let the Ambassadors get before, which method was also observ'd by the Boat-man that carried over the Ambassadors. But Philip Scheiding, perceiving the intention of the Muscovites, calls to the Pristaf, telling him, that pride was not seasonable at that time, that he should come forward, and consider, that that kind of proceeding would conduce as little to the advantage of the Great Duke, as to the disadvantage of their Prince. At last the Boats being all [Page 6] come to the middle of the River, the Pristaf advanc'd, and read out of a paper, That the Great Duke and Czaar, Michael Federouits, &c. had ordered the reception of the Ambassadors coming from the Crown of Sueden, and that he had given command, they should be provided for, they and their retinue, with Provisions and all things necessary, till they came to the Citie of Mosco. After the Ambassadors had answered the Complement, the Pristaf brought them ashore, and conducted them to a Gentlemans house who was of the quality they call Simbojar, not far from the River, where they were receiv'd into a little Stove, black as Hell, by reason of the smoakiness, yet had they then made a fire, never considering the sultriness of the weather, which indeed was extreme. They treated the Ambassadors with spic'd bread, some gobelets of a very strong kind of Aquavitae, and with two sorts of very bad Hydromel. The Ambassadors only put it to their lips, and having pass'd the Cup from hand to hand, the last presented it to me, with this commendation, addatur parum sulphuris & fiet potio infernalis. After this banquet, which lasted about an hour, during which time, the Muscovite Muketiers gave several volleys such as they were, the Ambassadors and the Pristaf departed; the Suedes in twelve Boats, and the Muscovites, with Colours and Drum, in three. I return'd to Notebourg, where our Ambassadors continued three weeks, as the Pristaf had foretold.
The Countrey, which the Muscovites call Osinca, about Notebourg, is very pleasant, so that we wanted no divertisement, especially that of hunting. Within a quarter of a League of Notebourg are two Isles, distant one from the other, as far as a Musket will carry, both well stor'd with wood, and so furnish'd with Fowl that our pieces could hardly be at rest for them, and the Sea-dogs, whereof there is an incredible number in the Lake, found us excellent sport, when they expos'd themselves to the Sun along the Rocks. We had also the learned and divertive conversation of Mr. Peter Crusbiorn, who came, during that time, to Notebourg, with a design to go into Muscovy, in the quality of Resident from the Crown of Sueden. This place is situated at 63. degrees, 30. minutes, at the entrance of the Lake Ladoga, upon an Isle, which the said Lake makes there in form like a Nut, which gives it the name. The Muscovites had built it, and encompass'd it with a wall, two fathom and a half thick, against the attempts of the Suedes, who took it, under the command of James de la Garde, after the extremities of the siege, and a contagious disease had consum'd the whole Garrison to two men, who yet made a very advantageous Capitulation. The place is pleasant and delightfull, but not healthy, because of the fresh-water Lakes and Fenns that ly about it. We were extremely troubled there with a kind of Fly much like those which in Latine are called Pyraustae, whereof there was such abundance, that many times they depriv'd us of the sight of Heaven, and would not suffer us to open our eyes. These insects are also very numerous in Carelia, but not neer so much as at Notebourg.
July 16. Notice was brought us, that a Pristaf, named Simon Andrew Kareckshin, was come to the Frontiers, to receive us; so that we put all things in order for our journey, and departed the 20. for Laba. We were no sooner got thither, but the Pristaf's Interpreter, accompany'd by a Musketier, came to know, whether the Ambassadors desir'd to be received? In answer whereto, we asking, whether he would receive us on this side, or in the middle of the River, as he had receiv'd the Suedish Ambassadors; he told us, we had no more to do but to pass, and that those Ceremonies were observ'd only with the Suedes, because of the contest there is between them about the Frontiers.
Having pass'd the River, we found the Pristaf standing within 8 or 10 paces of the shore, clad in a long Coat of red Damask. As soon as the Ambassadors had set foot on land, he came towards us, being still cover'd, till such time as he began to speak. Then he took off his Cap, as he pronounc'd the Great Duke's name, reading out of a paper these words, His Majestie, the Czaar, Michael Federouits, Conservator of all the Russians, &c. hath sent me hither, to receive thee, Philip Crusius, and thee, Otton Brugman, Ambassadors from the Duke of Holstein, and commanded me to accommodate you and retinue, with Provisions, Carriages Horses, and what else shall be necessary, till you come to the Citie of Moscou.
His Interpreter, whose name was Anthony, spoke High-Dutch so ill, that we had much ado to understand him. The Ambassadors made answer by their own Interpreter, John Arpenbeck, who was very well vers'd in the Muscovian Language. This done, The Pristaf gave the Ambassadours the upper hand, and conducted them to the Inn, through a party of twelve Musketiers, all Cosaques. The volley they gave us was not so well discharg'd, but that the Secretary belonging to the Resident of Sueden, who came along with us to see the Ceremonies of our reception, was shot in his Buff-coat. After a collation of Ginger-Bread, Cherries newly preserv'd, and Aquavitae, we took water again, and embark'd for the continuation of our Voyage. After we had dined with the Governour of Notebourg, who came along with us thither, and who treated us that day with several sorts of pleasant drinks, we were dispos'd into seven Boats.
The 22. we pass'd the Lake Ladoga, which in that place is 12 leagues over. We landed neer a Monastery called Navolkus Konsky, where he met with a Monk, who presented us with bread [Page 7] and dry'd Salmon. The Pristaf who was to bear our charges, ask'd whether he should provide for us, or that we had rather take the money allow'd by his Majesty for our entertainment, and have our meat dress'd by our own Cooks. We made choice of the later, according to the custome of those Ambassadors who go into those parts. So that we bought our provisions our selves, which we found cheap enough, in comparison to what the Pristaf provided for us. Two Copecks, which make two sols French, would buy a tame Fowl, and for a peny we had nine Eggs. We were allow'd every day two Roubles and five Copecks, amounting to four Crowns five pence, which found us very good fare. After dinner, we embark'd on a River which brought us to Ladoga, which is distant from Laba 17 leagues, whither we came the same night. We met by the way a Pristaf, going to meet the Suedish Resident, with three Boats. In all our Travels had we not seen so many Children under 7 years of age, as we found at Ladoga. Some of ours being gone to take the Air, they run after us, having Goosberies to sell, whereof we bought a hatful for a Copeck. 'Twas pleasant to see those Children, to the number of fifty together, leaping about us, as we lay on the grass to eat our Goosberries, so dress'd as that we could not distinguish the Boies from the Girls, for both had their hair cut all off, excepting only two mustaches, which were suffer'd to grow at their Temples, and were clad in shirts reaching to their ancles. Our Physician would needs make a discovery of sexes among them, and having caught one of the Children by the shirt, it happened to be a Boy, who told him laughing, Deske niet, that he was no Girl, and thereupon pointed to some that were.
The 23. at dinner, was the first time we heard any of the Country Musick, which consisted of a Lute and Violin, with some voices, singing aires to the honour of their Czaar, Michael Federouits, and perceiving they were permitted, they fell a-dancing after a strange manner. The men and women danc'd much after the same manner, every one alone, making strange faces, with as strange gesticulations; the motions of the hands, shoulders, and hips, being more violent than those of the feet, which they do but gently stir, not moving as it were from the same place. The women have commonly handkerchers in their hands, fring'd with silk of divers colours, which they cast about their heads.
After dinner we embark'd upon the River Wolgda. Our Musketiers, or Strelits, begg'd the benediction of a Monk that happen'd to be by the River side; it being their custom to beg it of all Monks, and in all the Churches they come to by the way, which if they have not the time to go into, they think it enough to do reverences to the Crosses they see upon the Churches and Chapels, pronouncing these words, Hospodi Buchmilo, that is to say, Lord be merciful to me.
The wind being with us, it was thought fit we should make use of our sails, but, the Muscovites being not the most expert Mariners, one of the Ropes broke, and the sail falling on one of the Musketiers, struck him down so as that we gave him over for dead, but coming to himself again within an hour after, and having taken a considerable dram of the Aquavitae bottle, he was as well as ever.
The Wolgda is as broad as Elbe, but runs much more slowly. It rises neer great Novogorod, out of the Lake called the Lake of Ilmen, and falls into that of Ladoga. Seven werstes (whereof five make a German League) from Ladoga, there is a strange fall of Water in that River, and about a league and a half thence, another, where the water falls with such violence, that it runs like a shaft, amidst the many Rocks scatter'd up and down neer those places: in so much that to draw the loaden Boats up the River, there needs above a hundred men. We got ashore at the former, and saw our Boats pass safely, all save the last, in which we had left Simon Frisius, a Merchant's Son of Hamborough, who being extremely sick was forc'd to stay in it. This Boat being drawn up to the highest pitch of the water, the rope broke, so that the water forc'd it back with such violence, that it would have split against the Rocks, if, by an unexpected good hap, one end of the rope, which was fasten'd to the mast, had not twin'd it self about one of the Rocks, by which means the Boat was stay'd till we had the convenience to dis-engage it. There we were told, that a certain Bishop, coming that way in a Boat laden with Fish, had been cast away some few dayes before. The other fall we pass'd without any danger, and came that night to a Convent, called Nicolai Nepostiza, where we took up our quarters, and stay'd the next day, expecting the Boats that were coming after us.
From Revel to Moscou, are nothing but Woods, Fenns, Lakes and Rivers, which produce such abundance of Flies, Gnats, and Wasps, that people have much ado to keep them off, in so much, that, in the night time, they are forc'd to wrap themselves up in certain linnen cloaths, such as Travellers make use of in Livonia and Muscovy: those among us who had not been carefull to cover themselves, having their faces so sported, as if they were newly recover'd from the small pox. The Wagoners and Conntry people, who have not convenience enough of those cloaths, are forc'd to make use of fire against the importunity of those Insects; insomuch that Muscovy being every where well furnish'd with wood, they make good fires, and lye down by them; all which hinders not but that they are extremely troubled with them.
There were but four Monks in the Convent; the most aged among them made us a Present of Turneps, pickled Cowcumbers, some green Pease, and two wax candles. We gratify'd him [Page 8] with a Crown piece, which he took so kindly, that he let us into his Church, contrary to the Custom of the Country, and put on his Sacerdotal Vestments, that we might see them. He shew'd us, in the Portal, the Miracles of S. Nicholas, painted according to the mode of the Country, very roughly, and without proportion. Upon the door was represented the last Judgement, wherein the Monk pointed to a Man habited after the German fashion, and told us, That the Germans and other Nations were not uncapable of Salvation, provided they had a Muscovite Soul, and that they lived justly in the sight of God. He shew'd us also a Bible in his own Language (for no Muscovite knows any other than his own and the Sclavonian) and read to us the first Chapter of S. John's Gospel, which we found absolutely conformable to our Text. To which he added, that being once at Revel, he had there had a conference with some of our Pastors, concerning the Holy Scripture; but that he could give them no great satisfaction, because he did not well understand the German Interpreter. He would have shewn us all the Church, but our Musketiers coming in grumbled at it, and reproach'd him for having communicated too much to us. We gave him the tother Crown, for which he gave us many thanks, bowing his head to the very ground, and smiting it with his forehead. We intended to have made our repast upon the grass, but were hardly set, ere the wind turning for us, the Monk brings us another prefent of Turneps and Cowcumbers, telling us, that the kindness we had done him had obtain'd of S. Nicholas the good wind which was to carry us on in our Voyage [...]
3. MANDELSLO's TRAVELS INTO THE INDIES. The First Book.
[...]They say the City of Laar was built by Pilaes, the son of Siroes, who had to his Successor Gorgion M [...]l [...]ch, first King of Laar, and of whom the two and thirtieth Successor was Ebrahim Chan, who was ejected by S [...]ach Abas, King of Persia, in the year 1602. It hath about four thousand houses, but neither gat [...]s nor walls, but only a Castle built there by [Page 5] the Persians since their conquest, upon a steepy rock, which commands the City, there being but one way to go up to it, and that so narrow, that two horses can hardly go abreast in it. The walls of it are cut out of the rock, and the Garrison consists of a hundred men, a sufficient number to make good that place, though there be in the Magazine Arms for three thousand men. The water they have within it is brackish; so that those of the Garrison are oblig'd to save that which falls from the Sky, whereof they have abundance at certain seasons of the year. I travell'd that day 14. Leagues to a Caravansera near a little Village. This great dayes journey did me no small prejudice, though I had felt some alteration in my health at my departure from Schiras. But the great journeys, especially the last I had made since; the water, which was troubled and corrupted, and the insupportable heats, brought me to such gripings in the belly, which were accompanied by an oppression of the stomack, and a very great looseness, that I began to be out of all heart. I caused enquiry to be made for a Litter, but there being none to be found, I was forc'd to get on the Horse which carried the sumpter, which I had so ordered, as that I had the convenience of resting my back. In that posture I went away the 19. and got that day to a great Village within 12. Leagues of the City of Gamron, and took up my lodging at the Calenter's of the place. In the evening came to the same lodging an English man, who was to succeed him who was the chief of the Merchants at Ispahan, accompanied by another Merchant of the same Nation, with whom I had some acquaintance during my abode at the King of Persia's Court. They were well provided with that kind of Spanish Wine, which is called Seck, though the true name of it be Xeque, from the Province whence it comes; which, together with two good meals whereto they had invited me, a little comforted my stomack, and recruited my spirits, at least as far as the posture of my health would permit. They gave me Letters of recommendation to an English Merchant of Bandar Gamron, whom they intreated to lodge me in the Indian Company House there, and to assist me all that lay in his power, in my Voyage to Suratta. They took horse after supper, but my indisposition kept me there till the 22. of February. That day I travelled six leagues to a Caravansera, where I rested my self till the heat of the day was over, and then got three leagues further to another Caravansera. I grew worse and worse, insomuch that my former indisposition being heightned into a burning Feaver, I was reduc'd to the greatest extremity. But there was no staying in a place where I could not be reliev'd, so that I resolv'd to get to Bandar, whatever it cost me, out of the confidence I had that there, among so many Merchants of several Nations who trade thither, I should find some ease. Accordingly, as soon as I was got thither, the 23. of February, the English, French and Dutch came to give me a visit, and having had an account of my quality and design, as also of the nature of my indisposition, which was come to a bloudy Flux, with a burning Feaver, they took me so much into their care, that within four dayes the Feaver left me, and I made a shift to visit the Sulthan or Governour of the City. I had before sent him the Letters of recommendation which Schach Sefi had given me, directed to him, so that he no sooner heard of my recovery, but he sent to invite me to dinner, whither I went the 28. As soon as I was come into the room, he made me sit down by him, and to further my diversion and entertainment, he had intreated the Dutch Merchants to bear me company, by which means I had the opportunity to be acquainted with them. I shall say nothing of the particularities of this Entertainment, because there was nothing in it extraordinary, or more then we had seen at Ispahan and elsewhere [...]
The City of Gamron, or Bandar Gamron, i. e. the Port of Gamron, lies at 27. deg. latitude. For though the Persians and Arabians in their Catalogues put it at 25. degr. yet is the observation which the Hollanders have made of it, and which we here follow, very just and exact; it being certain, that most of the Maps that have been yet made, and particularly that of Persia, are very defective. Their errour proceeds hence, that they put the Caspian Sea too high, and consequently allow Persia a greater breadth from North to South, then it really hath. For they put the City of Resht at 41. degrees, whereas it is at 37. and so the breadth of all Persia can be but 10. degrees, taking it from Gamron to Rescht, or 12. at most, if we should grant Ormus to be at 25. degrees: so that Boterus is extreamly mistaken, when he allows Persia the extent of 18. degrees. It is not long since that this place was but a little Village, consisting of some few Huts, which the Fishermen had set up for their conveniencies, and it is since the reduction of Ormus that the goodness of the Port hath rais'd it to a City of great Trade. The Dutch and English Ships, and the Moor Bottoms which come there daily, by reason of the convenience of the Road, and the Merchants of Ispahan, Schiras, and Laar, who bring their stuffes thither, as Velvet, Taffata, raw-Silk, &c. and exchange them for others, will in time make this City one of the most considerable of all the East. It is seated upon the Persian Gulf, between two good Castles, which defend it against the descent of Pirates, and keep the entrance of the Haven, where there is a square Redoubt, with four pieces of Canon upon it. The Fortifications of the Castle are antick, with round Bastions, but very well furnished with great Guns. The Haven is so commodious, that Ships may anchor very safely at five or six fathom water. The houses at Gamron built of a certain stone, which they make of stiff Clay, Sand, shredded-Straw and Horse-dung mixt together, whereof having set a Layer, they cover it with a Layer of Straw or Fagots, and then another Layer of Clay and Straw, and so alternately, till they have brought it six or seven foot high: then they set fire to it, and so bake the Stone; and to fasten and cement them together, they make a composition of the same Paste with Salt-water, and some Lime, and by that means make a kind of Mortar, which is almost as hard as the Stone it self. The best Houses are those of the Sulthan, or Governour of the City, and the Lodgings, or Ware houses of the Dutch and English, which lie so near the Sea, that at High-water the Tide comes up to the walls of them, which is a great convenience for the loading and unloading of their Merchandizes. The lower rooms serve for Kitchins and Ware-houses, and the upper for Lodgings, which are the more commodious in this respect, that being high, they are the more fit to receive the wind of all sides, so in some measure to moderate the excessive heat of the Sun. The meaner sort of people have no other covering over them, then what they make with the branches and leaves of Date-trees, which they call Adap, and are the only trees that find them fruit, and timber for building. The Streets are narrow, The Air is very unwholsom thereabouts, by reason of the excessive heat, as also of the continual change of the Winds which r [...]ign there, and which in the space of twenty four hours go through all the points of the Compass. For in the morning they have an East-wind, which is extreamly cold; about noon a South-wind, which brings insupportable heats along with it; in the evening a West-wind, which coming fromwards Arabia, brings sufficient heats with it; and at midnight a North-wind, which comes out of the Mountains of the Country, and is cold enough. It rains so seldom, that it was observed in the year 1632. that with the rising of the Wind, there falling a great shower, after a continual drought of three years, the Inhabitants kept a day of publick thanksgiving for it. Whence it comes that in the Country all about this City, there is not so much as a Grass to be seen, unless it be in some Gardens, where they are forc'd, twice or thrice every day, to water the Pot-herbs and Pulse which they sow in them, and among the rest, particularly, Garlick, Onions, Chibols, Radishes and Cucumbers. But the Isle of Kismisch, which is but three Leagues distant from Gamron, and which is 15. Leagues in length, and three in breadth, supplies the City with all sorts of Fruits. For in the moneth of June, and during the greatest heats of Summer, they have Grapes, Damsens, Peaches, Mangas, Quinces, Oranges, Lemons, and Pomegranates red and white. In October they have Melons, Citruls, Cucumbers, Radishes, Onions, Turneps, Almonds, Pistachoes, Apples, Pears, and several other Fruits, which are very excellent, and in such abundance, that they are cheaper there then in any other place of Persia. The Inhabitants live for the most part upon Fruits, and Pulse, and the Fish which they take in the neighbouring Sea, and find more wholsom and delicious then Flesh, which meeting with but little good sustenance, by reason of the extraordinary heats, must thereabouts be of ill nourishment, and in a manner without any taste. Among other sorts of Fish, they take there abundance of Pilchards and Smelts, as also Oysters and Crabs. They have good store of [Page 8] Cattle, as Oxen, Cows, Sheep, Goats, and several other Creatures; but they have such abundance of Goats, that they are sold for six or eight pence a piece. There are also a sort of Rams that have four horns, but no wild Fowl at all. Their ordinary drink is only Water, unless it be that some have a little Aqua vitae, made of Dates or Rice. Schiras Wine, which is brought thither only in Bottles, is very scarce and very dear there; nay the fair Water, which they get two Leagues from the City, is sold at such a rate, that what I and my servants spent, cost me about two pence every day [...]
[...]I found in the Port of Gamron an English Ship called the Swan, of 300. Tun, carrying 24. Guns. Master Honywood, Agent for the Affairs of England, recommended me to the Captain of it, and commanded him to carry me over to the Indies, and to defray all my charges till I came to Suratta. I had brought eight Horses with me, making account to sell them with very great advantage in the Indies; but the Ship was so full of Goods, that it was with much ado that I could get in only two of them: So that I was forc'd to put off the other six, to very great loss, as being able to get but thirty pound for those which had cost me sixty pound at Ispahan, and which I should have sold at above one hundred and fifty pound at Suratta. I embark'd the sixth of April, with Mr. Manley and Mr. Hall, English Merchants, whom the President of the English at Suratta had ordered to come from Ispahan, about some business concerning the Company, and went aboard accompanied by most of the Strangers that were at Gamron, as also many Indian Merchants, with whom I had upon some occasions made acquaintance. The Captain ordered four Pieces to be fired at our coming aboard, and received us with much civility, inviting us, it being then about noon, to dine with him. We went from Gamron to Suratta in nineteen dayes, during which the Captain treated me very magnificently, and did me the honour to resign his own bed to me, and to give me precedence upon all occasions. He was well furnished with Fowl, Mutton, and other fresh Meat, but above all things, with excellent good Sack, English Beer, French Wines, Arak, and other refreshments; which prov'd so well for me, that by the help of these good Cordials, and the benefit I had by the drinking of Ptizanne, which I caused to be made with Cinnamon and rinds of Pomegranats, at my arrival at Suratta, I found my health perfectly recover'd, though I must also acknowledge, as much contributing thereto, my using of Thé, to which I had so accustomed my self, that I ordinarily took it twice or thrice a day [...]
[...]The 25. of April, we came before the City of Surat, and cast Anchor two Leagues from Land, by reason it being the Captains intention not to stay there above three or four dayes, he would be sure of the convenience of parting thence when he pleas'd. Besides, there is no Road along that Coast where Ships can lye with any safety, from May to September, by reason of the continual Tempests and furious winds which reign there during that time; whereas on the Eastern Coast of the Indies, in the Gulf of Bengala, it is fair and calm at that time. The year is divided into three very different seasons; for in the moneths of February, March, April and May, it is extreamly hot weather; in June, July, August and September, there is nothing but continual Rains, with Thunder and Lighting; and the moneths of October, November, December and January, are cold, at least as far as is consistent with the Climate. April 26.
The Captin sent one to the President of the English at Surat, to give him notice of his Arrival. The President sent him back the 28. accompanied by two young Merchants of the same Nation, who brought Orders to the Captain, and in the Presidents name intreated me to come with the soonest to Surat, where he should make good in effect those proffers which they were then come to make to me of his service. Having acknowledged the Captain's civility by a small Present, and leaving him very sick, and much troubled at our separation, after the friendship we had contracted together, I left the Ship the 29. of April. Within a League of the Road we entred into the River upon which Surat is seated, and which hath on both sides a very fertile soil, and many fair Gardens, with pleasant Country-houses, which being all white, a colour it seems the Indians are much in love with, afford a noble prospect amidst the greeness whereby they are encompassed. But this River, which is the Tapte, called by others Tynde, is so shallow at the mouth of it, that Barks of 70. or 80. Tun can hardly come into it. We came ashore near the Sulthan's Palace, and went immediately to the Custom-house to have our things search'd by the Officers there: which is done with such exactness in this place, that they think it not enough to open Chests and Portmantles, but examine peoples clothes and pockets.The Sulthan or Governour, nay the Customers themselves, oblige Merchants and Passengers to part with, at the price they shall think fit to put upon them, those Goods and Commodities which they had brought for their own private use. Accordingly the Sulthan himself, who came to the Custom-house as soon as we were got thither, having found among my things a bracelet of yellow Amber, and a Diamond, would needs buy them both of me: whereto when I made him answer, that I was no Merchant, and that I valued those things, only for their sakes who had bestow'd them on me, he was pleas'd to return me the Diamond, but detain'd the Bracelet, telling me I should have it again when I honour'd him with a Visit. While we were in this contestation, came to the place an Indian Coach, drawn by two white Oxen, which the English President had sent to bring me to their House; so that leaving the Sulthan with the Bracelet, I went into it. At the entrance of the House I met the President, with his second, that is to say, he who commands under him, and in his absence, whose name was Mr. Fremling, who received me with extraordinary kindness, and very civilly answer'd the Complement I made them, upon the freedom I took to make my advantage thereof. The President, who spoke Dutch very well, told me I was very welcome; that in the Country where we then were, all Christians were oblig'd to assist one another, and that he was the more particularly oblig'd thereto as to what concern'd me, in respect of the affection I would have express'd towards some of his Nation at Ispahan. He thereupon brought me to his Chamber, where there was a Collation ready. It consisted of Fruits and Preserves, according to the custom of the Country. As soon as we were set, he asked me what my design was, and understanding that I intended to return for Germany within twelve moneths, he told me I was come too late to get away that year, by reason no more Ships would come that way, but that if I would stay with him five or six moneths, till there were a convenience of passage, he would take it kindly: that during that time, he would contribute all he could to my divertisement that he would find out a means how I might see the most eminent places in the Country, nay, that he would send some of his own Nation along with me, who should find me those accommodations I could not otherwise hope for. This obliging discourse soon prevail'd with me to accept of these proffers, so that the he shew'd me all the house, that I might make choice of a convenient Lodging, which I took near his Seconds Chamber. In the evening, some Merchants and others, belonging to the President, came and brought me from my Chamber to supper into a great Hall, where was the Minister with about a dozen Merchants, who kept me company, but the President and his Second supp'd not, as being accustom'd stom'd to that manner of life, out of a fear of overcharging their Stomachs, digestion being slowly performed, by reason of the great heats which are as troublesome there in the night time as in the day. After Supper the Minister carried me into a great open Gallery, where I found the President and his Second taking the coolness of the Sea-Air. This was the place of our ordinary rendezvous, where we met every night; to wit, the President, his Second, the principal Merchant, the Minister and my self; but the other Merchants came not but when they were invited by the President. At dinner he kept a great Table, of about fifteen or sixteen dishes of Meat, besides the Desert. The respect and deference which the other Merchants have for the President was very remarkable, as also the order which was there observed in all things, especially at Divine Service, which was said twice a day, in the morning at six, and at eight at night, and on Sundayes thrice. No person in the house but had his particular Function, and their certain hours assign'd them as well for work as recreation. Our divertisement was thus ordered. On Fridayes after Prayers, there was a particular Assembly, at which met with us three other Merchants, who were of kin to the President, and had left as well as he their Wives in England, which day being that of their departure from England, they had appointed it for to make a commemoration thereof, and drink their Wives healths. Some made their advantage of this meeting to get more then they could well carry away, though every man was at liberty to drink what he pleas'd, and to mix the Sack as he thought fit, or to drink Palepuntz, which is a kind of drink consisting of Aqua vitae, Rose-water, juice of Citrons and Sugar. At our ordinary meetings every day, we took only Thé, which is commonly used all over the Indies, not only among those of the Country, but also among the Dutch and English, who take it as a Drug that cleaness the Stomach, and digests the superfluous humours, by a temperate heat particular thereto. The Persians instead of Thé; drink their Kahwa, which cools and abates the natural heat which Thé preserves. The English have a fair Garden without the City, whither we constantly went on Sundayes after Sermon, and sometimes also on other dayes of the week, where our Exercise was shooting at Butts, at which I made a shift to get a hundred Mamoudis (or five pound sterling) every week. After these divertisements, we had a Collation of Fruit and Preserves, and bath'd our selves in a Tanke or Cistern which had five foot water, where some Dutch Gentlewomen serv'd and entertain'd us with much civility. What troubled me most was, that my little acquaintance with the English Tongue made me incapable of Conversation, unless it were with the President, who spoke Dutch. But before I relate what happened to me in this Voyage, and what I saw during my stay at Surat, it will not be amiss, to give here a general, but short description, of the Mogul's Country, and the Provinces whereof it consists; so to make the readier way for what we shall have to say of it hereafter. The Country properly called India, which the Persians and Arabians name Indosthan, reaches, on the West-side, from the River Indus or Sindo, and the Kingdom of the same name (the Inhabitants whereof are called Abint, or from the Frontiers of the Kingdom of Maecon, which some call Gelsche Macquerona, whereof the Inhabitants are Baloches, or Baluches) as far as Ganges. The Ancients called this Province Carmania, and it hath a Port or Haven called Guader, at 25. degrees on this side the line. The Persians and Arabians call the Kingdom of Sindo Diul. The same Persians, and the Indosthans call the River Indus, Pangab, that is to say, five waters, because so many Rivers come into it before it falls into the Sea under that famous name. The first is that of Bugal, or Begal, which rises near Kabul. The second is called Chanab, and rises in the Province of Quesmir or Cassimier, fifteen dayes journey above Lahor, towards the North. The third is that of Ravy, or Ravee, which runs by Lahor, and rises not far from it. The two others, viz. Via and Osuid or Sind, come from a great distance, and meet near Bakar, which lies at an equal distance between Lahor and the Sea. Whence it is to be inferr'd, that those Geographers are in an errour, who put this River at 24. degrees on this side the Line, and confound it with that which runs by Diul. Some say the great Mogul's Kingdom is of so vast an extent, that a Caravan would have much ado to travel through it in two years; but these are Fables. Its certain Frontiers, according to the description of Edward Terrin, are on the East-side, the Kingdom of Mavy; on the West, part of Persia and the South-Sea; on the North, Mount Caucasus and great Tartaria; and on the South, the Kingdom of Decan and the Gulf of Bengala, containing thirty and seven great Provinces, which were heretofore so many Kingdoms: to wit, Candahar, which takes its name from, or derives it to the chief City, is the most Western Province of all the Indies, and lies upon the Territories of the King of Persia, who hath several times been Master of it. It is indeed for this Province, that the Kings of Persia are in continual war almost with the great Mogul; as they are in Turkey side for Badgat and Ervan. The Province of Kabul, which is no doubt the richest of all the Kingdom, derives its name also from the Capital City, and hath for Frontier on the North-side great Tartary. In this Province rises the River Nibal, which changes its name into that of Begal, and falls into the Indus, as we said before. It is conceived by some, that this is the Coa, or the Suastus of Ptolomy. The Province of Multan owes its name also to the principal City, and is seated along the River Indus, having on the West-side the Kingdom of Persia, and the Province of Candahar. The Province of Haca-chan, or Hangi-chan, lies towards the East, and hath on the West the River Indus. It is called also the Kingdom of Balochy, as we shall express elsewhere; but it hath no considerable City. Bachar, or Buckar, the chief City whereof is called Bacherhukon, lies also along the River Indus, which divides it in the middle, and makes it one of the most fertile Provinces in the Kingdom. It hath on the South-south-west-side, the Province of Tatta, and towards the West, the people called the Bolaches, a cruel and warlike Nation. The Province of Tatta, which hath also its name from the chief City, is divided into several Isles by the River Indus. This Province hath the reputation of having the most industrious Tradesmen of all the Kingdom. Soret is a small Province, but very well peopled. Its chief City is Jangar; and it reaches Eastward to the Province of Guzarata, and Westward to the Sea. The Province of Iselmere hath but one City in it of the same name, and hath for Frontiers Westward, the Provinces of Soret, Bachar, and Tatta. That of Attach, and its capital City, from which it is so called, are seated upon the River Nibal, which coming from the West, falls into the Indus, which divides it from the Province of Haca-chan. The Province of Pang-ab is one of the greatest, most fertile, and most considerable of all the Kingdom. The five Rivers we spoke of, which pass through it, give it that name. Lahor is the chief City thereof. The Province of Chismer, or Quexmer, the chief City whereof is called Syranakar, is seated upon the River Bezat, or Badt, which makes a great number of Isles in this Province, and after a great compass falls into the Ganges. It touches some part of the Province of Kabul, and is cold enough by reason of its Mountains, though it may be affirm'd, that in comparison of the Kingdom of Tliebet, which is as it were its Frontiers on the Eastside, it is very temperate. About eight Cos (which make four Leagues) from the chief City, in the midst of a Lake which is three miles about, there is a little Isle, where the Mogul hath built a very fair House, for the convenience of hunting the wild Goose. All along the River which runs through the middle of this Lake, there is a kind of tree, whose leaves are like that of a Chesnut, but the wood, which is somewhat of a brownish colour, is checquer'd with small streaks of several colours, which makes it much sought after by persons of Quality. The Province of Chismer hath on the East-side that of Bankisch, the chief City whereof is Beibar, or Beithus, The Province of Jengapar, or Jemipar, so called from its chief City, lies between the Cities of Lahor and Agra. The Province of Jenba, or Jamba, which hath also its name from the Metropolis thereof, hath on the West-side, the Province of Pang-ab, and is very hilly all over. The Province of Delly, and its chief City of the same name, lies between Jenba and Agra, towards the source of the River Gemini, by some called Semana, which passing by the City of Agra, falls into the Ganges. The chief City of Delly is very ancient, and was sometime the Metropolis of all Indosthan, as may be seen by the ruines of its palace, and other magnificent Structures. [Page 15] The Province of Bando, and its Metropolis of the same name, hath on the West-side, the City of Agra.
The Province of Malway, is very fertile, its chief City Ratipore, though Thomas Row, an English Gentleman, calls it Vgen. The River Cepra, upon which is seated the City of Calleada, the ordinary residence of the ancient Kings of Mandoa, passes within half a League of it, and disembogues it self into the Sea, by the Gulf of Cambaia. The Province of Chitor was heretofore a very considerable Kingdom, but the Metropolis from which it derives its name, and whereof the walls were heretofore six Leagues about, is now so ruin'd, that there is to be seen but the Relicks of what it hath been, with the sad remainders of its sumptuous Mosquies, and magnificent Palaces. The great Mogul, Achabar, great Grand-father of Schach Chiram, reduc'd it to that condition, and conquer'd it from one of the Successours of Rana, who forc'd to make his escape came to a capitulation with him, and acknowledg'd the Soveraignty of the Mogul, in the year 1614. This Province hath on the East-side that of Candisch, and on the South, that of Gusuratta. The Province of Gusuratta, which the Portuguez call the Kingdom of Cambaya, upon the account of its chief City, where they have their main trading, is without all question the noblest and most powerful of all the Mogul's Country. Its Metropolis seated in the midst of the Province, is called Hamed-ewad, that is to say, the City of King Hamed, who built it. It is now corruptly called Amadavat, or Amadabat, whereof we shall have occasion to speak more at large hereafter. The Province of Candisch, the Metropolis whereof, Bursampour, or Brampour, was heretofore the ordinary residence of the Kings of Decan, before the Great Mogul united it to his Crown, is very large, and well peopled. The River Tabet, or Tapte, which falls into the Sea by the Gulf of Cambaya, divides it from the Country of the Prince of Partapha, who is also a Vassal of the Great Moguls. The Province of Berar, whereof the Metropolis is Shapore, or Shaspour, reaches Southward, and touches that of Gusuratta, and the Mountain of Rana. In the Province of Gualor, or Gualier, which hath its name from the chief City, there is a Cittadel, wherein the Mogul confines such as are Prisoners of State, and those Lords, of whose carriage he conceives any jealousie, and keeps there also some part of his Treasure, and abundance of Gold and Silver. The Province of Agra, which derives its name to the Metropolis thereof, which is not very ancient, is at present the chiefest of all the Mogul's Country, according to the account we shall give of it hereafter. The Province of Sambel, or Sambel, so called from its Metropolis, is divided from that of Narvar by the River Gemini, which falls into Ganges near the City of Halebasse, where these two Rivers meeting make a kind of an Isle: Whence some have taken occasion to call this Province Doab, that is to say, between two waters; as if one should say, Mesopotamia, or Interaquas. The Province of Bakor lies on the West-side of the Ganges, its chief City is called Bikameer. The Province of Narvar, Narvar the Metropolis whereof is call Gehud, hath running through it a most noble River, which falls into the Ganges. The Province of Nagracut, or Nakarkut, is one of the most Northerly Provinces of the Mogul's Country. In the chief City thereof from which it hath the name, there is to be seen, in a sumptuous Chappel, the floor whereof is covered with plates of Gold, the Effigies of an Animal, or rather a Monster, called Matta, which brings thither every year a great number of Indians, who go to do their devotions there, and offer unto it a little snip which they cut out of their own tongues. In this same Province is the City of Kalamaka, famous for its Pilgrimages, which are the more frequent there, by reason of the flames cast forth by the cold Springs as they come out of the Rock, which flames the Inhabitants adore. The Province of Siba, whereof the Metropolis is Hardwari, gives its rise to the River Ganges. The Inhabitants of the Country imagine, that the Rock out of which it issues hath a Cows head, for which Beast they have a certain veneration, and that there is somewhat divine in that production. Whence it comes that they bathe themselves every day in the River. This Province is no less mountainous then that of Nakarkut, though it be not so much towards the North. Kakares, the principal Cities whereof are Dankaler and Binsola, is a very spacious Province, but very full of Mountains. Mount Caucasus lies between it and Tartaria. [Page 16] The Province of Gor, which hath its name from the chief City, is also full of Mountains, and gives its rise to the River Perselis, which falls into the Ganges. The Province of Pitan, and its chief City, which gives it the name, hath running through them the River Kanda, which also falls into the Ganges. This is also a very mountainous Province, and hath on the West of it that of Jamba. The River Iderclis divides the Province of Kanduana, the chief City whereof is Karaeh, by some called Katene, from that of Pitan.This Province, and that of Gor, are the further-most of the Mogul's territories towards the North. The Province of Porena is as fruitful as the two last named are barren. It lies between the Rivers of Ganges, Perselis, Gemini and Candach, and is so called from its chief City. The City of Rajapore, is the Metropolis of the Province of Jewal. The Province of Mevat, the chief City whereof is called Narnol, is a Country barren enough, reaching from the Ganges Eastward. The Province of Voessa, or Voeza, the chief City whereof is Jascanat, is the uttermost Province of the Mogul's Kingdom towards the East. The Province of Bengala may no doubt be numbred amongst the most powerful of all the Country, giving its name to the Gulf, into which the Ganges disembogues it self by four several channels, or mouths. Its principal Cities are Raymebel, Kaka, or Daeca, Philipatan and Satigam. It is subdivided into many other lesser Provinces, the most considerable whereof are Puna, and Palan, from which several Kings have not thought it much to assume their Titles. Texeira, in his description of Persia, speaking of certain Provinces of the Indies, names that of Vtrat, with its chief City, but he only names it, without giving any account of its scituation. He speaks also of the Kingdom of Caeche, and sayes it is considerable for the Race-horses it breeds, near Cambaya, towards the North: but certainly, it is no other then the Province of Candisch, before spoken of. The extent of the Mogul's Country, from East to West, is about six hundred Leagues, and from North to South, about seven hundred French Leagues, since its uttermost Frontiers towards the South are at twenty, and the furthermost towards the North at forty three degrees. As concerning the Province of Gusuratta, which the Portuguez, improperly, call Cambaya, it lies all along the Sea-side, extending it self much like a Peninsula into the Sea, and having on both sides a Gulf or Bay, one whereof is eight Leagues broad at the entrance, and grows narrower and narrower for forty Leagues thence. The Land extends it self Westward along the Sea-coast, and Northward it hath the Provinces of Soret, Quismer and Bando; Eastward, those of Chitor and Kandish, and Southward the Kingdom of Decan. Heretofore its Frontiers reach'd along the Sea-coast, as far as Gualor, eight dayes journey beyond Amadabat, and Southward as far as Daman. But though its extent be not so vast at present as it hath been, yet it is now a very great Province, it being certain that it reaches above sixscore Leagues along the Sea-coast, and comprehends above twenty thousand Cities, Towns, and inhabited Villages; besides the places which were laid desolate some years since by War or Famine. Its principal Cities, most whereof are Maritime, are Surat, Broitschia, Gandeer, Goga, Cambaya, Diu, Patepatane, Mangalor, Gondore, Nassary, Gandivi, Balsara, or Belsera. The City of Hamed-Ewad, or Amadabat, which is the Metropolis of the Province, is at a great distance from the Sea. The principal Rivers of this Province are the Nadabat, which passes by Broitschia, the Tapta, and the Wasset; besides these conveniences, it hath two of the best Ports in all the Indies, which are that of the Com of Suhaly; to wit, that of Surat and that of Cambaia. There is no Province in all the Indies more fertile then Gusuratta, nor any that affords more Fruits and Provisions, which grow in such abundance there, that all the neighbouring Provinces are thence suppli'd: 'Tis true indeed, that in the year 1640. the great drought, and the year following, the continual rains reduced it to so deplorable a condition, that the particular account might be given thereof would deprive the Reader of the diversion, which it is our design to find him in this Relation. But the Province hath since that time well recover'd it self of that desolation, yet not so as but the marks of it may be seen every where. But to prosecute our Relation, as to what happened to me during my stay at Surat. While I was at Ispahan, having fixt my resolution to travel into the Indies, I took into my service a Persian, who was to serve me as an Interpreter for the Turkish and Persian Languages, which I then began a little to understand. He was born of Christian Parents, [Page 17] his father and mother having been of those whom Scach-Abas had caused to be translated from Georgia to Ispahan, where his brethren then lived in good rank. Which considerations oblig'd me to treat him with the greater civility, and to promise him by way of wages four Crowns a moneth. He had made me believe that his engaging himself into my service was partly out of this respect, that he might thereby have the convenience of re-imbracing the Christian Religion: but he had no sooner made his first acquaintances at Surat, ere he understood, that an Uncle of his by the Mother-side could raise him to great fortunes at the Mogul's Court, where he was Master of the Horse. Upon this intelligence, he soon took a resolution to leave me, and to desire the protection of the Sulthan, who kept him a while at his own house, and afterwards sent him to Agra. I was the more startled at this departure of the young fellow, the more it run in my thoughts, that knowing all the particulars of our engagement with the Indian Embassadour at Ispahan, his design might be to betray me into the hands of my enemies. And certainly, had I known of his going to Agra, I should not have had the confidence to take that place in my way: though it might appear, by what happened afterwards, that God sent him to that place expresly to save my life, since, had it not been for him, I might have lost it there. In May, there came news to Surat, that the Chan, who commanded at Candahar for the King of Persia, had revolted, and had rendred the place to the Mogul, upon this account, that the Scach had threatned to put him to death. The Mogul sent immediately 500000. Crowns to the place, as a requital for the Governours service, and to pay the Garrison, which had revolted along with him. Alymerdan-Chan, Governour of the same place, had done such another trick at the beginning of Schach-Sefis Reign, who would needs oblige him to bring his head to Court, which if he had done, he had never carried it away again upon his shoulders. Soon after Scach recover'd Candahar again; and it was partly upon this account, that the Mogul had sent to him the Embassadour I spoke of before, though among his other Instructions, he had order to demand the Myrsa Polagi, his Nephew. June 16. I went out a hunting with a young Dutch Merchant, and another English Merchant, with whom having cross'd the River, they brought me to an old ruin'd City, called Reniel, where the Dutch have a Ware-house. The Inhabitants of this City are called Naites, and are for the most part either Mariners or Trades-men, and of the Mahumetan Religion. The streets of it are narrow, and the houses so rais'd from the foundation, that there is not any but hath one step to get up to it. There we staid all night, and were nobly treated by the Merchants, who had the management of the Trade there. The next day we went to a Village called Bodick, and in our way let fly at a wild Duck and a Heron; there we saw about twenty Deers. Their skins which were somewhat greyish, were checkquer'd all over with white spots, and they had fair Horns, with several Brow-ancklers. There was among them a sort of creatures about the bigness of our Ro-Bucks, the Skins whereof were inclining to a dark brown, checkquer'd also with white spots, having very graceful Horns. Some are of opinion, that these are the same that Aldrovandus calls Cervi-capras, and that it is from this kind of Beast that we have Bezoar. We went thence to another Village, called Damre, where we saw abundance of wild Ducks in the Rice, whereof there grows great store in those parts. All the fields have a little ascent raised about them to keep in the water, the Rice requiring much moisture. In this Village we found some Terry, which is a Liquor drawn out of the Palm-trees, and drunk of it in Cups made of the leaves of the same Tree. To get out the Juyce, they go up to the top of the Tree, where they make an incision in the bark, and fasten under it an earthen pot, which they leave there all night, in which time it is fill'd with a certain sweet Liquor very pleasant to the taste. They get out some also in the day time, but that corrupts immediately, and is good only for Vinegar, which is all the use they make of it.
The City of Surat, or Suratta, lies at 21. degrees 42. minutes upon the River Tapta, which rises near Barampour, and falls into the Sea four Leagues below the City. It lies all along the River side, and is built four-square. It hath no wall to the River side, but on the Land side it hath a good Rampier of Stone, and a Castle all of Free-stone. The City hath three Gates, whereof one goes towards the Village of Brion, where those who go to Cambaya and Amadabat cross the River; another goes to Barampour; and the third to Nassary. All the Houses are flat, as those of Persia, and most have very fair Gardens. The Castle, which they say was built by the Turks, upon an Invasion which they made into this Country, hath but one Gate, which looks into a spacious Plain which serves for a Meidan to the City. Not far thence, and at the entrance of the City, stands the Governours [Page 18] Palace and the Custom-house, and near them the Bazar, as well for forreign Merchants as those of the City. The Governour of the Castle hath no dependance on him of the City, whose business it is to look after the administration of Justice, and the payment of the Customs at the Exportation and Importation of all Merchandises, which pay three and a half in the hundred, except it be Gold and Silver, whether coined, or in wedges, or made into bars, which pay but two in the hundred. The Dutch and English have their Houses there which they call Lodges, and are spacious and well built, consisting of many fair Appartments, Lodgings, Chambers, fair Halls, Galleries and Chappels. The Haven of Suratta is two Leagues from the City, The Kom of Suhaly. at the Village of Suhaly, whence the Dutch and English call it the Kom of Suhaly. There Ships are unladen of their Commodities, which are brought thence to Suratta by Land. This Road lies at 21. degrees, 50. minutes, upon the course of North-east and South-west. The entrance into it is not very broad, since that at high-water there is but seven fathom water, and at low but five. The Haven it self is not above 500. paces broad before the Village, sandy at the bottom, and most of the banks are bare and dry at low-water, and so sharp and steepy, that sounding there is to no purpose at all. 'Tis very safe riding, there being no danger of any wind but that of the South-west. But from May to September there is no staying on those Coasts, by reason of the winds and tempests, accompany'd by extraordinary thunder and lightning, which reign there during all that time. The Inhabitants of Surat are either Benjans, Bramans, or Moguls. These last are Mahumetans, and much better look'd on then the others, as well upon the account of their Religion, which they have common with the Great Mogul, and the chiefest Lords of the Country, as upon that of the profession they make to bear Arms. They have an aversion for Trades and Merchandise, and had rather serve, then engage themselves in any honourable employment: for if they can but once get to be Masters of a Horse, they court Fortune no further, and immediately list themselves in the service of their Prince. The Benjans on the contrary, are a reserv'd people and laborious, and apply themselves to Trades and Merchandise, and have an extraordinary devotion for the things that concern Religion; as we shall have occasion to insist on more at large hereafter. There are also in the City some Arabians, Persians, Armenians, Turks and Jews, who either have their habitations there, or trade thither; but there are no Forreigners so considerable for their settlement there as the Dutch and English. They have there their Lodges, their Store-houses, their Presidents, their Merchants, and their Secretaries, and indeed have made it one of the most eminent Cities for Traffick of all the East. The English particularly have made it the main place of all their Trading into the Indies, and have established there a President, to whom the Secretaries of all the other Factories are oblig'd to give an account. He manages Affairs with the assistance of 20. or 24. Merchants and Officers, and hath under his superintendency the Factory of Agra, where they have a Secretary accompanied by six persons; that of Ispahan, where they have a Secretary and seven or eight other Merchants; that of Mesulipatan, with fifteen; that of Cambay, with four; that of Amadabat, with six; that of Brodra and Broitscheia, with four; and that of Dabul, with two persons: who are all oblig'd to come once a year to Suratta, there to give an account of their Administration to the President. The English have also a Factory at Bantam, in the Isle of Java; but that hath its particular President, who hath no dependance on that of Suratta, which hinders not but that he hath a certain deference for him, as have indeed all the English Ships, which perfect not their Voyage without casting Anchor at Suratta. The places about this City are the most delightful of any in the world. For, besides, the fair Gardens, where they have all sorts of Fruit-trees, all the Champion seems to want nothing that might recreate the eye. Among other things, I observ'd there one of those Trees, whereof I have given a description when I had occasion to speak of the City of Gamron, as also very many sumptuous Sepulchres built of Marble, and a Tanke or Cistern made eight-square of Free-stone, having at every angle a pair of stairs to go down into it, and in the midst, the Sepulchre of the Founder of that magnificent Structure, which is so spacious, that it contains water enough to supply the whole City, even in the greatest heats of the year. The tempests of Rain begin to cease with the moneth of September. About that time, viz. the 14. of that moneth, news was brought that two English Ships were arrived at the Port of Subaly. The President would have gone thither in person, but some business he had with the Governour hindred him; so that he was forc'd to send two of the chiefest Merchants, who took me along with them. We came to Suhaly about noon, and having [Page 19] left our Horses in the Village, went aboard one of the Ships, called the Discovery. 'Twas a Vessel of 600. Tun, having 28. Guns, and 190. Men. Captain Menard, who commanded her, and the three Merchants who came to the President for Orders, receiv'd us kindly; and being come directly from England, they told us all they knew of the Affairs of Europe; which discourse made us pass away the best part of the night pleasantly enough. The next day we went to the other Vessel, called the Mary, which was 1200. Tun burthen, and carried 48. Guns. She had past by Aden on the Red-Sea, where she had lost her Captain, who dy'd of sickness. The Merchant, who commanded her instead of the Captain, made us a reception equal to what we had in the other Ship; and both of them oblig'd us to come every day to see them, till the President were come, which was not till eight dayes after. Which hindred not but that we went sometimes a walking, and a hunting, but so as that we lay every night in one of the Ships. As soon as the Commanders heard that the President was come to Suhaly, they went a shore, and meeting him on the River side, he made a short discourse to them, exhorting them to shew their fidelity and complyance to their Superiours, during the time they should stay in the Indies. Which done, he went into the Boat, to go aboard of the first Ship, where they fir'd twelve Guns at his arrival. After supper, he went along with the whole company, to the other, where they fir'd sixteen Guns, besides those that were discharg'd at the drinking of the King of England's health, and those of some other persons of Honour in that Country. The two dayes following were spent in feasting, at which the Commanders of the two Ships treated the President, who afterwards return'd to Suratta; but night overtaking us by the way, we were forc'd to take up our Lodging in the little City of Reniel. The 24. of the same moneth arrived two other Ships, whereof one was called Boldue, a Hollander, of 1400. Tun. She came from the City of Batavia in the Isle of Java, and was returning for Holland, loaden with Pepper and other Spices: The other was an English Vessel, call'd the Swan, and had been sent by the Secretary of Mesulipatan into Persia for Silks; but the contrary winds having kept her four moneths together at Sea, had oblig'd her to put in at Suratta, whereas the Hollander had in less time made the whole Voyage from the Texel to the Indies. I again accompany'd the Merchants, who went to the Port to see their Ships. We went first aboard the Hollander, who receiv'd us very nobly, and we were shewn all the conveniences of the Vessel, which no doubt was the best contrived, and the biggest that ever came out of the Ports of Holland. It was twenty foot longer then the Mary, but not altogether so broad. During my abode at Suratta, I wanted for no divertisement; for either I walk'd down to the Haven, or found company in the City, especially at the Dutch Presidents, who had his Family there, and with whom it was the easier for me to make acquaintance, in as much as I could converse with them in my own Language. But understanding that the English Ships, with which I intended to return into Europe, would not be ready for their departure under three or four moneths, I resolv'd to take a journey into the Country, to the Great Mogul's Court, taking my advantage of a Caffila, or Caravan, of thirty Wagons loaden with Quick-silver, Roenas, which is a root that dies red, Spices, and a considerable sum of Money, which the English were sending to Amadabat. The President had appointed four Merchants, certain Benjans, twelve English Souldiers, and as many Indians, to conduct and convoy this small Caravan; so that confident I night undertake this journey without any danger, (which it had not been safe for me to attempt without this convenience, by reason of the Rasboutes, and their robberies upon the high-way;) I took the Presidents advice, and put my self into their company. These Rasboutes are a sort of High-way men, or Tories, who keep in the Mountains between Brodra and Broitscheia, which are called Champenir, where they have their fortifi'd places and retreats, wherein they sometimes make their party good against the Mogul himself. Not long before, he had taken in one of their strongest places, and by that means kept them a long time in subjection; but they revolted again, and exercised their robberies with greater cruelty then ever. We left Suratta the last of September, being accompany'd by the President and some English Merchants, who having brought us a League out of the City, there took leave of us. We took our way towards Broitschia, and came to the Village of Briou, or Briauw, where we cross'd the River. Then, at four Leagues distance from Briou, we pass'd by Cattodera, which is a ruin'd place, seated upon a River of the same name, and then by Enklisser, where we soon made a shift to take above thirty wild Ducks, and many other Water-fowl, wherewith we feasted our people. We also kill'd a Roebuck, and met with so many Deer and wild Boars, that it was no hard matter for us to get us a good supper, [Page 20] since the Dutch and English never travel without their Cooks, who dress the Fowl and what else their Masters kill, which they never fail to do in abundance. The next day we cross'd a River which is more broad then deep, before we came to the City of Broitschia, into which we were no sooner entred, but the English Secretary sent to us to dine with him, which we did. The City of Broitschia is at 21. degrees, 56. minutes, 12. Leagues from Suratta, and 8. from the Sea, upon a River falling out of the Mountains, which divide the Kingdom of Decar from that of Balagatta. It lies upon a pretty high Mountain, having its Walls of Free-stone, and so well built, that it may be numbred among the strongest places of all the Indies. On the Land side, it hath two great Gates, and two small Gates towards the River, by which is brought abundance of Timber for building, which none dare unload without the Governours express permission. There is a Guard kept in it, as well upon account of the place it self, which is very considerable, as upon this, that they exact there two in the hundred upon all Merchandises that pass through it. The City is sufficiently well peopled, as also its Suburbs, which are divided into two quarters, which they call Poera, though very few persons of Quality live therein, most of the Inhabitants being only Weavers, who make of those kinds of Cottons called Bastas, which are finer then any made in the Province of Gusaratta. All the fields about this City lie flat and even, unless it be that about five or six Leagues from it, towards the South-west, may be seen the Mountains called Pindatshce, which reach as far as Barampour and beyond it, and are very fertile, as is also all the rest of the Country, which brings forth Rice, Wheat, Barly, and Cotton in abundance. It is out of these Mountains that the Agat is gotten, whereof are made such noble drinking Cups, Seals, Handles of Knives and Daggers, and several other rarities, which are commonly to be bought at Cambays. The jurisdiction of the City of Broitschia extends it self over 84. Villages, the Demesne whereof belongs to it, but heretofore its territory comprehended three other Cities, who have now their particular Governours. Four Leagues below the City, the River divides it self into two branches, which there make an Isle near half a League about, below which it falls into the Sea, by two several channels. It hath no Port, but only a Road, which is so much the more dangerous, in that the Ships, which may indeed anchor there at seven fathom water, lie open to the mercy of all Winds. Eight Leagues from Broitschia, upon the way of Cambaya, there is a great Village called Janbaysar, or Jambouser, where abundance of Indico is made: and upon the Road to Amadabat, there is to be seen the Sepulchre of a Mahumetan Saint, named Pollemedory, whither the Moors, or Moguls, go in pilgrimage with so great devotion, that some of them put Padlocks on their mouths to keep them from speaking, and never take them off, but only when they are to eat. Others fasten Iron chains to their arms; and it is reported, that the Padlocks are opened, and the Chains loosed, by some supernatural power, as soon as they have accomplish'd their Vows at the Sepulchre. We left Broitschia in the Evening, accompany'd by the Secretary, who would needs bring us half a League out of the City. He return'd thither, but it was to the end he might overtake us five Leagues thence; for, being entrusted with the management of the Commerce of Brodca, as well as of that of Broitschia, he thought fit to go along with the Caravan. We travell'd all night, and the next day, till the extraordinary heat forc'd us to encamp near a Fish-pond, where we pass'd away the rest of that day, and some part of the night following, our recreation being to set a dancing the Women that were among the Benjans in the Caravan. We went thence after midnight. I intreated the Secretary to come into my Coach, where I learnt of him several particulars of the Country, which by reason of my small stay in those parts, it was impossible I could have observed. We pass'd through the Village of Karawanet and Kabol, where they made us pay a certain passage-Toll. Being come within some Leagues of the City of Brodra, the English Secretary went on before to take order for our lodging and entertainment. We met him with his Second, about half a League from the City, whither we came the seventh of October. The Kaffila pass'd through the City, to be lodg'd on the other side of it; and the English Merchants carried me into a pleasant Country-house without the City, purposely built for a Mausaleum, to a person of Quality of the Country, whose desire it had been to be there buried with all his Family. Having taken two or three turns in the Garden, we went to the Lodge belonging to the English, where they made the greatest entertainment imaginable; and to come to the height of that Countries endearments, they sent for some Benjan women, who were very desirous to see my cloaths, which I still wore after the German fashion, (though the English and Dutch, who are settled in the Indies, go ordinarily according to [Page 21] the mode of the Country) and would have oblig'd me to put them off; but perceiving I was unwilling to do it, and withall that I made some difficulty to accept of the proffers they made me to strip themselves naked, and to do any thing I would expect from persons of their sex and profession, they seem'd to be very much troubled, and so went away. The City of Brodra lies in a sandy Plain upon the little River Wasset, 30. Cos, or 15. Leagues from Broitschia. This City is of no long standing, as having been built by Rasia Ghie, son of Sulthan Mahomet Begeran, last King of Guzuratta, out of the ruines of the ancient Brodra, which was heretofore called Radiapora, from which it is distant about half a League. It is fortifi'd with good Walls and Bastions, according to the ancient manner of Fortification, and hath five Gates, one whereof is damm'd up, because there is no highway abuts upon it. The Inhabitants of it, especially those of that part of the Suburbs which is towards the West-side of the City, are for the most part Benjans and Ketteris by profession, Weavers, Dyes, and other workers in Cotton, as being the place where, of all the Province, the best Clothes are made, which are more close, but a small matter narrower and shorter then those of Broitschia; and it is by that they are distinguished from the others. There are several sorts thereof, to wit, Bastas, Nquamas, Madasons, Cannequins, black Chelas, blew Assamanis, Berams, and Tircandias. We thought fit to name these several species, that we may the better understand the relations which come daily from those parts. The jurisdiction of the Governour of Brodra extends it self over two hundred and ten Villages, sixty five whereof are design'd for the maintenance of the Garrison, and the Mogul disposes of the 135. for the advantage and entertainment of certain Officers of the Court, who have their pensions charg'd upon those Villages. Among which there is one called Sindickera, eight Leagues from the City, which yields yearly above 25000. pounds of Lacca. This Lacque is a Gum taken out of a certain kind of Tree, which is not much unlike our Plum-trees; and there is abundance of it gotten all over Guzuratta. Its colour is of a red brown; but when it is well dry'd, and beaten to powder, the Indians give it what colour they please, black, red, green, yellow, &c. and make it into sticks to seal Letters withall, or use it to adorn and beautifie their houshold-stuffe, as Chests, Boxes, Cabinets, Tables, Bedsteads, &c. whereby they give them such a lustre, as none yet could ever imitate in Europe, especially upon black. This Country does also produce much Indico. Besides the Sepulchre we spoke of before, there are many others to be seen without the City, most of them very magnificently built, having spacious Gardens about them, which are open for any that would go in. The same day I took leave of the Secretary, and went along with two English Merchants to the Caravan, which we found encamped at the corner of a Grove of the Palms, which bear Cocos, and out of which they get Terry, which is the ordinary drink of those parts. In the evening came the Dutch Secretary or Deputy of Brodra, who presented us with some bottles of Sack, and kept us company till after midnight. One of the English Merchants came along with the Caravan as far as Wasset, which is an old Castle partly ruin'd, built upon a high Mountain, where there is kept a Garrison, consisting of a hundred Horse, who there received a certain Impost of a Ropia and a half, which amounts to somewhat under four shillings, for every Wagon: but we had a Passport from the Mogul, by vertue whereof we were to pass without paying, upon which account it was that one of their Merchants came along with the Caravan to that place. Accordingly the Souldiers of the Garrison staid some of our Wagons, and would have forc'd us to pay the ordinary duties; but we oppos'd it, and drew up our Convoy, who made their passage by force. We cross'd the River, and lodg'd in a Village, fortifying our selves with our Wagons against the attempts which might have been made against us. We found afterwards that this circumspection was no more then needed. For ere we had quite supped, came the Receiver with some thirty Souldiers, well arm'd with Half-pikes, Swords, Bucklers and Guns, and desiring a conference with us, we suffered him to enter with three of his Souldiers; but he demanding the duties of us, we told him, that we were not to pay any, and that the Mogul's Pass freed us; yet to avoid further trouble, and out of our good will to the Souldiers of the Garrison, we should make them a present of five or six Ropias. They would not hear of any such proposition, and still stood upon the payment of the whole duty. And so they went away, but with a design to return the next morning, as indeed they did. At the same time came a Dutch Merchant, who conducted a Caravan of 170. Wagons, guarded by 50. Souldiers, all Indosthans. He told us that the Souldiers of the Garrison had fell'd down a great Tree, and laid it cross our way, purposely to hinder our passage. We immediately commanded out four of our Souldiers to go and clear the way; which oblig'd those of the Castle to send some of theirs to hinder them: but in [Page 22] regard they could not go by, without coming within reach of our Muskets, we put our selves into a posture of disputing their passage, and they attempted to force us out of our retrenchment, which occasion'd the coming back of those whom we had sent to clear the way. There was some firing on both sides; but we had so much the advantage of them, that those of the Castle came to a composition, and represented to us by the Dutch Merchants, that having no other pay then what they receiv'd from the Merchandises passing that way, they were forc'd to make passengers pay the duties, that they might have wherewithal to subsist, and that they would be content with one half of what was ordinarily received, nay, to avoid further inconvenience, with what we had proffer'd them the day before; so that they had at last six Ropias, which amount to about three Crowns. Their number, during this contest, encreas'd to a hundred; and the Indian Souldiers, who convey'd us, refused to take up Arms against them, alledging it was not lawful for them to fight against the Souldiers of their Soveraign, and that it was their business to defend us against the Robbers, who might set upon us in the High-way. Two Leagues and a half thence is the Village of Ammenoygii; and at three and a half further, that of Sejuntra, whence we came to the little City of Nariad, which some call Niriaud, nine Leagues from Brodra. Its houses are handsome enough, and there are made in it Cottons and Indico, but not such abundance thereof as there is in the places before mentioned. October 11. we came to Mamadebath. This little City is within five Leagues of Nariad, upon a pretty large River which is very full of Fish. It is a handsome pleasant place, and was built by two Brothers, who have made a very considerable Castle on the Northside of the City. The Inhabitants of it are Benjans, and they make there great quantities of Cotton-thread, wherewith they drive a great Trade. October 12. We travell'd five Leagues, and having pass'd by Canis, Batova, and Issempour, where there is a very fair Caravansera, or, as they call it in India, a Sary for the lodging of the Caffilas, or Caravans, we got the same day very safely to Amadabath. The two Merchants and my self went before, and we took along with us the Wagon that carried the provisions. Within half a League of the City, we entred into one of those Gardens, in which persons of Quality are wont to have their Sepulchres, and staying there for the coming up of the Caravan, we sent to the principal Merchant, who mannaged the Commerce in those parts, to acquaint him with our arrival. His name was Benjamin Roberts, and he had no sooner heard the news, but he took his Coach and came to receive me. His Coach made after the Indian fashion, was gilt all over, covered with several pieces of rich Persian Tapistry, and drawn by two white Oxen, which express'd as much metal as we could have expected from the best Horses in Germany. There was also led by the Coach a very stately Persian Horse, the harness whereof was covered with plates of Silver. He took a Collation with us of the little Sack and English Beer we had left, after which he took me into the Coach with him, and brought me to the City, ordering the Merchants to stay in the Garden till the Caravan were come up. The English House or Lodge is in the middle of the City, well built, and hath many fair and convenient Apartments, with spacious Courts for the disposal of Merchandises, Master Roberts brought me first into his own Chamber, which look'd into a little Flower-garden, in which there was a Fountain. The floor was cover'd with Tapistry, and the pillars which sustain'd the structure were set out with Silk-stuffes of several colours, and above, a great white tassel according to the custom of the great Ones of the Country. We had a Collation; after which he shew'd me the whole house, and brought me into a very fair Chamber, with a large Closet in it, which he had design'd for my Lodging. We supp'd in a great Hall, whither the Dutch Deputy came after supper to see us, with some of his Merchants, with whom I had occasion to be acquainted at Suratta. After he was gone, the whole company conducted me to my Chamber, where my Host kept me company till after midnight. And that there might not be ought wanting in my entertainment (which in answer to the recommendatory Letters I had brought from the President, he would needs have in all things extraordinary) he sent for six Women-dancers, the handsomest could be found in the City, and told me, that if I liked any thing in them besides their singing and activity, I needed only to express my desires, and be confident, that they would give me all the satisfaction and divertisement which those of their sex are able either to give or take. I thanked him for his civility, but besides that, I had had some touches of my discase by the way, I made some scruple to meddle in that kind with a Pagan. They admir'd my cloaths, but above all that Lock of my hair that hung down over my shoulders: and could hardly be induced to believe I was what I really am. Having slaid two dayes at Amadabath, my noble entertainer took me along with him in a Coach, followed by two others, and shewed me some part of the City.
He first brought me to the great Market-place, called Meydan-Schach, or the Kings Market, which is at least 1600. foot long, and half as many broad, and beset all about with rows of Palm-trees, and Date-trees, intermix'd with Citron-trees and Orange-trees, whereof there are very many in the several Sterets: which is not only very pleasant to the sight, by the delightful prospect it affords, but also makes the walking among them more convenient, by reason of the coolness. Besides this Meydan, there are in the City four Basars, or publick places, where are sold all kinds of Merchandises. The same day, I saw also the Castle, which is very large, and built of Free-stone, insomuch that into is one of the most considerable in the Kingdom. Not far from the Meydan, we went into a House built of Brick, which they call the Kings Palace. Over the Gate, there was a kind of Curtain or Stage, for the Musick, consisting of Violins, Haw-boys and Bag-pipes, which play there in the morning, at noon, in the evening, and at midnight, as they do in Persia, and all other places, where the Prince professes the Mahumetan Religion. All the Appartments of the House were sumptuous, gilt and adorn'd with painting, according to the mode of the Country: but more to their satisfaction, who are pleas'd with diversity of Colours, then theirs, who look for invention, and stand upon the exactness of proportions. Then we went out of the City, to see the Walls of it, which are very fair, having twelve Gates, and many great Towers, with a Ditch sixteen fathom broad, but in many places it is ruin'd, and without water. We return'd into the City, to see the principal Mosquey of the Benjans, which without dispute is one of the noblest structures that can be seen. It was then new, for the Founder, who was a rich Benjan Merchant, named Santides, was living in my time. The Mosquey stands in the middle of a great Court, which is enclos'd with a high Wall of Free-stone, all about which there is a Gallery, much after the manner of our Cloysters in Monasteries, having all its Seats or Cells, and in every Cell a Marble Statue, white or black, representing a Woman naked, sitting, and having her legs lying cross under her, according to the mode of the Countrey. There were some had three Statues, to wit, a great one between two little ones. At the entrance into the Mosquey, there are two Elephants of black Marble done to the life, and upon one of them the Effigies of the Founder. The whole Mosquey is vaulted, and the Walls adorn'd with several Figures of men and other living Creatures. There was not any thing within the Mosquey, save that at the further end of the Structure there were three Chappels, or obscure places, divided one from the other by wooden Rails, wherein might be seen Statues of Marble, like those we had seen in the Cells, with this difference only, that there was a lighted Lamp before that which stood in the middle. We saw there also one of their Priests, who was then busie in receiving from the hands of such as came thither to do their Devotions, Flowers, wherewith he adorn'd his Images, as also Oyl for the Lamps which hung before the Rails, and Wheat and Salt for the Sacrifice. While he set the Flowers about the Statues, his mouth and nose were covered with a Linnen-cloath, left the impurity of his breath should prophane the Mystery, and coming ever and anon near the Lamp, he mutter'd over certain Prayers, and rub'd his hands up and down in the flame thereof, as if he had wash'd them in the smoak, and sometimes stroak'd his face with them. This was a kind of Purification, done out of a perswasion which these people have, that Fire having a far greater power of purifying then Water, they may after this Ceremony lift up clean and pure hands to God. But he continued this foolery so long, that we had not the patience to see the end of it; so that we left him in the midst thereof, to go and see the Sepulchres, which are the most remarkable Rarities of the City, whereof we shall here give a short description. Amadabath, the Metropolis of all Guzuratta, lies at 23. degrees, 32. minutes on this side the line, 18. Leagues from Cambaya, and 45. from Suratta, upon a small River, which not far thence falls into the Indus. It is a very great and populous City, comprehending with its Suburbs, and the Villages adjacent thereto, which are part of it, near seven Leagues in compass. The Streets of it are very broad, and both publick and private buildings very magnificent, especially the Mosqueys, and the Governours House of the Province. There is a Guard kept there day and night, and the Garrison is very considerable, by reason of the Badures, a sort of people distant thence but 25. Leagues, who acknowledge not the Mogul for their Soveraign, and make perpetual incursions upon his Subjects. There is not in a manner any Nation, nor any Merchandises in all Asia, which may not be had at Amadabath, where particularly there are made abundance of Silks and Cotton-stuffs. 'Tis true, they seldom use any Silk in that Country, much less any out of Persia, because it is somewhat too course and too dear; but they ordinarily make use of that of China, which is very [Page 24] fine, mingling it with that of Bengala, which is not quite so fine, but much beyond that of Persia, and much cheaper. They also make there great quantities of Gold and Silver Brocadoes, but they put too much thin Lace into them, so that in goodness and substance they come not near those of Persia, though some of them amount in the Country to eighteen Crowns the Piece. At the time of my being there, they had begun to make a new kind of Stuff of Silk and Cotton with flowers of Gold, which was very much esteem'd, and sold at five Crowns the Ell; but the Inhabitants were forbidden the wearing of it, upon this account, that the King reserv'd it for his own, yet not so strictly, but that he permitted Forraigners to buy of it, to be transported out of the Kingdom. They make there also all sorts of Sattins and Velvets of all sorts of colours; Taffata, Sattins for linings, of both Thread and Silk, Alcatifs or Carpets, the ground Gold, Silk or Yarn, but not so good as those of Persia, and all sorts of Cottons. The other Commodities to be commonly had there, are Sugar, Candy'd or in Powder, Cummin, Honey, Lacque, Opium, Borax, Ginger, dry and preserv'd Myrobalans or Indian Plums, and all other sorts of Preserves, Salt-Peter, Sal armoniack, and Indico, which the Inhabitants call Anil, and which grows there in great abundance. There are also Diamonds to be sold there, but in regard they are brought from Visiapour, they may be had cheaper elsewhere. There is also to be had some Amber-greece, and Musk, though the Countrey affords not any; for the best Amber-greece comes from Pegu, and Bengala, from Mosambique and Capo verte, and is sold at Amadabath, at 40. Momoudis, or 8. Crowns the ounce. Some are of opinion, that Amber is the feed of the Whale, hardned or congeal'd by cold in the Sea: but if this were so, there would be plenty of it found in the North, where men look after this Fish meerly to get out of it a certain liquor, which is as stinking and infectious as the smell of the Amber is sweet and pleasant. Nor can I approve of their opinion, who believe there are within the earth certain veins or sources of Amber, as there are of Nefte, or certain Mines, as those of Brimstone, since there is none to be found but towards the Sea, wherein it grows as Mushrooms do upon the earth, and is fastned to the bottom, till such time as the Sea, being tossed up and down by the Winds, casts it towards the shore. Peter de la Brouck, a Hollander, who made a Voyage to Angola, Guinny, and the Indies, in the years 1605. and 1606. sayes in his Relation, that in his time, there was found at Cabo verde, at the mouth of the River Gambi, a piece of Amber-greece, which weigh'd eighty pounds, whereof he bought some part. As for Musk, all are joyntly of opinion, that it comes of an Imposthume or Swelling, which rises about the Navil of a certain Animal, which some affirm to be about the bigness of a Fox, and others say, is like a Roe-buck. Whether then it be that this rising of the flesh about that part happens every year, when those Creatures go to rut, and that as they tumble up and down the Grass it breaks, or that it is cut off when they are taken, certain it is that it comes from a living Creature, which some Authors call Gazela; but the Inhabitants of Pegu give it another name, which I could not learn, and which is not to be found in the Relations, or Natural Histories of the East -Indies. Michael Boyen, a Jesuite, who some years since printed, at Vienna, a Treatise, which he calls La Flore Chinoise, sayes, that the right Musk is made of the Kidneys and Testicles of that Animal, which he calls Hiam, but that the China Merchants, who adulterate most of their Merchandises, put among it some of the flesh and bloud of the said Animal, and so make up a kind of composition, wherewith they fill the little Purses made of the Skin of the same Beast, which thePortuguez call Popos, and endeavour to make them pass for the right Cods. However this may hold, certain it is, that this excellent scent proceeds from a Beast, and that it may be called the soul of all Perfume. But there is not any thing so considerable as the convenience which this place affords for matter of exchange, the Benjans having their Correspondents in all parts of Asia, even at Constantinople; and this is so much the more to the advantage of the Merchant, the more he stands in fear of the Rasboutes, and other Robbers, who make travelling very dangerous, notwithstanding all the expence the Mogul is at, to maintain a great number of Souldiers, who are particularly kept for the safety of the High-wayes. There is nothing paid here, either at the exportation or importation of Merchandises, save that the Couteval, or Kings Lieutenant, hath given him by way of Present, about 15. pence for every Wagon; and it is lawful for all Forreigners to buy, and sell, and trade in all sorts of Merchandises, those only excepted which are prohibited, as Gun-powder, Lead and Salt-Peter, which may not be transported without the Governours permission; but that it is no hard matter to obtain, making but a slender acknowledgment of his favour therein. The City of Amadabat comprehends within its territory twenty five great Towns, and two thousand nine hundred ninety and eight Villages, so as that the revenue thereof amounts to above six millions of Crowns, whereof the Governour hath the disposal, and therewith maintains the Souldiers, whom he is oblig'd to keep for the Kings service, especially against Robbers upon the high-wayes; though many times he protects them, and divides the booty with them. The Couteval, who is as it were the King Lieutenant, commands under the Sulthan, and mannages the political Government, nay meddles also with the administration of Justice joyntly with the Kasi or ordinary Judge. The Mogul hath there also several other Officers, who are as it were Controllers and Supervisors of those we last named. The dayes following I spent in seeing the Sepulchres which are about the City, and among others, particularly that which is in the Village of Zirkees, about a League and a half from Amadabat. 'Tis the work of a King of Guzuratta, built by him to the memory of a Kasi, who had been his Praeceptor, and is grown very famous upon the account of many pretended Miracles done by him after his death. The whole Structure, wherein there are four hundred and forty great pillars, thirty foot high, is of Marble, as also the floor of it, and serves for a Sepulchre to three other Kings, who would needs be buried there with their Families. At the entrance of this sumptuous Monument, there is a large Tanke, or Cistern, full of water, and enclos'd with a wall, which hath several windows all about it. The Mahumetans of those parts go on Pilgrimage thither; and in this Village of Zirkees is made the best Indico in all the Country. About a League thence, there is a spacious Garden, with a fair House within it, which theMogul, Chon Chimauw, built, in memory of a Victory gained by him in that place over Sulthan Mahomed Begeran, last King of Guzuratta, upon which he united that Kingdom to his Crown, as we shall express hereafter. About a League and a half from the City, we were shewn a Sepulchre, which they call Betti-Chuit, that is to say, thy daughters shame discovered. There lies interr'd in it a rich Merchant, a Moor, named Hajam Majom, who falling in love with his own Daughter, and desirous to shew some pretence for his incest, went to an Ecclesiastical Judge, and told him in general terms, That he had in his youth, taken the pleasure to plant a Garden, and to dress and order it with great care, so that now it brought forth such excellent fruits, that his neighbours were extreamly desirous thereof, that he was every day importuned to communicate unto them, but that he could not yet be perswaded to part therewith, and that it was his design to make use of them himself, if the Judge would grant him in writing a Licence to do it. The Kasi, who was not able to dive into the wicked intentions of this unfortunate man, made answer, That there was no difficulty in all this, and so immediately declar'd as much in writing. Hajom shewed it his Daughter, and finding nevertheless, that neither his own authority, nor the general permission of the Judge, would make her consent to his brutal enjoyments, he ravished her. She complain'd to her Mother, who made so much noise about it, that the King Mahomet Begeran coming to hear thereof, ordered him to lose his head. Not far from Amadabat begin to appear the dreadful Mountains of Marva, which reach above 70. Leagues towards Agra, and above a hundred towards Ouyen, and are so inaccessible, that the Castle of Gurchitto, (where lives Rana one of the principal Radias of those parts) is accounted impregnable, in so much that the Kings of Pettan, and theMogul himself, found much ado to reduce it. TheIndians, who are Pagans, have still a great Veneration for that Prince, who, they say, was so powerful, as that he could in a short time bring 120000. Horse into the Field. In the Mountain which lies between Amadabat and Trappe, there lives another Radia, who is not subject to the Mogul, by reason the Woods and Deserts secure him against that Prince, who with all his power is not able to force him out of the places he is possess'd of, no more then he is the Radia of Ider, who is his Vassal, but many times refuses to obey his Orders. One of the noblest Gardens about the City is that of Schach-bag, in that part of the Suburbs which is called Begampour. It is the King Garden, very spacious, encompass'd with a high Wall, and hath within it a very fair House, the Ditches whereof are full of water, and the appartments richly furnish'd. I went thence along a Stone-bridge, which is four hundred paces in length, to another Garden, called Niccinabag, that is to say, the Jewel, and they say it was planted by a beautiful and rich young Lady. The Garden is not very great no more then the House within it; but both very advantageously seated in a place high enough to discover all the adjacent Champion, and upon the avenues of the [Page 26] Bridge, to make the noblest prospect that ever I saw. The Rain which falls in the Winter time supplyes a great Fish-poud or Pool in the middle of the Garden, but in Summer they make use of certain Engines, wherewith many Oxen put together draw up the water out of Wells, which are so deep, that they are never dry. A man can seldom go to this Garden, but he shall find some young Women bathing themselves, they will not persuit the Indians should see them, but suffered us to come in and speak to them. There are so many other Gardens about Amadabat, and the whole City is so full of Trees, that a man may say, it makes all but one Garden; for as he comes to the City, he sees such abundance of them, that he may well think he is going into a Forrest. Among other things I took particular notice of the High-way, which they call Bascaban, and leads to a Village six Leagues distant from the City. It is so straight, that it should seem they took a great pleasure in planting the Trees about it, whereof there is a double row on both sides upon a straight line. They are Cocos-Trees, which at all times refresh Travellers with their shade: but this road comes nothing near that which goes from Agra to Barampour, which makes but one continued Ally for a hundred and fifty Germans Leagues together. All these Teees lodge and feed an incredible number of Apes, among which there are some as big as Greyhounds, and strong enough to set upon a Man; but they never do it unless they be angred. They are most of them of a greenish brown colour, and their beards and eyebrows long and white. They multiply extreamly, by reason the Benjans, who are much more numerous in those parts then the Mahumetans, believe the Metempsychosis, or transmigration of souls, and permit not the killing of beasts, and these much less then any other, because they have some resemblance of Man, and are perswaded, that the merriest and best humour'd souls, after their departure out of the body, retire into these Creatures; whence it comes that the City is full of them. They come into people houses at any time with all the freedom imaginable, and in so great numbers, that those who sell Fruits and Preserves have much ado to keep them from their houses, and to secure their Ware. I remember one day I counted above fifty at the English house at the same time, which fell a playing and putting themselves into several postures, as if they had been sent thither purposely to make me sport. I one day chanc'd do cast some Dates and Almonds among two or three Apes that came in, which they liked so well, that they waited every morning at my Chamber door for their Breakfast, and became at last so familiar, that they would take Fruit, or Bread, or any thing else out of my hand. I would sometimes catch one of them by the Foot, so to oblige the others to snarle at me, and as it were to demand their Companion, which I did till such time as I saw them make ready to set upon me, so to force him out of my hands. The same Trees maintain all sorts of wild Fowl, but especially an infinite number of Parrots, whereof there are several kinds. The biggest are called Indian Crows. Some are all white, or of a Pearl colour, having on their Crowns a tuft of Feathers of a Carnation red, and they are called Kahatou, from that word which in their chattering they pronounce very distinctly. These Birds are common all over theIndies, where they make their Nests in Cities, under the Eaves of Houses, as Swallows do in Europe. The lesser sort of them, which are the more valued for the beauty and diversity of their colours, their Feathers being checquer'd between a lively Carnation and a bright Green, build their Nests in the Woods, and fasten them to the tops of the branches, so as that they hang in the Air, by which means they preserve their young ones from the Serpents that would devour them. They build their Nests with Hay or Stubble, and many times they fasten two together, with a covering above, and another beneath. These Birds are a great annoyance to the Fruits, and do much mischief in the Rice, because none kill them; nay, the Benjans are so supertitious as not to hinder them from eating; which freedom they also give the wild Ducks, Herons and Cormorants, whereof there are abundance abut the River. In the precedent Travels of the Embassadours into Muscovy and Persia, there is some mention of these Birds, upon occasion of those which we saw upon the River Wolga; We shall only add here, that it is the same kind of Fowl, that the Natural Histories call Onocratalus, from the noise it makes in the Water, when it puts its Beak into it, imitating in some sort the braying of an Ass. It hath the subtilty to swallow down Muscles, and keep them in the Stomach till the heat thereof hath opened the shell, and then cast them up again to take out the Fish. There is no kind of wild Fowl, nor Venison, which may not be had in these Forrests, but especially, Fallow-Deer, Roebucks, Ahus, or wild Asses, wild Boars and Hares. They have also store of tame Creatures, as Buffles, Oxen, Cows and Sheep: And the Rivers is so well furnished with all sorts of Fish, that it may be confidently affirmed, there is no place in the world where a man might live more deliciously. [Page 27] They want nothing but Wine; but to supply their want of that, they have Terri, taken out of the Cocos-trees, which drinks as deliciously as Wine. They have the most excellent Water in the World; and out of Rice, Sugar and Dates, they extract their Arak, which is a kind of Aqua vitae, much stronger and more pleasant then that which is made in Europe.
But as the Kingdom of Guzuratta is furnish'd with Creatures beneficial to man, as to carriage or otherwise, so are there also some which he must have a care of. There is no River but is pester'd with abundance of Crocodiles, called by the InhabitantsCayman, which do much mischief, as well in the Water, as upon the Land among the Cattle, nay, sometimes among Men, whom they surprise when they go a swimming, or when they go in Boats near the shore; this Creature being so nimble, that a Man hath much ado to escape by running, though it were no hard matter for him, by frequent turnings and windings to avoid his pursuit: for the Crocodile having no Vertebrae or joynts either in his neck or back, he cannot turn himself, and thence it comes that most commonly he rather surprises Men then pursues them. He commonly lurks in the high Grass on the River side, to catch at those who come for Water; and the Benjans, who believe that the Souls of those who are thus devour'd by these Creatures, are immediately admitted into Paradise, take no course to destroy them. It is very certain, that in the Ditches of the City of Pegu there were Crocodiles above thirty foot in length, and fed so much upon Mans flesh, that no day pass'd but they devour'd some or other, and yet the Benjans took no course in the world to prevent it and destroy them. But the King having caused one to be more particularly observed, which did more mischief alone then all the rest, had it taken and kill'd. There was one had swallow'd down a Woman with all her cloaths about her. They cover their Eggs, having laid to the number of 28 or 30. with Sand, about the change of the Moon, and so leave them till the wane, by which time they are hatch'd; when they uncover them, they kill a great many of the young ones, which hinders them from multiplying, as they would do otherwise to infinity.Johnston in his Natural History saith, that near Panama, in the West-Indies, there were found Crocodiles above a hundred foot long. But we shall not here make a digression into Natural History, and ingenuosly acknowledge, that those we saw were about twelve or fifteen foot long. The skin, or rather scales of their backs is harder then Armour musket-proof; so that to destroy them, a man must go on one side of them, and run them into the belly. The Inhabitants of the Country affirm, that this Creature is of its own nature cowardly, and that it avoids those who stand to it, and hath courage only when it hath to do with those that have not any, and run away from it. Another quality which this Country hath, not common with all places, is, that it produces abundance of Snakes and Serpents, which are here very dangerous, and among the rest those, which from a Greek word are called Amphisbenes, and have two heads. I must confess I never saw any of them, and expect not that upon my testimony any should condemn the opinion of those, who with much probability affirm, that Nature produces no Creature with two heads, unless she intend to make sport, and frame a Monster; and that their errour, who speak of the Amphisbene, proceeds only hence, that they have seen Serpents, which, contrary to the ordinary form of all Reptiles, are as big towards the tail as towards the head. We might also very well esteem those somewhat ridiculously conceited, who would have people believe, that these heads command' and obey alternately by years, if those of the Country did not affirm as much, and if Nirembergius, in his Natural History, write, that an Inhabitant of Madrid, namedCortavilla, had assur'd him that he had seen it: but he doth not himself believe what he adds to that Story; to wit, that this Creature hath under one of its Tongues the Remedy against the Poyson which the other had cast. The Woods are full of Lyons, Leopards, Tigers and Elephants; whereof we shall have occasion to speak elsewhere. But there is no Creature more common in these parts, as also all over theIndies, then the Batts, which are as big as Crows with us, nay, there are some about the bigness of our Hens. They are so great an annoyance to Gardens, that people are oblig'd to watch them, for the preservation of the Fruits. The City of Amadabat maintains for the Mogul's service, out of its own Revenue, twelve thousand Horse, and fifty Elephants, under the command of a Chan, or Governour, who hath the quality of Radia, Raja, or Rasgi, that is to say, Prince. He who commanded there in my time, was called Areb-chan, and about sixty years of age. I was credibly inform'd, that he was worth in Money and Houshold-stuffe, ten Crou, or Carroas Ropias, which amount to fifty millions of Crowns, the Crou being accounted at a hundred Lake Ropias, [Page 28] each whereof is worth fifty thousand Crowns. It was not long before, that his Daughter, one of the greatst Beauties in the Country, had been married to the Mogul's second Son, and the Chan, when she went to the Court, had sent her attended by twenty Elephants, a thousand Horse, and six thousand Waggons, loaden with the richest Stuffs, and whatever else was rare in the Country. His Court consisted of above 500. persons, 400. whereof were his slaves, who serv'd him in his affairs, and were all dieted in the house. I have it from good hands, that his expence in house-keeping amounted to above five thousand Crowns a moneth, not comprehending in that account that of his Stables, where he kept five hundred Horse and fifty Elephants. The most eminent Persons of his retinue were very magnificently clad, though as to his own person, he was nothing curious, and was content commonly with a Garment of Cotton, as are the other Indosthans, unless it were when he went abroad into the City, or took a journey into the Country; for then he went in great state, sitting ordinarily in a rich Chair, set upon an Elephant, cover'd with the richest Tapistry, or Alcatifs of Persia, being attended by the Guard of 200. men, having many excellentPersian Horses led, and causing several Standards and Banners to be carried before him [...]
[...]I had to travel intoCambaya, which I could hardly do without changing habit. We found him in the same appartment where we had seen him the time before. He was clad in a White Vestment, according to the Indian mode, over which he had another that was longer, of Brocadoe, the ground Carnation lined with white Satin, and above, a Collar of Sables, whereof the Skins were sewed together, so as that the Tails hung down over the back. As soon as he saw us come in, he made us sit down by the Lords that were with him. He was about some business, which hindred him for a while from discoursing with us, yet could I not but observe that he was pleased at my change of habit. He dispatch'd several Orders, and sometimes writ himself; yet did not his business take him up, so as to hinder him from taking Tobacco, which he took after the same manner as is elsewhere described in the precedent Travels of the Embassadours, there standing near him a Servant, who with one hand held to the Pipe to his mouth, and set fire to it with the other. He quitted that exercise to go and take a view of certain Troops of Horse and Companies of Foot, which were drawn up in the Court. He would see their [Page 29] Armes himself, and caus'd them to shoot at a Mark, thereby to judge of their abilities, and to augment the pay of such as did well at the cost of the others, out of whose pay there was so much abated. So that seeing him thus employ'd, we would have taken our leaves, but he sent us word that we should dine with him, causing in the mean time some Fruit to be sent us, whereof by his order we sent the best part to our Lodging [...]
[...]Jan. 11. We cast Anchor under the Castle Deguard, about a quarter of a League from the City. We found in the Haven six Gallions and a Carrack, whom we saluted with our great Guns. The Mary fir'd twenty five, the other nine, and the third five. The General of the Gallions gave us a volley of his greatest pieces. The Castle fir'd three; we, in answer thereto, five; the other two, eight between them. Immediately after, came aboard us a Portuguez Captain to complement the President from the Viceroy. Not long after, came the General of the Gallions aboard us in person, in a Gondole gilt and cover'd with Scarlet. At his coming into the Ship there were twenty Guns fired. After the first Complements, he intreated the President to go along with him in his Gondole to the Gallion, to refresh himself for some hours: But the President excus'd himself, in regard he was then going to the City, and promis'd, at his return, to give him a visit aboard. The Gallions were there only to keep the Haven against the twelve Dutch Ships, which pretended to block up the City of Goa towards the Sea. At our coming thither, they were got off at some distance, to recover themselves after an Engagement, wherein they had lost two of their Ships, some few dayes before, which were burnt by the Fire-ships: but the next day they came up again, and cast Anchor in the Road, to hinder the Carrack from getting out, while the Frigots and little Vessels, which could go along the Coast, brought thither all sorts of Provisions and Commodities, so freely, that, one day, I saw coming in a Caravan of above three hundred Boats, loaden with Pepper, Ginger, Cardamomum, Sugar, Rice, Fruits, and Conserves. The President, who as he went up the River had his Trumpets sounding before him, went strait to the house of the Fiador de la fasende, who is as it were the Overseer of the Exchequer, it being with him chiefly, that he was to negotiate the business, which had occasion'd his calling at Goa. The Fiador was sick in bed, yet did he receive the President with all civility, and promis'd to do him all the good offices he could expect, from the friendship they had long before contracted together. Thence the President was carried in a Palanquin to the Lodgings which were assign'd him: whither as soon as he was come, he sent to demand audience of the Viceroy, which was immediately granted him. The Viceroy's Palace lies upon the River, so that we went thither by boat. We found upon the River-side, many Hidalgos, or Gentlemen, of the Viceroy's retinue, who conducted us into the Hall, where he was to give the President audience. The Guards, who were all clad-in the same livery, had taken their Armes, and stood in two files in the Anti-chamber, through which there was an entrance into the Hall, which was richly furnish'd, and full of the Pictures of several Princes of Europe. The Viceroy, who was all in black, as were also all his Courtiers, rose out of his Chair at the Presidents coming in, and sate not down again till the other was set. All the rest of the Company stood before the Viceroy, some only of the Gentlemen excepted, who carried us into one of the cross Rooms to entertain us. [Page 79] The President, having dispatched his business, took leave of the Viceroy, who brought him to the Hall door, where he stood bare, till we were all got out. The same Gentlemen, who had receiv'd us at our coming out of the Boat, broughtus back to the River, shewing us, as we came a long, twelve excellent Horses, sumptuously cover'd and harness'd, which had been purposely brought thither, that we might take notice of the Viceroy's magnificence. We saw there also aBiggel, which is a Creature about the bigness, and much of the same colour as a Renne, but is headed like a Horse, main'd like an Ass, having black and cloven feet, and upon his head two black horns. We had hardly dined, at our return to our Lodging, ere we were tir'd with Visitants. Most of the Portuguez Lords came to salute the President; and there was no Monastery but sent its Deputies to complement him. The ten dayes we stay'd at Goa were spent in reciprocal Visits and continual feasting. One of the noblest Entertainments we had, was that which was made us the 15. of January, by a Portuguez Lord, who had been Governour of Bacim, and was then newly come to the government of Mozambique. Every course consisted only of four dishes of Meat, but they were so often chang'd, and the Meat so excellently well dress'd, that I may truly say, I never was at the like. For with the Meat there was brought such variety of excellent Fruits, that by the continual change and intermixture of both, the appetite was sharpened and renew'd. But what was most remarkable, was, that though the Portuguez Ladies are as seldom seen as those of the Muscovites andPersians, yet this Lord, knowing he could not any way more oblige the English, then by allowing them the sight of Women, we were serv'd at Table by four handsom young Maids ofMalacca, while he himself was attended by two Pages and an Eunuch. These Maids brought in the Meat, and fill'd our Wine; and though he himself drunk not any, yet would he have the English treated after their own way, and drink to what height they pleas'd. Being risen from Table, he brought us into a spacious Chamber, where he again press'd us to drink; and when the President was to take leave of him, he presented him with a noble Coverlet of Watte, a quilted Covering for a Horse, a fair Table, and a rich Cabinet of Lacque.
The next day, being the 16. we dined at the Profess'd House of the Jesuits, who had invited us to a sumptuous Feast. There were in this House a hundred and fifty Fathers, and at least as many Scholars or Students, yet did not that great number near fill that noble Structure, which was four stories high, and had the pleasantest prospect in the World, as well towards the Sea, as on the Land side. They first shew'd us all the conveniences of the House, their Wealth, and the order they observ'd in their Oeconomy. Then they brought us into a fair arched Hall, as big as an ordinary Church, which was beset with Tables placed all along the Walls. The Cloath was laid, with the Trenchers, the drinking Cups, and Earthen pots, and they had brought in Bread and Fruit. In the midst of the Hall, there was another little square Table, cover'd and furnish'd as the rest; for those who were to do pennance for their having done any thing contrary to the discipline of the Order. In the midst of the Entry to this Hall, there was a Pillar, out of which issued a Spout of water for the washing of their hands. Then they carried us up to the third story, to another Hall, which was not as large as that below, but so richly furnish'd, as might become the Appartment of a very noble House, as well in point of Tapistry as other things. The Table prepared for us was very large, and plac'd in the midst of the Hall, cover'd with a noble Cloath, beset with Fruit, and Bread, and China dishes, which Persons of Quality in those parts do prefer before those of Silver. The Father Provincial, having given the President the precedence, sate down by him, and afterward ordered all our company to be so plac'd, as that, between every two, there were two Jesuits to entertain and discourse with us; the rest standing behind to wait on us. The Meat was brought in little dishes of Porcelain, to every man his own dish; and this for several courses, both of Flesh and Fish, all excellently well dress'd. The desert was suitable to the rest of the entertainment, and consisted in Tarts, Florentines, Eggs drest after the Portuguez way, admirably well perfum'd, Marchpains, and Conserves, both dry and liquid. At our rising from Table, they conducted us into several Chambers, where they left us, to take the ordinary repose, during the greatest heat of the day. There was in every Chamber three Beds, and in the midst upon a Table a great Vessel of Porcelane, full of fair Water. Then they came and carried us into a Hall, where we were to have the divertisement of a Ball, which was danc'd by the Children of certain Indians, whom they had baptiz'd and instructed in the Roman Catholick Religion.
The Arch-bishop of Goa, who was Primate of all the Indies, was there also in person, as well to participate of the divertisment, as to entertain the President, by order from the Viceroy. The Dancing-master [Page 80] made the first entrance alone, and did pretty well for a Portuguez: The Habits of the Dancers were very rich, but they had no Visards on, nor any thing upon their Heads, but a Crown of Flowers. The noblest entrance, and that which discover'd the subject of the Ball, was that of fifteen persons who came in, bringing along with them, some pieces of a broken Pillar, some Garlands of divers Flowers, wherewith they adorn'd the Pillar after they had, after several turnings, absolutely set it together, all performed with observance of the Musick. At the upper end of this Pillar came out a Flower, made like a Tulip, which opened of it self, while they danc'd, till at last there came out of it an Image of the blessed Virgin, with her Child in her arms, and the Pillar it self opened in several places, to cast out perfum'd Waters like a Fountain. After they had danc'd a while, they took the Pillar asunder, after the same manner as they had put it together, and went out of the Room in very good order. The Jesuits told us, that by that invention they represented the pains they had taken, in planting among the Pagans and Mahumetans of those parts, the Church of God, whereof our Saviour is the only Pillar or Corner-stone. After this there was an entrance of twelve Youths, who sung and play'd every one upon a different Instrument, all done in exact measure. There came in also some Morris-dancers, who danc'd to the Castagnets, and kept measure with the Musick so exactly, that I never saw any thing like it. There came in also one Man alone, who was covered with Birds-nests, and cloath'd and mask'd according to the Spanish mode, who began thefarce of this Comedy, by ridiculous and fantastick postures, and the Ball was concluded with the coming in of twelve Boys, dress'd like Apes, which they imitated in their cries and postures. The Ball being over, we staid there a while to hear their Musick, which was altogether after the Portuguez way. As we took leave of our Entertainers, they told us, that they made use of those Divertisements, as well to reduce thePagans and Mahumetans of those parts to the embracing of Christian Religion, by that kind of modern Devotion, as to amuse the Children, and divert them after their studies. The 18. of January, we were invited to dinner by the Jesuits of the Colledge, which they call the Bon-Jesus. We were receiv'd at the entrance by some of the most ancient Fathers, who shewed us in several Halls and Chambers the Pictures of several Princes and Persons of Quality, who had been of their Order; as also the Histories of those of their Society, who had suffer'd Martyrdom for Christian Religion; among whom the Authors of the Gun-powder plot in England were not the least. But they forbore giving us the Explication thereof; only they entertain'd us with a long relation of the cruelties, exercis'd some years before, upon those of their Society in Japan, where the Emperour had made use of the most exquisite torments could be invented, upon the Christians, as well the Forreigners, who had spent their endeavours in planting Religion in those parts, as upon the Japonneses who had made profession thereof. Having shew'd us whatever was worth the seeing in their Colledge, they brought us unto the Church, which is no question one of the most sumptuous the Jesuits have in all Asia. The Structure is vast and magnificent, and the Ornaments are so sutable to the greatness thereof, that it were not easie to imagine any thing more noble. The first thing we were shewed was the High-Altar; but though it were one of the noblest I ever saw, yet came it not, in wealth, near another lesser one, which had been built in honour of Saint Francis Xavier, whom they call the Apostle of the Indies. We were shewed his Image, which was upon wood, drawn according to the life, and we were told his body was still to be seen in that Church, in the same posture as it was at the time of his departure. The Jesuits told us, that the body of the said Saint Francis Xavier was found in the Island of Ceylon, and that it was discovered only by a most delightful smell, which had brought those who found it many Leagues distance from the Sea, to the place where it was hidden. Which story does not agree very well with what others write of the same body. For besides, that the scent which is carried from the Island of Ceylon so far into the Sea, proceeds from the Grove of Cinnamon, wherewith that Island is in a manner covered. Maphaeus, one of the gravest Authors that ever were of the Society, sayes in express terms, that Francis Xavier, not satisfied with the progress he had made in the Indies by the means of his preaching the Faith of Christ, would needs try whether it might have the like success in China: but that he died on the Sea-side, as soon as he landed. Whereto he adds, that the Master of the Ship, which had carried him thither, caused the Corps to be put into unslak'd Lime, to the end he might carry away the bones, after the flesh had been consumed; but that after certain dayes, that consuming matter had not made any impression upon it, and that the body, instead of being corrupted, smell'd very sweetly; and that thereupon they resolv'd to carry it to Goa, where it was received [Page 81] with great Ceremonies. They related to us a great many Miracles wrought by that Saint; but I remember only two or three of the most considerable; to wit, that he had caused the Sun to come back an hour after it was set; that he commanded the Sea and the Winds with the same power, as our Saviour had sometimes done; and that he had rais'd up two Men, one whereof had been buried a whole day before. Out of the Church they brought us into their Refectory, where the Tables were placed all along the walls, as we had seen them in the Professed House, and in so great a number, that there was room enough for two hundred persons. Yet were there only four of the chiefest among them that dined with us, while all the rest stood and waited on us. We were as well treated by these as we had been by the others: but I must confess these gave us the best Canary that ever I drunk. Of all the Moral Vertues, there is not any the Jesuits endeavour more to practise then Sobriety, in so much that Drunkenness is a Vice they can the least of any be charged withall; and yet at this time they often call'd to drink, I conceive, purposely to engage us, to make it appear that it was not out of pure Complement we commended their Wine. After dinner, they carried us up into the Steeple, whence we could take a view of all the City, the Sea, the River, and all the adjacent Champion, as far as the Mountain, much better then we could have done from the fourth Story of the Professed House. As we took leave of them, they promised to send two of their Fathers to our Lodgings the next morning, who should shew us the great Hospital, whereof the Jesuits have the oversight. It is a very noble Structure, consisting of Chambers, Halls and Galleries, able to lodge above a thousand sick persons, who are very carefully supplyed with all things. Every Bed is mark'd with a certain Figure; and those which are not taken up, are known by their mark, which is standing upright; whereas those which are, have the mark in some other posture. The noblest Appartments of the Hospital were the Kitchin and the Apothecaries shop belonging to it, both well furnished with all things necessary for the accommodation of the sick, whereof there were a very great number; but most of the Pox, or Bloudy-flux. Those who are to look after them have this foresight, that they would not have the sick to be disheartened by seeing others dye; for as soon as they perceive the sick party so far spent as that there is no way but death for him, he is carried to a private room, whither a Priest is sent to him, who stirs not thence till he be dead. Having view'd the Hospital, we went to see the Monastery of the Augustines, which they call the Convent of our Lady of Grace. It is seated upon a little eminency, so that, seeing it at a certain distance, a man would take it for one of the noblest Palaces in the World. The Friers carried us all about it, and shewed us particularly the rich Copes and other Priests Vestments, which they said were given them by Persons of Quality, who had spent some time among them. I deliver'd them the Letters of recommendation, which the Augustines at Ispahan had given me, directed to them: whence it came that their civilities towards me were extraordinary. They proffer'd to shew me what was most remarkable about the City; but in regard I had already seen as much as I desir'd, I thank'd them, and came away with the rest of the company. As soon as the President had dispatch'd his business with the Viceroy, who paid him nine thousand pounds sterling, in ready Money, and promis'd him the rest should be paid, either in Money, or Commodities, to those English Merchants, whom, to that purpose, he had brought from Surat, he return'd their civilities, of whom he had received any, and took leave of all. The Viceroy, the General of the Gallions, and all the principal Lords about the Court, sent him very considerable Presents. The former presented him with several Skins of Cinnamon, a Biggel, some Butts of Sack, Sheep, and certain Baskets of Fruit, and other refreshments. The Jesuits sent him Aqua vitae, and good store of all sorts of Conserves, dry and liquid, with an intreaty, that he would take along with him, for England, certain Jesuits, and among the rest, one who had liv'd long enough inChina to be throughly acquainted with the Country. Of all the Presents that were sent him, what the President esteemed most, was a Bottle of Oyl, which had been extracted out of the Flower of Cinnamon, and a Candle made of the Oyl extracted out of Cinnamon it self. Jan. 20. We left Goa, and met upon the River with above a hundred small Vessels, loaden with all sorts of Provisions and Commodities, which came from Cananor, and the Coasts of Malabar, and had passed, notwithstanding the Block-house of Dutch Vessels, which could only hinder the Gallions and Carracks from getting thence, to go for Portugal, or towards the Moluccas. As soon as we were got out of the River, we made strait to the Generals Gallion, which was called the Bon-Jesus, and carried sixty four Brass Guns, all Cannons or Culverings. There were aboard her six hundred Men, Mariners and Souldiers; [Page 82] and it was one of the noblest Vessels I ever saw. The General receiv'd the President with much civility, and brought him into his Chamber, in and about which were an Anti-chamber, a Closet, and two Galleries: and after a Collation of Conserves and Sack, contrary to the custom of the Portuguez, who never proffer a Man drink, unless he ask for it, he shew'd us all the Ship, which had the name of a Gallion, but might very well be accounted a Carrack by reason of the bigness of it. The other Vessels of the Fleet were also very noble ones, there being not any one among them, that had not fifty Guns at least. The General and President were in private discourse, for about half an hour, after which the President took his leave, and the General conducted him to a door which was in the Stern of the Ship, at which it was more commodious getting out, then it is in other Ships by Ladders of Ropes. As soon as the President was got into the Boat, all the Portuguez Fleet fir'd their Guns. The Governour of the Castle de Guarde, having saluted the President, who was his intimate Friend, with all the Guns he had, presented himself upon the Battery, put off his Hat, and took leave of us. The President being come aboard, ordered twenty Guns to be fired, which the General answered with twenty others; whereupon we went into the Road, and lay between the Portuguez and Dutch Fleets. But, ere we leave Goa, it will not be amiss, to give yet a little further account of what we found most remarkable in that City, which no doubt is one of the noblest and greatest of those the Portuguez are Masters of in any part of the Indies. It lies in the Kingdom of Cuncam, or Decam, fifteen Degrees on this side the Line, in an Island, which the River divides from the Continent. Alfonso Albuquerque took it by Composition, on the 16. of February, 1510. from Zabaim Dalcam, Prince of Goa, who recovered it again from him on the 30th of May following; but on the 21. of November in the same year, Albuquerque receiving fresh Forces irom a Fleet, which Diego Mendez Vaseoncelos had then newly brought from Portugal, set upon the City and took it by storm. The City of Goa was, even at that time, very considerable for its Traffick, but much less then it is now, as may be seen by the Walls of the old City, which are yet standing, though the Gates be down, in so much that there is nothing between it and the new City, built by the Portuguez, since they established their main Trade there. It hath on the South-side the Island of Salsette, which is divided from the Continent only by a small Rivulet, as is also the Island of Bardes, which lies on the North-side, and under which Ships may cast Anchor with all safety, without fear of any Winds. The Castle de Guarde lies at the foot of a Rock, on which they have built a Tower, in form of a Redoubt, wherein, in the night time they make a Fire, for a direction to Ships, and it hath several Brass pieces placed even with the Water. From the mouth of the River to the Haven are about two Leagues, but it is equally broad all along, even at the place where it runs between the Island and the Continent, though in some places it be so shallow, that in Summer time there is not above two foot water. The Island of Goa does not produce any thing, and is so barren, that some few Lambs and Goats excepted, it is not able to sustain any thing; and yet the Portuguez have some Gardens there, and in them some Fruit, but it is to be attributed rather to their industry, then to Nature. Palm-wine is there in abundance, and all other provisions are brought thither from the two forementioned Islands, or from the Continent, so plentifully, that they are so cheap there, that notwithstanding the Block-house of the Hollanders, a Hog might be had for a Crown, six sucking Pigs, ten Pullets, or eight wild Ducks, for as much; but there are very few Oxen there, then which Sheep are yet more scarce. They permit not the Indians to go over into the Continent, without leave obtain'd from those who keep the passages, who make a mark in their Armes, which they are oblig'd to shew as they come back: for the Portuguez would not have the Decanines and Canarines come into the City without a Pass-port. All the fresh-water they have within the City comes from a Fountain, which represents a Lucrece, out of whose Wound there comes Water enough to supply the whole City: but the Ships take in fresh-water near the Castle, above which there comes out of the Rock a Rivulet, which there falls into the River. The City hath now neither Gates nor Walls, but the River, which makes the Island, secures it against the attempts, which an open place might be exposed to. The publick Buildings are very fair, and the Palaces of great Persons very magnificent, especially in their Houshold-stuffe. The Inhabitants are eitherCastizes, that is, Portuguez, born of Father and Mother Portuguez; The Mestizes are distinguished from the others by their colour, which inclines towards the Olive; [Page 83] but those of the third Generation are as black as the Inhabitants of the Country; which happens also in the fourth Generation of the Castizes, though there were no mixture among them. The Portuguez are either Titulados, as those who are employed in the principal charges; Fidalgos da casa del Rey, that is, Gentlemen in ordinary of the Kings House; Mocos Fidalgos, young Gentlemen, that is, the Sons of Titulados, or Cavalleros, or newly admitted to Gentility by the King, Cavalleros Fidalgos, Escuderes Fidalgos, or simply Gentlemen. There are also such as have the quality of Mocos da camra, or Grooms of the Kings Chamber, who pass also for Gentlemen. All the rest are Hombres, Honrados, and Soldados. The former are Merchants or Tradesmen, and appear publickly with the same gravity, and almost with the same retinue as Gentlemen; in as much as, some only excepted, who cut Leather for Shooes, and Stuffes for Clothes, all the rest have their business done by Slaves.
No Person of Quality goes abroad afoot; for some are carried by their Slaves in a Palanquin, and others ride on Horseback, or go in painted and gilty Gondoles; but not any without a Slave to carry an Umblello, or Fan.
The Portuguez have the reputation of being very highly conceited of themselves; but those of Goa are such in so high a degree, as well in their gate, as all their other actions, that they treat, as unacquainted with the World, such as are newly come from Portugal, and are not accustom'd to their manner of going and life.
They are excessively civil one to another; nay, they are, in this, so ceremonious and exact, that he who should omit to render a person, that gives him a visit, the honour he conceives due to himself, whether it be in making him sit down otherwise then he would, or not bringing him to the street-door, must expect the effects of a deep resentment, whereof the least are cudgelling or caning, which they liberally bestow on persons of mean condition, who being below them, have omitted giving them the respect they look for from those that are not their Equals, though indeed they owe them not any.
Winter begins there towards the end of June, with a South-west Wind, which comes from the Sea, and reigns for the space of four moneths, all along that Coast, from Diu, as far as the Cape of Comory; and during all that time, the Sea is not only innavigable, but there are few Havens, where Ships can ride in safety, and unexpos'd to Storms, mixt with terrible Thunder and Lightning, which disturb the Air there in that season. Which is yet so much the more to be wondred at, inasmuch as, at the same time, the Coast of Coromandel, which is in the same Peninsula, and at the same degree of elevation, and in some places is but twenty Leagues distant from that of Malabar, enjoyes a pleasant Spring, and the most divertive season of the year. Accordingly, those who go from Cochim to Saint Thome, by land, as they pass over the Mountain of Balagatta, which divides the whole Peninsula, as the Apennine does Italy, discover, from the top of the Mountain, on the one side, a clear and temperate Air, and on the other, a Country cover'd with a perpetual mist, and drown'd with the Rains that continually fall. The same observation may be also made in those Ships, which go from Ormus to the Cape of Rosalgate. Where, as they pass the Cape, they suddenly pass out of fair Weather, into dreadful Storms and Tempests. Whence it comes that, in those parts, there are but two Seasons, as there are also principally but two Winds that reign there in the Summer time, to wit, those of the East, which the Portuguez call Therentos, which come from the Land-side, and blow from mid-night till mid-day; but they are not felt above ten Leagues within the Sea; and those of the West, which they call Virasons, which come from the Sea, immediately after dinner, and blow all the rest of the day.
This change of Seasons from one extremity to another is the cause of many Diseases among the Portuguez; but the most common there are those which they call Mordexin, which kills immediately, burning Feavers, and bloudy Fluxes, against which they have in a manner no remedy but bleeding. The Plague is a Disease not known in the Indies; bat, to make amends, they have the Pox, which destroyes every year a great number of Portuguez. For, though the Country produces present and topical Remedies against the Disease, yet so violent are their inclinations to Women, who, on the other side, are as mad for Men, that they will not take the time to be cur'd of a Disease, which is not got off by Remedies, if they be not accompany'd with a very regular diet. The Women of those parts have an excessive affection for white Men, and, being kept very much in restraint, they are put to all imaginable inventions, to let them know how passionately they love them, and to get them into their Lodgings: where they many times prosecute their delights, even in the Husbands presence, by means of a Drug, which so stupifies his Senses, as that he seems either to have lost them, or to sleep with his eyes open.
The Indians call this Herb Doutro,Doutry, or Datura, and the Turks and Persians Da [...]ula. [Page 84] Garcias ab horto, and Christopher d' Acosta, affirm, that it is a kind of Stramonea; that the Herb grows abundantly all over the Indies, in the shade, and that it is somewhat like Bearsfoot. They extract the juyce of it, while it is green, or they beat the Seed to powder, and mix it in Conserves, or put it into his drink, whom they would reduce to that condition for twenty four hours: during which time he is depriv'd the use of all his Senses, so that he does not see what is done before him, though his eyes be open, unless some body moisten the soles of his seet with fair water, which revives and recovers him, much after the same manner as if he awoke out of a sound sleep. There are few Portuguez Women, or Mestizes, seen going about the City; and when they go abroad, either to Church, or upon necessary Visits, they are carried in close Palanquins, or are attended and watch'd by so many Slaves, that it is impossible to speak to them. When they appear in publick, they are all very richly attir'd, in Velvet, Flower'd-Sattin, or Brocado, and adorn'd with abundance of Pearls and precious Stones; but at home, they go in their Hair, and have about them only a Smock, which reaches to the Navil; and thence downwards, they have Petticoats of painted Clothes falling down to the Feet, which are bare. They eat no Bread, as liking the Rice better, now that they are accustomed to it; nor do they fare over-deliciously as to other things, their ordinary sustenance being Salt-fish, Mangas, or only Rice, soak'd in a little Flesh or Fish-broath. They make use of certain Bottles, made of a kind of black Earth, which they call Gorgolettes, and have a Pipe coming up to the brims, so as that they may suck up the Water without lifting up the Bottles to their mouths.
The Men there are so jealous of their Wives, that they permit not their nearest Relations to see them: for Chastity is so strange a Vertue in those parts, that there is no Woman but contrives all the wayes imaginable to pursue her enjoyments, never minding the breach of those Laws which God and Nature hath imposed upon them, though the frequent misfortunes which happen upon that occasion should engage them to be more cautious and reserv'd. The perpetual idle life they lead makes them so high in their desires, for they do not any thing of business in the world, but spend the day in chewing of Bettele, which adds fuel to the flames of their lewd inclinations, as do also the Cloves and Nutmegs, which they eat, out of an imagination that they prevent the corruptions of the Teeth and Stomack, which commonly make the Breath stink.
The Indian Women, who conceive by an European, have so great an affection for their Children, that they would rather dye then part with them. Children are not cloath'd till they are of age to wear Breeches: and till that time they are brought up by Slaves, or other Indian Women.
The Souldiers live after another rate among them. For those who go in that quality from Portugal, do not list themselves under any particular Captain, nor will be engaged to continue in any one certain place to keep Garrison there: but when they come to the Indies, they do what they please themselves. Accordingly they have no pay, but when they are in actual service upon the Engagements they are forc'd to at Sea, against the Malabars, or the Dutch. But the Captains, who have occasion for these people, treat them with much civility, and give them now and then somewhat towards their subsistence, that they may be assured of their persons and services, when they have any work for them: so that they have what to live upon, yet spend not much. For commonly they live ten or twelve in the same house, where they diet together, having but two or three Servants among them, and as many Suits of Clothes, for those who go abroad, either to beg, or upon some design, while the rest stay at home, till their turns come to march out.
The Marriages and Christenings of the Portuguez are celebrated with very great magnificence. The Friends and Relations come on horseback to the Bridegrooms door, and thence march before him to Church, into which he enters, accompanied by two of his Friends, who are instead of God-fathers to him; and the Bride follows him in a Palanquin, accompanied also by her two God-fathers. After the benediction of the marriage, they reconduct the new married couple to their house, into which only the God-fathers enter with the young couple, who go into a Balcony, or stand at a Window, to give the company thanks, which in the mean time shew a thousand tricks in the Street. Their Chistenings are performed, in a manner, with the same Ceremonies, save that, at these there is carried an Ewer with a clean Napkin, a Salt-sellar, and in the midst a Silver Basin, in a heap of Roses, or other Flowers, a Wax-candle, into which they put a piece of Gold or Silver, for an Offering to the Priest. The God-father, and the Mid-wife, are carried with the Child in Palanquins.
Most of the Portuguez have many Slaves of both Sexes, whom they employ not only [Page 85] about their persons, but also upon any other business they are capable of; for what they get comes in to the Master. Whence it comes that handsome Wenches are sought after, to be imploy'd in the selling of Fruits, and such Commodities as the Portuguez send to market; to the end their beauty might draw in Customers, and so they by a double way of trading, bring in double profit to their Masters. Their keeping, as to diet, stands them in very little; and all the cloathing they give them is only as much Linnen-cloath as will cover the privy parts. The Children born between Slaves belong to the Master, unless the Father will redeem them, within eight or ten dayes after they are born; which if they let slip, they are not afterwards admitted to do it, and the Master disposes of them; and when they are able to do any thing, makes use of them himself, or sells them in the Market, as we do Cattle.
The Inhabitants of the Country are Pagans, and for the most part Benjans. Their Houses are all of Straw, and very little, having no light but what comes in at a little low door. All their Houshold-stuffe consists principally in certain Mats made of Rushes, which serve them both for their lodging at night, and to lye down upon at meals. Their Dishes, Drinking-cups, and Napkins, are made of Fig-leaves, of which they also make Pitchers and Oyl-pots, and their ordinary sustenance is Rice, which they boyl in Earthen pots. They daub over their Houses with Cow-dung, out of an imagination that it drives away Fleas.
They are so superstitious, that they never go abroad till they have said their prayers; and if they chance to meet a Crow, where-ever they be, they immediately return home, and undertake no business of any consequence that day. When they travel, they do their devotions before their Pagodes; and the Portuguez tollerate their Idolatry, upon this account, that the Inquisition hath no power, but only over such as either are Christians, or have been such. They have also their particular ceremonies for their Marriages, their birthdayes, and other dayes, and seasons of the year: but they differ so little from those whereof we have spoken already, that we shall need say nothing of them. There are among them some very able Physitians, who are so highly respected at Goa, that they are permitted to have their Umbrellos carried with them; which is a Priviledge allowed only persons of quality: nay the Portuguez, even to the Vice-Roy himself and the Arch-Bishop, make use of them, rather then of those of their own Nation. They never eat but with those of their own Sect, though they were ready to starve. Nay, in this particular they are so scrupulous, that if, in their journey to Cochim, their provision should fall short, they would rather starve, then be oblig'd to eat what another had sown or made ready. Most of the Porters about Goa are Christians, as are also their Money-changes, whom they call Xaraffes, who make an external profession of Christianity, but, in their dealing, are Jews, apt to over-reach and deceive all that have to do with them. There are in Goa many Decanins and Canarins, who have Shops there, and buy of the Portuguez, Porcelane, Velvet Damask, and other Stuffes of Silk and Cotton, as also some China Commodities, all by whole sale, and afterwards sell them again by retail. These also bring Provisions from the Continent, and trade therein, having to that end their Brokers and Factors, who mannage their business, Gravers, &c. while they go to Cambaya, and along the Coast to improve their Traffick. There are amongst them Goldsmiths, Jewellers, Gravers, and other Artizans, who do things incomparably better then any of ours. These also farm the Kings Demesne in the Islands of Bardes and Salsette; upon which account, having sometimes occasion to go to Law, they are so well vers'd in the Laws and Customs of Portugal, that they need no Advocates to plead their Causes.
Most of the Canarins are either Husband-men, or Fisher-men. There are some of them have no other employment then dressing the Cocos-trees, to get the Wine and Fruit they produce. Others only wash Linnen, or whiten Cloath. The Peasants bring in every day to the City, wild Fowl, Milk, Fruit, Eggs, and other provisions to be sold. Their Wives are deliver'd with the greatest easiness imaginable. They make no use of Midwives, but are deliver'd alone, wash their Children themselves as soon as they are born, put them under a few Fig leaves, and return to their work, as if they had not been about any such thing. The Children brought up after this rate, grow so hardy and strong, that it is an ordinary thing to see Men among them of a hundred years of age, yet have not a Tooth missing, but all the time in perfect health. They are all excellent Swimmers, whence it comes, that they venture over to the Continent in their little Boats called Almadi [...]es, which indeed are so little, that they can hardly carry one person: in so much that they are frequently overturn'd, but they recover them again by swimming, cast out the Water, and prosecute their Voyage. Though in these parts they burn the dead bodies instead of burying of them, yet are not the Women oblig'd to burn themselves with [Page 86] their Husbands Corps, but only to cut off their Hair, and make a Vow of perpetual Widowhood.
The Jews, who live at Goa, have there their Temples and Synagogues, and enjoy an absolute liberty of Conscience. They are eitherIndians born of, Father and Mother, Jews, or they come out of Palastine; these last, for the most part, speak the Spanish tongue. TheMahumetans, who live there, trade for the most part to Meca, and other places upon the Red-sea, whither they carry Spices. The Portuguez and the Mestizes have their greatest Trade in Bengala, Pegu, Malacca, China, and in Guzuratta, at the City of Cambaya. No Person of Quality at Goa, but goes once a day to the Market, whither the Merchants, nay, most Gentlemen come, as well to hear what news there is, as to see what there is to be sold; for, from seven in the morning to nine, (after which the heat is such, as that a Man is not able to stay there) the publick Criers, whom they call Laylon, sell there by outcry, all sorts of Commodities, but especially Slaves of both Sexes, and Jewels. There you shall see the Crier loaden with Chains, Gold Rings, and precious Stones, and followed by a great number of Slaves, all to be sold. There are also to be sold there, Persian and Arabian Horses, Spices, all sorts of Aromatick Gums, Alcatifs, Porcelane, Vessels of Agat, several things made of Lacque, and whatever is thought precious or rare in any other part of the Indies. Merchants and Tradesmen are distinguished by Streets; so that Silk-men are not shuffled in among Linnen-Drapers; nor the Druggists among those who sell Porcelane. The greatest profit they make is in the exchange of Money. For when the Spanish Fleet comes in, they buy Ryals at ten or twelve in the hundred loss; and in April, when the Ships go away for the Molucca's and China, where the Ryals are much esteem'd, they fell them again at twenty five or thirty in the hundred profit, notwithstanding the Order there is to sell them at four hundred Reis. They make the same advantage by the change of the Laris, which they also sell at ten or twelve in the hundred profit.
They have several sorts of money. The least is that which hey call Basarucques, which on the one side have a Globe, on the other two Arrows cross'd. They are made of Tin and Lattin mixt together, and eight of these Basarucques make a Ventin, whereof five make a Tanghe. Five Tanghes make a Serafin of Silver, which, according to the King. Command, is set at three hundred Reis, and six Tanghes make a Pardai. The Serafin hath on the one side SaintSebastian, on the other a sheaf of Arrows. There are also Serafins of Gold, coined heretofore at Ormus, of a more refin'd metal then any other Moneys of the Indies; whence it comes, that the Gold-smiths melt down all that fall into their hands of them. They have alsoSantemes of 16. Tanghes, and Pagodes of 14. 15. and 16. Tanghes.
Forreign Merchants pay at their coming in eight in the hundred for all Merchandises, and as much at their going out; but the Farmers of the Customs are so reasonable in their valuing of them, that the Merchants have no cause to complain. They have also this favour, that if a Merchant hath paid the Customs at his coming in, and hath not put off his Commodities, he may carry them to some other place, without paying ought at the Exportation. In like manner, a forreign Merchant that hath bought of a Portuguez, or other Citizen of Goa, Spices, or any other Commodities of Malacca or China, may enter them under the Sellers name, and so avoid paying the Customes due at exportation.
The Viceroy at the time of our being there, was D. Pedro de Silva. His person was not answerable to his quality, but he had about him above fifty Gentlemen, who gave him the same respect as they could have done the King himself. This charge is continued in the same person, but for three years, as well in regard it were dangerous, a Subject should longer be possess'd of a Dignity, which differs from the Soveraign only in time; as that the King of Spain hath many Lords to gratifie with an Employment, which enriches them sufficiently in that time. For, besides that his whole Court lies at the Kings charge, he hath the disposal of all his Revenue, and every year makes a Visit for sixty or eighty Leagues about, which is worth to him very much. But the Presents which the neighbouring Princes, and the Governours and under Officers make him, are not to be valued. He hath his Council of State, and his Courts of Law and Equity. He is absolute Judge in all civil Causes, the most important only excepted, wherein there may appeal be made to the King. Criminal Sentences are executed there, notwithstanding the Appeal; but it is not in the Viceroy's power to indict a Gentleman, but he is oblig'd to send him, with the Informations brought in against him, to Portugal, unless the King order some other course to be taken with him. The Viceroy at his arrival into the Indies, lands in the Island of Bardes, or some other Haven on that side, whence he immediately sends his Agents to Goa, [Page 87] to take possession of his charge, and what ever depends on it. His Predecessour makes way for him, upon the first news he receives of his Arrival, unfurnishes the Palace, and leaves him only the Guards and the bare walls. Thus much we thought fit to say of the City of Goa.
January 22. about noon, the President sent away the two Ships which came along with us from Surat, and were to carry thither the money which had been received at Goa; and after he had dismiss'd certain Jesuits, and several other persons of quality of Goa, who were come to visit him aboard, we hoys'd sail, yet expecting to come aboard our Ship the General of theDutch Fleet, whose name was Van Kenlen, who had intreated him to convey some Letters to his Superiours. But he came not. In the Evening we saw all the Dutch Fleet under sail, whence we imagin'd that the General intended to give us a visit, but with the night we lost sight of them, and having a reasonable good wind, kept on our course. Jan. 23. At break of day, we had a sight of the Dutch Fleet again; and then we conceiv'd they were going to relieve the King of Ceylon, who had intreated the General to assist him against the Portuguez, who had declar'd war against him. About noon, we were at thirteen degrees latitude, and out of sight of land. But in regard we intended to go towards the Coast of Malabar, upon intelligence brought us, that an English Ship, coming from Bantam, richly loaden with Spices, had been set upon and spoil'd by the Malabar Pyrates, the next day we chang'd our course, and took it more Eastward, so to get towards the land. The Malabars had taken their advantage of the condition that Ship was in, which was so over-burthen'd, that she could make use of but six Guns; they found indeed no great difficulty to enter her; but they were no sooner in, ere the English sent above six hundred of them, with the upper Deck into the Sea. They dispatch'd as many with the second; but afterwards being themselves forc'd to go to the Stern, to avoid the fire, they yielded to the Malabars, who, with the Ship, took the Captain, the Masters Mate, the Clark, and fourteen others, whom we intended to redeem.
About noon we pass'd in sight of Monteleone, a high mountain from which the Malabars discover, at a distance, the Vessels they conceive they may set upon with advantage, and at night we came to the Haven of Cananor, where we found three English Vessels, the Dragon, the Catharine, and the Seymour, commanded by Captain Weddell, one of the most experienced Sea-Captains of his time, one that had been at the taking of Ormus, and was then entertain'd into the service of a new Company, erected not long before in England, for the trade of the Indies. Having fired some Guns to salute the Castle, we sent to Captain Weddell, to know what condition the English prisoners were in; and hearing they were most of them set at liberty, we would stay no longer on that Coast.
The Portuguez have a Garrison in the Castle of Cananor, but the City is inhabited by Malabars. They call by that name all those people who live upon that Coast from the City of Goa, as far as the Cape of Comory, or Comorin. The Country is very fertile, and brings forth abundance of Spices, but particularly the best Pepper in the Indies, which is most esteem'd, because the grain of it is bigger then it is any where else, even then that which grows in Sumatra and Java. The Inhabitants go stark naked, covering only those parts, which Nature would not have seen even in Beasts. They make holes in the tips of their Ears, and are black, but have not such great Lips as the Moors of Africk. They tye up their Hair together upon the Crown of the Head, and let their Beards grow to the full length, without any ordering or trimming, in so much that they are not unlike those figures, under which we would represent the Devil. Nor is their disposition unsuitable to this pleasant external shape, for they understand nothing of civility, nor are capable of any Commerce or Conversation. They are for the most part Pyrates and Souldiers, who may be said to have rashness rather then courage, and are expert enough in the handling of their Armes, which are Sword and Buckler, Bows and Arrows. They make also a kind of Muskets themselves, and use them with advantage. They obey neither the King of Cuncam, nor the Viceroy of Goa, but they have their particular King or Prince, who also performs the functions of High-Priest, and is of the Sect of the Bramans. These were the most considerable enemies the Portuguez met with, at the beginning of their establishment in the Indies: but ever since they made a Treaty with them, they have liv'd in very good correspondence. Their Prince, whom they call Zamorin, is also King of Calicuth, upon the same Coast. In the year 1604. the Dutch made a Treaty with him, for the freedom of Trade; but the Portuguez coming to be more powerful in those parts, and the Dutch finding it easier to settle themselves in other places, where they continue their Trade with greater advantage, they have neglected the friendship of these [Page 88] Barbarians. I observ'd at Cananor, that there were some men among them, who never par'd their Nails; and that there were others, who wore Bracelets and Rings about their Armes. These are the Gentry of the Country, whom they call Nayres, that they may be distinguish'd from Persons of meaner condition, whom they call Polyas. The Nayres are very proud, and conceited of themselves, and permit not the Polyas so much as to touch them. They alwayes go with their Sword and Buckler, wherewith they make a noise in the Streets as they go, and perpetually cry out Po, Po, that people should make way for them. As soon as they perceive them coming, they close on both sides, look down to the ground, and do them reverence. Some affirm, that this punctilio of Honour, whereby they pretend to a respect due to them from all that are not of their race, was one of the things that most obstructed the Treaty which thePortuguez were ready to conclude with the King of Cochim, at their first establishment, in regard they would have the Portuguez do them the same submissions as the Polyas did. The Portuguez, on the other side, who are as highly conceited of themselves as any Nation in the World, refused to do it; so that to decide the difference, it was agreed, that a Portuguez and a Nayre should fight for the honour of the two Nations; upon condition, that the Conquerour should give the Law to the conquered. The Portuguez Champion had the advantage, and by that means obtain'd the precedence for his Nation; and ever since that time, the Portuguez have the same honour done them by the Nayres, Many of these Nayres never marry, in regard they have a certain priviledge to see the Wives and Daughters of their Camerades, and to that end, to go into their Houses at any time of the day. When they go into any House upon that score, they leave their Sword and Target at the Street-door, which mark prohibits entrance to all others whatsoever, nay the very Master of the House himself, finding those Armes at his Door, passes by, and gives his Camerade full liberty to do what he please. The Polyas are not so much honour'd as to have the Nayres visit their Wives, who must be content with their own Husbands; for it were a great crime in a Nayre to defile himself, by conversing with the Wife of a common person. The Nayres are all Souldiers, made use of by the King, both for his Guard and in his Wars. On the contrary, the Polyas are forbidden the bearing of Armes, and so are either Tradesmen, Husbandmen, or Fishermen.
The Malabars write with a Bodkin upon the bark of the Cocos-tree, which they cut very thin, and in an oblong form like a Table-book, drawing a String through the middle, which hold the leaves together, and comes twice or thrice about the box or case, which is as it were a covering to it. Their Characters have nothing common with those of the other Indians, and are understood only by their Bramans, for most of the common people can neither write nor read.
The King of Calicuth doth not eat any thing, which had not been presented before to his Pagode; and it is to be particularly observed, that in this Kingdom it is not the Kings Son, but the Kings Sisters Son, who inherits the Crown, it being the common perswasion, that the Children born of the Queen, are begotten rather by their Bramans then by the King himself.
As concerning the City of Cochim, it is to be observed, that there are two Cities of the same name in the Kingdom of Cochim, one whereof lies upon a great River, and belongs to the King of Cochim, the other to the Portuguez. This last, whereof we now speak, is seated upon the same Coast, at ten degrees on this side the Line, having on the West-side of it the Sea, and on the Land-side a Forrest of black Trees, whereof the Inhabitants of the Country make their Boats called Almadies. These Trees they make hollow, and so their Boat is all of one piece, yet with these they make a shift to go along the Coast as far as Goa. The Port is very dangerous, by reason of the Rocks which make the entrance into it very difficult. At the beginning of Winter, there falls such abundance of Rain in the neighbouring Mountains, that several Brooks are of a sudden by that means overflown, and run with such violence, that the Earth which they carry along, and which is stopped by the Waves that are forc'd by the Wind against the Earth, makes in that place a kind of Bank, which so stops up the mouth of the Haven, that 'tis impossible to get into it or out of it, during that time, nor indeed till the Wind, which changes with the season, forces the Sea back again, which carries along with it the filth which the Rain had left in that place.
The Portuguez carry on a great Trade in this place in Pepper, which the King of Cochim sells them at a certain rate, agreed upon with the Viceroy at his first coming to Goa; but the Inhabitants of the Country, and other Forreigners, pay dearer for it. [Page 89]
The King of Cochim is one of the most powerful Princes of those parts; it being certain, that he is able to raise above a hundred thousand men; the most part Nayres, who are obliged to serve at their own charge, either with Horse or Elephants. As to their manner of life, it is not fully so brutish as that of the Malabars, but they observe the same Custom, for the succession of their Kings, and the Consummation of their Marriages, which work is performed by their Bramans.
This sort of people is so highly respected amongst them, that the Master of the House seeing a Braman coming into it, makes him way, retires, and leaves him alone to do what he please with his Wife. They make holes in their Ears, and hang little weights of Lead at them, which stretch them so much, that in time they reach down to their Shoulders. The principal Commerce of this place consists in Pepper, Ginger, and Cinnamon.
It is not long since all the Malabars had but one King; but Sarama Perymal, Monarch of all that Coast, from Goa, as far as the Cape of Comeri, having imbrac'd the Mahumetan Religion, and desirous to end his life in solitude, near the Sepulchre of his great Prophet, distributed his Territories amongst his Friends, upon condition that the Kings of Cananor, Cochim and Chaule, should acknowledge the Soveraignty of the King of Calicuth, on whom he bestowed the Dignity of Zamourin, or Emperour; but since the establishment of the Portuguez in those parts, the power of Zamourin is grown so low, that at the present, the King of Cochim is more powerful then he.
January the 26. We left Cananor, and saw going thence Captain Weddell, who would gladly have come along with us into England, had he not been obliged to go and dispatch some business he had to do at Cochim and Calicuth. Captain Weddell cast Anchor there, but we only fired some Guns, and pursued our Voyage.
The next day we discover'd, at a great distance, eighteen Sail of Ships, which coming directly towards us, easily discover'd what their design was. We had much ado to clear our Guns, for the Ship was so loaden that every hole was full. However we had the time to put our selves into a posture of receiving those Pyrats, who had not the confidence to come within Cannon-shot of us, while day-light might discover them; but presently after midnight, as soon as the Moon was up, they set upon us on all sides, though with little advantage, for they were so well receiv'd, that at the first firing of our Guns we sunk two of their Frigots, and made three or four others incapable of further ingaging. Our small Shot in the mean time playing upon those which came nearest our Ship, that they thought it their best course to let us alone.
The same night we pass'd by the Castle of Chochim, and the next day, the twenty eighth, we could discern no more then fourteen of the Malabar Frigats, which follow'd us a far off, whereupon we conceiv'd the other four were sunk. Mean while, we continued on our Voyage with a favourable Wind, discovering towards the East, a low Country planted with Cocoes, and something farther, towards South-east, the Cape of Comory, the most Southerly quarter of this part of the Indies, by the Ancients call'd India on this side Ganges.
The night following, the Malabars made as if they would again attaque us, and two of their Frigots came within our Cannon, we only gave them two Volleys without Bullets to draw them nearer, but they retreated.
On the morrow, the twenty ninth, we saw the Isle of Ceylon, at the head whereof we were fix'd as immoveable by a Calm, which lasted three weeks compleat. This Island lies ten Leagues from the Continent, extending from South-south-east to the North-east, betwixt the Capes of Comory and Nigapatam, which lies at eleven degrees, towards the Coast of Coromandel. 'Tis in length sixty Leagues, in breadth forty, and about two hundred and fifty in compass. They say, it was heretofore much larger then now at present, and that the flowings of the Sea, which in those quarters are exceeding violent, carried part of it away, on the side towards Comory. This, without dispute, is the richest and most fertile of all the Eastern Islands, if we may credit Maffeus, the most learned and grave Author that hath written of the Affairs of the Indies, or particularly the experienc'd and famous S. Borhart in his Phaleg; this is without doubt the Ancients Taprobane, though Mercator, Jos. De l' Escale, Em. Osorius, and others, take the Isle of Sumatra to be it, of which we shall speak hereafter.
Howsoever, it is most certain, Ceylon, or Zeilon, is the most considerable of all the Indian Islands, for it produces not only all such things as the other Islands afford, but moreover, there shall you see whole Forrests of Orange and Lemmon-trees, as also of Cinnamon, which emits its odour very far upon the Sea, and great quantity of precious Stones, in so much as, except the Diamonds, there is no Stone which is not there found. They fish [Page 90] likewise there for Pearls, but they are not so fair as those of Baharam: but in recompence it produces the best Ivory of the World. Laurence, Son of Francisco Almeida, discover'd it in the year 1506. who took possession of it in the name of Emanuel King of Portugal, erecting there a Column, with an Inscription, signifying, that it had no owner, though at the same time he had a Treaty with one of the Kings of the Island, wherein he promised him the King of Portugal's protection, for two thousand five hundred Quintals of Cinnamon, in acknowledgment. The Portuguez have since fortified the Town of Colombo, which lies at seven degrees on this side the Line, and kept it, till the Hollanders, three years since, in the year 1657. took this important place from them; by this means dispossessing them of all they held in this Island.
TheHollanders began not their Commerce here till the year 1602. in the time of Fimala Derma suri Ada, King of Candy, who is the most puissant, and in a manner the soveraign of the Island, who succeeded to the Crown by wayes so extraordinary, that I perswade my self 'twill not be tedious to the Reader, to hear the particulars.
Mara Ragu, King of Settavacca, had three Sons legitimate, and one natural, called Derma. Some will have this Derma to be the Son of a Chyrurgion; but they are mistaken, it being certain, he was the Son of Mara Ragu, begotten on one of these Balladeiraes, or Dancers, such as almost all the Indian Princes keep for their divertisement. Mara Ragu had an affection for this Child, and caus'd him to be brought up a Souldier, that one day he might command his Forces; wherein Derma improv'd so well, and acquir'd such reputation, that the Army, who conceiv'd it would be a happiness to be under a Martial Prince, established him in the Throne, this unnatural Child having first taken away the lives of his Father and his three legitimate Sons. The Cingales, who in this Island of Ceylon are as the Nayres amongst the Malabares, had some regret to admit this change, and be Subjects to a Bastard: but he began his reign with such severity, and ordered so many executions, that they who murmur'd most were compell'd to entertain what they could not hinder, till such time as they found means to make him away by poyson.
The death of Derma, and that of the King of Candy, which happened much about a time, very much advanced the establishment of the Portuguez in this Island. For, allowing to the Cingales their ancient Liberties and Priviledges, and without scruple of Religion, intermarrying with them, they stood fair to become Masters of the Island, had it not been for the opposition of one Lord of the Nation, of whom they had good reason to be confident. His name was Fimala Derma Suri Ada, and was grand Modeliar, that is, Constable of the Kingdom of Candy, when the King dyed. He was Son to one of the chief Princes of the Kingdom, and in his youth had his breeding amongst the Portuguez, who brought him to Colombo, where he was baptized, and named Don John of Austria, in remembrance of the natural Brother of Philip the second King of Spain. Afterward they educated him at Goa, whither they brought him at such time asD. Emanuel de Sousa Coutinno was Viceroy; and he was there likewise while Matheo Albuquerque succeeded D. Emanuel in the same Dignity. The Portuguez observing him to be a graceful person, and being, as they thought, sure of his affection, made no difficulty to confer upon him the Office of Grand Modeliar of Candy, and by this means to set him in the first rank of the whole Kingdom, whereinD. John of Austria made such use of his trust, that he gain'd the affection of all the Souldiery, so as that after the decease of the King, the Cingales promoted him to succeed in his place.
The first thing he did, was to put to death all the Portuguez in the Town of Candy, and to declare war against the rest. There was yet a Princess, Heir to the Crown, whom the Portuguez had brought to Mannar, where they baptized her, and named her D. Katharina, with design to make use of her when occasion should require, as in the present Conjuncture it did. For Pedro Lopes de Sousa, Captain General of Malacca, conceiving he could raise the Inhabitants of Candy in favour of this Princess, enters the Kingdom with a powerful Army, and with him brings along D. Katharina with intention to marry her, by which means he would make himself King, having first caused her to be acknowledged Heir. He became Master of the capital Town without much difficulty, but that prov'd his ruine. For D. John, who, with his Cingales, was retir'd to the Woods, did not only annoy him in cutting off all the Portuguez, who came out of the Town for forrage or other necessaries of livelihood; but he so cut off all Provisions, that Lopes, to maintain his Army, was constrain'd to betake himself to the Field, and leave the Town, to give D. John battel. It was fought in the year 1590. upon a Sunday; and notwithstanding the advantage the Portuguez had of their Fire-arms, and above fourty Elephants arm'd for war; D. John, who would now have no other name thenFimala Derma Suri Ada, routed and absolutely defeated them. Lopes was kill'd upon the place, andD. Katharina became prisoner [Page 91] to Fimala, who afterwards married her, by this means acquiring a right to the Crown, which before he only held by the Sword.
Four years after this Victory, D. Jeronimo d' Azeuedo, General of the Conquests of Zeilon, having receiv'd Orders from the King of Spain for a new attempt on the Kingdom of Candy, raises a potent Army, which the Viceroy of Goa reinforc'd with all the Cavaliers and Hidalgos attendance: he advances to Ballene the place where the first Battle was fought, and thence sends defiance to the King of Candy.
The Portuguez were not more fortunate in this, then they had been in the former battle; for though the Portuguez Army receiv'd not a defeat, and D. Jeronimo got high honour by his retreat for five dayes together in fight of the Kings Army, that pursued him to the very Gates of Colombo; they were notwithstanding so weakned, that from that time the Portuguez durst never attempt the Kingdom of Candy by force. Nevertheless they cease not to maintain a war by surprizes and incursions one upon another.
For not long before the Hollanders arrived in the Isle of Zeilon, the Portuguez were most basely trappan'd by the double intelligence, which one Jeronimo Dias kept with them. He was by birth a Portuguez, but as the rest of his Nation, who settle amongst the Indians, making no difficulty to plant themselves in places where there is no publick exercise of Religion, easily lose that whereof they had only a fleight and superficial knowledge; so this man having renounc'd his Religion, undertook to betray his Country-men, as I am about to tell you. This Jeronimo, being prisoner to the King, remain'd at Candy till he had contrived the means to betray the Portuguez. Afterwards he escaped, and returning to D. Jeronimo d' Azeuedo, told him, that if he thought fit, he would undertake to kill the King of Candy. Azeuedo supposing after the Kings death, 'twould not be hard for him to possess himself of the Kingdom, hearkens to the Proposition, raises to himself an assurance in a Man, who undertakes in cold bloud to murther a Soveraign Prince; allows him three Captains, Christoval Jacomo, Albert Primero, and Jean Pereina, with two Souldiers, to assist him in this enterprize, which he made appear very feasible: promising to make him King of Candy immediately upon the Kings expiration, and furnishing him with a good sum of money for the purpose, without which, he said, there was nothing to be done. Dias would go alone, as well that he might seem to have escaped from the Portuguez, as to dispose the King to put these five Portuguez, his Complices, into the Fort of Ballene; for that he was to perswade the King, that they came likewise to render themselves to him, to serve against the other Portuguez: but being come to the King, he discover'd the double dealing he had contriv'd, so as the night following, the King re-inforc'd the Garrison of Ballone Fort, and went in person thither, on design to surprize the Portuguez, who were ambuscado'd in the Woods, to affault the Fort upon notice of the Kings death.
These five Portuguez, Confederates in Dias's treason, being arrived at the Fort, were received in; but as they entred were conveyed into private rooms, where they were disarm'd and put into Irons: which could not be carried with so much secrecy, but some of those Cingales the Portuguez brought along with them discovered it, so as returning with speed they gave notice to the Portuguez in the Ambuscade, who otherwise had run the hazard to be cut in pieces through the ill success of the enterprize.Jeronimo Dias for his service was rewarded with the dignity of Grand Modeliar, which he enjoy'd at the time the Hollanders arriv'd in the Island of Zeilon, where they sped no better then the Portuguez. For the King of Candy, who in the year 1602. received their Admiral with civility, in the year following, caus'd their Vice-admiral, with fifty of his Men, to be put to death in cold bloud; in so much as for that time they were constrained to lay aside all thoughts of settling a trade there. But since they have found opportunity for a firm establishment, by gaining from the Portuguez the Fortde Punto de Gallo, and fortifying the Port de Negombo, where they drive a great trade, much augmented by their taking likewise the Town of Colombo from the Portuguez, where these last kept commonly a Garrison of eight hundred men.
The King of Candy is the most puissant and most absolute of all the Kings of Zeilon. He delights in the Portuguez manner of building, and fortifies his Holds after the modern way. This Kingdom extends it self along that River, on which the City of Vintane is scituate, where the Kings Galleys and other Vessels have their retreat. It contains many fair and well-built Towns. The Inhabitants are like the Malabars, but not so black. They go naked as low as the Navel, but some use Coats or Dublets after the Portuguez fashion. In their Ears they hang Pendants, and the greatest part have a Cris or Poniard by their sides. Women have likewise their Breasts bare, and go very decent in habit, and in their conversation with Men discover much of modesty. They dress their Heads much like the European Women, laying their Hair very close on their Head, and tying their [Page 92] Tresses behind. They wear Collars of Gold or Silver, and Rings upon their Hands and Feet, and their Arms and Legs beset with abundance of precious Stones. Their houses are conveniently enough built, and the Women very skillful in Cookery. The Cingales addict themselves to nothing at all, nor are they fit for war, by reason they are accustomed to so idle a life they can indure no hardship.
Throughout the Indies there is no part so abounds in all sorts of Victuals, as this Isle Zeilon. Fowl, Fish, Venison, Poultry, Butter, Milk and Honey, are at extraordinary low rates, as well as Ananas, Bannanas, Cocos, Jacques, Mangas, Oranges, Lemmons, Citrons, and all other sorts of Fruits. They eat of all things in general, even of Pork, and all sort of Cattle, except the Oxe, Cow, or Buffle; Wine they drink not, no more then the Mahumetans, who dwell amongst them, and enjoy a full liberty of Religion. These Islanders are of the same Religion as other Pagans in these parts. They bear great reverence to their Bramans, who observe a more austere way of living, and eat not of any thing hath had life, by reason that for the whole day they adore the first Beast they meet with at their coming out of doors in a morning. Maids are here married at the age of ten or twelve years: And they burn their dead Corps.
Fimala Derma Suri Ada had gotten some tincture of Christian Religion, if at least it be to be found amongst the Portuguez; it was soon raz'd out by the compliance he had for the Cingales; and after his decease his Successors fell back to Paganism. There are some amongst them, who adore the head of an Elephant, wrought in wood or stone, and say, their intention is to obtain wisdom; for they are of opinion, the Elephants of Ceilon are not only more knowing then other Elephants, but further, that they out-go men in judgment. In their houses they have a Basket, wherein they put such things as they design for an offering to their Pagodes, to whom they have a particular devotion in their sicknesses, because it is from them alone they look for remedy. They hold, as matter of faith, that the World shall not perish so long as their grand Mosquey, which may be seen at a great distance from the Sea, between Punto de Gallo and Monte Calo, shall be extant. Another particular opinion they have of a Mountain in this Island call'd Pico d' Adam, and say it was there that the first Man was fram'd; that the Spring on the top of this Mountain rose from the tears Eve shed for Abel; and that the Isle of Ceilon was part of the terrestrial Paradise. To conclude, they are very docile, and willing to acknowledge the errours of their Idolatry; in so much that there were great likelihood of their conversion, if Christians would undertake these long Voyages, as much out of a religious zeal, as worldly concernments.
All the other Kings of Ceilon, except the King of Candy, pay tribute to the Portuguez: but 'tis so inconsiderable, that the Princes think it not worth while to take Arms to free themselves from a subjection, which consists but in a bare acknowledgment. For the King of Matecalo, who is not the least considerable amongst them, payes annually but fifty Duckates.
The Island produces Pepper, but their chiefest Commodity is Cinnamon. They find here Mines of Brass and Iron; and certainly there is both Gold and Silver, especially in the Kingdom of Candy, but the King will not permit a search to be made for the discovery thereof. Their rich Stones they permit not likewise to be sold to Strangers, which are there found in great abundance; but there is so great plenty thereof, that it is impossible but some may be had under hand; for they are found in the heaps of Gravel, and in the Town of Candy; nay, after the Rain hath washed down the Earth of some neighbouring Mountains, the Inhabitants find them in the currents of Water, and though they are oblig'd to bring them all to the King, 'tis impossible that Order should be exactly observed.
The Island likewise yields Timber and Stone for building; the Soyl produces Corn, Oyl and Wine, if any Man will take the pains to plant the Vine, Cotton, several Roots for Dyers, Ginger, Cardamoms, Mirobalans, Corcoma, and divers other Medicinable Drugs, Nutmegs, &c. but particularly so great a quantity of Rice, that the whole Coast of Caromandel is furnished from hence. Likewise here is so great a quantity of Cinnamon, that the Hollanders buy it for a hundred and twenty eight Livres, forty eight Souls the Quintal or Hundred weight.
The chief Maritime Towns of the Isle of Ceylon are scituated at this distance following: that is, from Punto de Gallo Westward, Alican. 9. l. Verberin, 1 l. Calutre 3. l. and Colombo 6. l. Nogombo 5. l. le Gilan 5. l. Putalon 10. l. Maunar 18. l. Eastward to the Coast of Matecala, Bellingan 4. l. Mature 2. l. Du [...]dule 1. l. Tamnadar 1. l. Halpilana, two Leagues and a half. Attalle 3. l. Veleche 9. l. Tansilir 7. l, Trincoli, 12. l. Matecalo 5. l. and thence to the River of Trinquamale 10. l. To go from Colombo toCandy; [Page 93] the way lies through Tranquero grande, that is, the great Fort, or the great Rampier, 3. l. Maluana 2. l. Grovabley 3. l. Settavecca 3. l. Grovenelle 2. l. Mumera tuate 4. l. Duiely 3. l. Matappety 2. l. Altonnar 1 l. Ganiattany 1. l. Ballene 1. l. Cady 1. l. From Matecalo to Candy, the Road is as follows, Aldea de Nore 1. l. Occatoty 2. l. Viador 2. l. Neguritti 5 l. Niluale 2. l. Vegamme 4. l. Vintane 6. l. Vendro 5. l. Candy 4. l.
The Calm staid our Ship hard by this Isle, for near upon three weeks, which I imploy'd in inquiring of our President and certain Jesuits, who were aboard our Vessels, into this pleasant part of the Indies, which I had never seen, and merits to be known by the Description I shall make from the report of these persons, amongst whom there were some who had spent there the best part of their lives. I will then begin with the place where we were, and faithfully deliver you all I could learn of those Kingdoms and Provinces, which without question are the wealthiest of any in the World.
Towards the Cape of Comory, or Comorin, where we then were, are likewise those Islands the Portuguez call Maldivas, or Maldivar. They extend along the Coast of Malabar, having the Cape upon the North, and taking up about sevenscore Leagues by Sea, which divides them into such small parcels, that they are esteem'd near upon a thousand. Some are inhabited, others not, by reason they lye so low the Sea often drowns them, as it doth likewise the Skirts of the Continent, near Cochim, and Crangonar. TheMalabares say, that heretofore they were joyn'd to the Continent, and were separated by the Sea, which in some places hath left such narrow divisions, that an active man might leap from one side to the other. The Capital City, which consists of four Islands, and gives them the appellation of Maldives, or Naldive, is a place famous for trading, and the Residence for the King of all the Islands. Except Cocoes, which are there in great abundance, they produce little, notwithstanding the Inhabitants by industry make very neat Garments both of Silk and Thread brought from other places; in so much that set aside the Moguls, there are not amongst the Indians any that go more neatly apparrell'd then they.
As concerning Coromandel, the Eastern part of the Indies on this side Ganges is so called, a Coast divided from theMalabares by the Mountain Balagatta, extending from South to North, from the Cape of Comorin, or rather the point of Negapatam, to the River Nagund, and the Town of Masulepatam, containing all along the Coast, about a hundred Leagues. 'Tis the more commodious, for that it serves for a retreat to all Vessels which are constrain'd to quit the Coast of Gusuratta during the Winter season, and it hath many good Havens, and the best Roads of any in all the Indies.
The Portuguez there possess the Town of Saint Thomas, at thirteen degrees, thirty two minutes on this side the Line; and they say, that at the time when Vasco de Gama discovered the Indies, and seiz'd on Cochim and Cranganor, the Inhabitants on this Coast, who called themselves Christians, crav'd protection of the King of Portugal; and that arriving at Saint Thomas they found Christians who made profession of the Greek Religion. For this purpose they tell a Story grounded on a Tradition, which nevertheless is not to be proved out of the Ecclesiastical History. Thus then they say, that Saint Thomas, one of our Saviours twelve Apostles, having long preach'd the Gospel in the Kingdom of Norsingia, notwithstanding the opposition of the Bramans, resolv'd to petition the King that he might build a Chappel for the doing of his Devotions, and that the Bramans engag'd the King to deny him the favour. But it happened that a huge piece of Timber was so lodg'd in the mouth of the Haven, belonging to the Town of Meliapour, then the Metropolis of the Kingdom, that not only great Vessels, but the smaller Barks, being not able to get in, the Trade of the Town was in a short time quite lost. There was a trial made with a company of Elephants to remove the Tree, but in vain; then the Magicians of those parts were imploy'd to try if their Art could do what strength could not effect, but to as little purpose; wherefore the King proclaim'd a considerable reward to him that could clear the Haven, which invited the Saint to offer his service, and this for no other reward, then the mere Timber it self. His proffer to draw it out himself made him at first appear ridiculous, and specially when they saw him tye his Girdle to it, to draw out a weight that many Elephants had not the strength to stir; but he pulling, the Beam followed, as easily as if it had been a little Boat, which when he had laid upon the Land, the King was amaz'd with admiration, and in honour of the Miracle, permitted him to build the Chappel, as he had requested. The Bramans seeing their Doctrine disparag'd by this Miracle, and that if Christian Religion began to spread in those parts, there was little hope to support the Pagan; they resolve to free themselves of the Apostle, and cause certain Panyms to murther him while he was at his Devotions in his Chappel. Some there are who will have [Page 94] the Church dedicated to this Saint in that place, to be built by a King of Narsinga, and that the door was made of that miraculous beam; but the Portuguez say they built it, of which indeed there is most probability.
Lentscholen saith, that in these parts there are certain people with one leg bigger then the other, and that they are held to be the Progeny of those that martyred the Apostle.
Maffeus, in the eighth Book of his Indian History, relates how John the second King of Portugal made search for the bones of this Saint upon the Coasts of Coromandel, which he transported to Goa, where he built a fair Church in honour of him: but if credit may be given to Ruffinus and Socrates, in their Ecclesiastical History, the Apostle Saint Thomas suffered his Martyrdom at Edessa in Mesopotamia, whither heretofore they made Pilgrimages to his Sepulchre; yet Marco Paulo Veneto sayes otherwise, though with some contradiction to himself. Gasper Balbi a Venetian Jeweller, who hath made a very handsome relation of his Travels in the Indies, sayes, That, being at the Town of Saint Thomas, in the year 1582. there was a Church then building in the honour of Saint John Baptist; and that the building almost finished, they found they wanted Timber to perfect it, when at the same time the Sea cast a Tree ashore of such a bulk, that looking on it as a thing extraordinary, they would needs measure it; and finding it to be a just proportion for the Edifice, the people cryed out a Miracle, wherein they were confirm'd, when sawing it, it yielded just so many Beams as serv'd to finish the Church. Headds further, that the Tree came from some far distant place, because in cutting, it sent forth such a stinking smell, that it infected the whole Country. The Town of Saint Thomas is not very great, but the greatest part of the Houses are of Stone, and well built. The Church there hath no Steeple, yet may be seen at a good distance. There live here about six hundred Portuguez, or Mestizes, besides some Armenian Merchants.
The Indians, Pagans, and Mahumetans, live in the Town of Meliapour, which is seated on a small River two Leagues from Saint Thomas Northward; but it is faln from the pristine glory it had, when it was the Capital Town of the Kingdom of Narsinga. The King of Portugal hath no Governour at Saint Thomas, nor so much as a Magistrate, nor any political Order; by reason whereof divers disorders are daily committed without punishment.
The South and South-west Winds reign here from April to September, during which time the Road is very good; but all the rest of the year, small Barks are constrain'd to get into the River Palacatte, and greater Vessels into the Haven of Negupatam. You have five fathom water even within Cannon-shot of the Town; but the Sea is so rough at all times, there is no Landing without danger!
Upon this Coast the Hollanders have divers Plantations where they drive a great Trade; but principally at Potlapouli, otherwise call'd Nisapatam, where they have had their Ware-houses ever since the year 1606. and at Paleacatte, where they have built the Fort of Geldria.
This Country was heretofore divided into three Kingdoms, that is, Coromandel, Narsinga and Bisnagar; but at present 'tis all subject to one Prince, who resides sometimes at Bisnagar, sometimes at Narsinga.
Above the Town of Masulipatam, lyes the Country, or Kingdom rather, of Orixa, reaching from the River of Masulipatam to the River of Guenga; but the Hollanders would have it comprehended under the name of the Coast of Coromandel. The chief Towns of the Kingdom are Masulipatam and Golcanda, the one considerable for Commerce, the other for being the Kings Ordinary Residence. The Country yields plenty of Salt, and Diamonds are likewise there found; but all above five Caratts in weight appertain to the King.
Next to Orixa, winding towards the North, lyes the Kingdom of Bengala, which gives name to the Gulph, by the Ancients called Sinus Gangeticus. They drive here a great trade in Rice, Sugar, and Cotton, but chiefly in Silks, which are esteem'd the best in all the Indies. The finest Canes we have are brought from Bengala, where there likewise grows a sort of Canes which are finer then the Osier, in so much as Vessels are made of them, which being glazed with Lacque on the inside, contain liquid matters, as long and as well as a Glass or Silver Bowl. There also grows a certain Herb, having on the top of its stalk, (which is about the compass of a mans thumb) a great button like a tassel: this tassel is spun out, and there are excellent Stuffs made of it. The Portuguez call it Herba de Bengala, and make of it Hangings, and Coverlets, in which they represent all sorts of Figures.
[Page 95] The people of the Country are all Pagans, and, in the manner of their living, exceeding brutish.Theft is here very common, and Adultery, though it be punished with severity by cutting off their Noses who are taken in it; they forbear not nevertheless to pollute themselves with all sort of uncleanness can be committed in that Vice. The bear religious worship to the River of Ganges, and hold the water hereof to be so holy, that who wash themselves therein are cleansed from all their sins; and this superstition reaches so far, that the King of Narsinga sends to the Ganges, for the water he uses for his purifications.
The Kingdom of Pegu joyns upon Bengala, upon the East-side, and takes its name from the capital City, where the King hath placed the Seat of his Monarchy. This is a very potent State, and as Gaspar Balbi sayes, (whom I follow in this Relation, because I saw not the Country) the Metropolis is divided into two parts; the one called the old, the other the new Town. The King, with all that relate to the Court, live in the latter, and Merchants and Tradesmen inhabit the other. For the greatest part, the dwelling-houses are built of Canes, but they are joyn'd to Ware-houses that are vaulted to prevent fire. The new Town is four-square, and the Flankers of it so streight, that from any Gate thereof one may discover both corners of the Wall. There are Bastions of Timber, and a large Moat, full of water, where they keep Crocodiles to secure the Town from surprizal. ThePeguans hold this Creature to have something Divine about it, whence it comes they are so desirous to drink the water, though they fetch it not without danger of being devour'd by the Crocodiles, as it often happens. Notwithstanding, they water their Elephants there; but this is a Beast that strikes terrour in the Crocodiles, and would be too hard for them.
The Palace Royal stands in the middle of the City, and hath its peculiar Fortifications, Walls and Moats, whereby it is divided from the Town. The Castle is said to be much more spacious then the City of Venice; and that there is no entrance but on the Townside, by two Ports, and as many Draw-bridges. Within the first Port are the Houses of the Grandees, who enter not into the body of the Castle, without express Order from the King. His Guard consisting of a great number of Souldiers, with them calledBramas, is kept at the second Port, where they sit, having their Arms hanging before them on the Wall. In this place are the Stables for Elephants, as well such as are kept for the Princes service, as those design'd for War, being about eight hundred in number. The Kings Appartment is exceeding rich, painted Azure, with Flowers of Gold; and when the King gives Audience, he appears in great magnificence. In his hand he holds a Fan, to Fan himself, and on his head he hath a quadruple Crown of Gold, enamell'd white. Near his person stand four Youths, whom he makes use of in his brutalities; and before him all the Grandees of the Court, who whensoever they speak to him lift their hands above their head, and bow down to the ground. Being sate, they bring before him his fairest Elephants, and amongst the rest his white one, which is said to be the only one in all the Indies, nor ever is there more then one to be seen at Court, which was brought thither after the Victory he gain'd against the King of Siam, with whom he had not made War but to gain that Beast, as we shall tell you anon. These Beasts make their reverence to him, and testifie a Worship to his Person. If we may give credit to the fore-mentioned Balbi, this, next the King of China, He sayes, this Prince can bring into the Field fifteen hundred thousand Men, and above eight hundred Elephants, and that his Treasure is sufficient for so mighty an Army, by reason every Person of Quality is oblig'd to raise and maintain so many Men of War at his own proper charges.
He relates to this purpose, that, in his time, the King of Auva, his Fathers Brother, but Vassal to the King of Pegu, denying homage to his Nephew, and to pay such Diamonds and precious Stones as he stood oblig'd to in that consideration; the King of Pegu, who was well assured his Uncle held a very private intelligence with some Noble men of his Kingdom, against the security of his State and Person, to shew how mindful he was of his Fathers request on his death-bed, and the recommendation he then made in favour of the King of Auva; sent him an Embassadour extraordinary to reduce him to his Duty, and perswade him to come in again to him: but his Uncle, instead of taking the advantage of his Nephews Nobleness, puts the Embassadour to death, and declares War against the King of Pegu. But he having raised an Army of three hundred thousand men, before he would march into the Field, purg'd his Court, and put to death those Traytors who had ingagede to deliver him into the hands of his Uncle. Assembling then all the Confederates of this Treason, under pretence of calling them to a Councel about this War; he caused them to be secured, and they, their Wives and Children, to be burnt alive. Then to free himself from the Odium of so horrid an Execution, he sends to the Judge, that he should defer the Execution, [Page 96] till he receiv'd express Order under his Signet; but the Dogad gini, or Judge, who had other private instructions, proceeded according to them.
That done, the King of Pegu appeared in the head of his Army, mounted on an Elephant, covered with trappings of Tissue, having by his side a Sword, that was presented him by D. Lewis of Atayda, Viceroy of Goa, resolving to march in few dayes against his Uncle, but he was hindred by the small Pox, which he had in extremity. As soon as he was recovered, he causes the Army to advance to the very Frontiers of Auva, where he accepts a Challenge sent him by his Uncle, that they two might decide the difference by a single Combat; and was so fortunate, as to kill his Adversary, in view of both Armies. This single Victory was of greater advantage, then a defeat of the Enemies whole Army could have brought him: for the whole Kingdom of Auva delivered it self up, at mercy: The Queen, who was his Sister, fell likewise into his hands, and was prisoner during life, though kept in a Princely Palace, and honoured and attended as a Queen.
The King of Pegu, in acknowledgment of the service his Elephant had done him in the Combate, where he fell dead under his Master, caused certain Pagodes to be made of his Tooth, and had them placed amongst the other Idols kept in a Varella, or Mosquee, which is within the Castle. Amongst these Idols there is the Figure of a Man, done to the life, in massy Gold, having on the Head a Crown enchas'd with precious Stones of divers kinds, on the Forehead a Ruby as big as a Plum, and on each side the Head Pendants as rich as can be imagined, about the Waste a Scarf, and over the right Shoulder, and under the left Arm, a Chain of Diamonds and other Stones inestimable. In the same Chappel are likewise three Statues of Silver, higher by two foot then the first; with Crowns set with Gems, and a fourth more massive and rich then all the rest, and besides these a Figure made of Ganza, which is a mixt metal of Copper and Brass, valued at as high a rate as the other four. The Kings Father, who lived in the year 1578. caused these Statues to be made in memory of that famous Victory he obtain'd over the King of Siam, in the War he made against him, for the white Elephant we spoke of.
The Forrests of Pegu have greater store of Elephants then all the Indies besides, and they are tam'd with very little trouble, in ten or twelve dayes after they are taken by the means of Females, who intice them out of the Woods, and make them follow into the very Stables, where there are Dens that hold but one of these Beasts only, where they shut them close in as soon as they are entred.
The Peguans have Fire-arms, but ordinarily they use half Pikes made of Canes, short and broad Swords, and long and narrow Bucklers made of boyl'd Leather doubled, and laid over with a certain black Gum call'd Achiran; their Salades or Helmets are made of the same stuff, and like ours in fashion.
They are generally Pagans,except some who contracting alliance with the Portuguez, have embrac'd their Religion. These Pagans believe that God, who hath under him many other Gods, is the Author of all good which arrives to Mankind; but the disposing of all evil he leaves to the Devil, to whom these wretches bear more veneration then they do to God; because the one will do them no hurt; and they must please the other, that he may not.
They do they Devotions ordinarily on the Munday, and have besides, five principal Feasts which they call Sapan. The first, which they call Sapan Giacchi, is chiefly celebrated by a Pilgrimage, made by the King and Queen, twelve Leagues out of Town, where they appear in triumphal Chariots, so set with precious Stones, that, without Hyperbole, it may be said they carry the worth of a Kingdom about them. They call the second, Sapan Carena, observ'd in honour of the Statue kept in the grand Varelle of the Castle, in honour of which the Noblemen of the Court erect Pyramides of Canes, which they cover with several Stuffs artificially wrought of divers fashions, then have them put into Chariots drawn by above three hundred persons to the Kings view, that he may judge of their inventions. All the people come likewise, and bring their Offerings to him. The Sapan Giaimo Segienon, they celebrate also in honour of some of these Statues, where the King and Queen are both present in person; and the fourth Feast, which they call Sapan Daiche, is particularly celebrated in the old Town; at which the King and Queen cast Rose-water at one another. All the Grandees have likewise a pot of Rose-water in their hands, wherewith they so water themselves, that their bodies are as 'twere bath'd all over, nor can any one pass the Streets that day, without hazard of being wash'd with water thrown from the windows. At the fifth Feast, called Sapan Donon, the King and Queen go by water to the Town of Meccao, attended by above a hundred Boats, all which row for the fastest, to gain a Prize allow'd by the King.
[Page 97] The King dying, they prepare two Boats, which they cover with one gilt Covering, and in the middle of these Boats they place a Table, whereon they lay the dead Corps; and underneath the Table they make a fire of the Wood of Sandale, Beniouin, Storax, and other sweet-scented Woods and Drugs, then turn the Barks down the Stream, certain Talapoi or Priests mean while singing and rejoycing till the flesh be intirely consum'd. These Ashes they temper with Milk, so making a Paste, which they carry to the mouth of the River, where they cast it into the Sea. But the Bones they bear to another place, and bury them near a Chappel, where they build another in honour of the deceased.
Their Talapoi carry a Bottle made of an empty Gourd at their girdle, and live by Alms, as our Mendicant Friars. They are in great esteem amongst them, and they very well preserve their credit by their exemplary life. On Munday morning they go about with their Tin-basins, to awake the people and invite them to a Sermon. They treat not at all of points of Doctrine, but chiefly insist upon Morality, exhorting the Congregation to abstain from Murther, Thefe, Fornication and Adultery, and to do to others as they would be done by. For this reason they are of opinion, that Men are sooner saved by good Works and innocency of Life, then by Faith. They have no Aversion for those that forsake their Religion to become Christans, so their Life be correspondent to the Profession they make.
They exclaim lowdly against the Offerings the Peguans make to the Devil, particularly when they perform any Vow they made in their sickness, or in any other unfortunate Accident, and endeavour to abolish this wicked custom, which is grown so inveterate, that hitherto they have lost their labour. These people ordinarily live in Woods, and to prevent the danger of wild Beasts, whereof these parts are full, they have their Couches hanging in the Air betwixt boughs of Trees. They eat but once a day, and are habited in red Vestures that reach to their heels, bare-footed, and over their Shoulders a short Coat or Mantle that comes to their hams. They shave their heads, nay cannot endure hair upon any part of their body; and to guard them from the Sun-beams they wear a Hat. Great honours are done to them after their death, and after their Corps hath been attended certain dayes, they are burnt with Sandale-wood, they cast the Ashes into the River, and inte [...]r the [...]ones near the place they liv'd in.
Pegu yields no Corn at all, but in recompence, they have more Rice then they can spend; in so much that they can afford some to their Neighbours. They have a custom to make a Drug of certain little Fishes, which they pound in a Mortar, and being so brought to a Paste, they lay it in the Sun to putrifie, till it be quite corrupted, and grows moist, and then they use it in their Sauces, instead of Oyl or Butter, making a dainty of that, which it were not possible for us to endure the smell of.
Sodomy was heretofore so common in those parts, that to extirpate this Vice, which had near destroy'd the whole Species, one of the Queens of Pegu ordain'd by Edict; that every Man should carry in his Yard a little Bell, which would make it swell in such sort, that he should not be able to do Nature any violence. And to the end the Women should not be frustrated of their due, their Virginity was to be taken away, while they were yet very young, by means of a Composition, of contrary operation to that used by common Women to heighten the pleasures of their Gallants. These little Bells are put in betwixt the skin and the flesh: and to effect the operation, they cast them into a sleep, with a certain Drink, to make them insensible of the pain they are put to by the Incision, whereof notwithstanding they are cur'd in few dayes. For their greater aversion from Sodomy, they paint the Boyes at seven or eight years of age with a certain blew, which extending with the skin as it grows, changes into another colour, and makes them look most horribly. The Women, on the contrary, do all they can to appear lovely, and attract the Men, covering their privy parts only with a thin piece of Linnen, which sits not so close, but the least wind shews all they have.
All of them in general make their Teeth black, and Men, when they ride on horseback, fill their Mouths with something that pu [...]fs out their Checks. They who marry buy their Wives of their Parents; and when they are cloy'd send them home again, but the money belongs to the Wife, who on her side is obliged to restitution, if sh [...] part with her Husband without cause.
The King is Heir to all that dye without Children, and they who have Children can leave them but two thirds of their Estate, the rest belongs to the King.
The best Commodities to be brought to Pegu, and which may be sold to greatest profit, are Stuffes and Linnen-clothes, from Saint Thomas, Musulipatam and Bengala; Pepper, Cinnamon, Nutmegs, Optum and Sandale-wood, &c. by reason they have no other Spices [Page 98] then Ginger. At Pegu they take in no other Merchandizes then Silver and Rice, which they transport to Malacca. In bargaining they make no words at all, they do no more but give their Hand cover'd with a Handkerchief, and in grasping or moving their Fingers they make their meaning known. For borrowing of money they stick not to pawn their Wives and Children; but if the Creditour enjoyes them carnally during that time, he is then paid, and the Debtour acquitted.