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Introductory notes

Mirat-I-Ahmadi is a political and statistical history of Gujarat composed by Ali Mohammed Khan, an Imperial dewan at Ahmedabad. It was completed in the 1750s. The original Persian text comprises two volumes and a supplement (khatima). It was first translated into English by James Bird which was published in 1834 and then by M.F.Lokhandwala, which was published in 1965. The supplement was translated into English by Syed Nawab Ali and Charles Seddon.



[Page 223]


Present and future administrators of the Subah of Ahmedabad such as the great amirs, eminent governors, jagirdars, thanadars, officers of the Diwani, associates and companions of royal affairs, revenue-collectors etc. common people of cities, metropolises and all inhabitants of various parts being ennobled with royal favours should know that the lofty ambition and pure intention of His Majesty are devoted to this that the principles of brilliant religion should be current and regulations of bright creed may prevail always among the people so that the benefits of obedience may join and act on them in this world and the next and they may be guarded and protected in first and last growth against harms of committing sins. A royal order was issued to the effect that none in the empire should drink intoxicants and eat unlawful things such as wine, bhang, dilbehra which are a cause of loss of reason and an occasion of weakness of understanding. He should not waste his precious time in gambling which is a habit of fools and an occupation of vain fellows. If a slave or a concubine of a person has fled away or some one had induced him or her away, the administrators of royal affairs should find them out and restore them to their rightful owners. Nothing should at all be taken from the owner for this service. Similarly, if a loan of a man is taken from a debtor and given to his creditor, nothing should at all be coveted from him. These should he published, and circulated in every city, village, paraganah and town. They should avoid and abstain from violating it which in reality is a violation of God's order. If any one acts contrary to these orders, he should be reprimanded proportionate to his offence so that others may not commit that offence. No imposture and indifference should be allowed in this respect otherwise they will be accomplices of the offenders and they will be produced in the plain of investigation.

Many occurences and events happened during these two years as mention-ed in previous pages. Certain disorders took place in the provinces of Hin-dustan. Life of residents and ryots was in a state of disturbance. During a period of disorder and disturbance due to riots and rebellions of rebels of every locality, cultivation and agriculture suffered, administrative machinary became weak and revenue was not adequately recovered. There was ruin and devasta-tion. Consequently, prices of food-stuff and cereals had soared high. This was specially in Gujarat. His Majesty intended to remedy this state of affairs. Tax on corn and other articles of food and drink was levied in many cities on the roads of provinces of the empire and jurisdiction of revenue offices or land-tax and custom-duties on many other things had continued on a per-manent [Page 224] basis in certain provinces. Royal orders and mandates with emphasis on execution were issued to the administrators of every Subah, Sarkar, Faujdars and Karons of different parts to the effect that exaction of abolished taxes should be immediately discontinued. Mace-bearers and ahadis were appointed to deliver these orders to all Subas. An appreciable difference was noticed in price of foodstuff. Rizwi Khan Bukhari evinced a desire of leading a retired life in the year one thousand and seventy. He was granted an annuity of twelve thousand rupees. Raja Jaswant Singh was deprived of the title of Maharajah on account of certain faults and previous offences, he was treated this year with favour and kindness and the same title was again awarded to him. Syed Jafar, son of Syed Jalal Bukhari and his son, Syed Muhammad brother of deceased Syed Jalal paid homage and congratulation at the time of enthronement. They were favoured with robes of honour. They enjoyed the Royal Presence for several months. Syed Ja'far Sajjadah-nashin was favoured with an elephant, robe and a present of ten thousand rupees, his son Syed Muhammad with a robe, a she elephant and a present of one thousand rupees, Syed Hasan, brother of Syed Jalal with a robe and a she-elephant. They were granted permission to return to their native place of Ahmedabad. Syed Muhammad Saleh Bukhari, the sajjadah nashin of His Holiness Hazrat Qutb-i-'Alam was granted leave to depart with a favour of a robe, a she-elephant and a present of two hundred mohar ashrafi. One of the events in the year one thousand and seventy one, at Surat Port was that Husain Pasha, governor of Basrah sent a petition, under influence of good luck and felicity, expressing his sincere desires and faithful sentiments with congratulations on the occasion of His Majesty's enthronement along with a peshkash of 'Arab horses with Qasim 'Aqa. They were sent to the Royal Court. He (Qasim Aqa) arrived at Surat Port. A royal mandate was issued to Mustafa Khan, the Port officer to the effect that Qasim Aqa should be paid four thousand of rupees as expense from the treasury and sent to the Royal Court. In the month of holy Shawwal, a gaudy robe, a horse with gold accoutrements were granted as a favour to Qutbuddin Khan Kheshgi, the Faujdar of Saurath. A robe was sent to Tamaji, the zamindar of Kutch Sardar Khan, an auxiliary of Subah was summoned to the Royal Presence. He paid homage. He presented a peshkash of an elephant and some panthers which are of the region along with other things. He was appointed as the Fauzdar of Broach Sarkar. A royal order was issued in the year one thousand and seventy-two to Maharajah Jaswant Singh, the Nazim of the Sabah of Ahmedabad to the effect that he should march with all his soldiers to the help of amir ul umura who was stationed in the Dekhan to repel Shiva Maratha Qutbuddin Khan, the Faujdar of Junagadh, who had come to Ahmedabad was to administer the Suba's affairs till the arrival of another Subedar. He [Page 225] reached Ahmedabad, under a royal order, on 17th of holy Moharram of the year 1072 one thousand and, seventy-two and occupied himself with admini-strative work. His Majesty saw this year the peshkash sent by Mustafa Khan, the Port-officer of Surat consisting of eleven 'Arab horses and five Georgian slaves.

[Page 267]


Conditions for co1lect1on of zakat are A wise major independent man moves from place to place with a merchand1se of his own which is the quantity of nisab (maximum fixed quantity) that is, of the value of fifty-four rupees and twelve annas and a half, happens to pass by a tithe collector, wtth those goods free from every hability-personal or religious to the extent of nisab and one year has passed over it. Again, a vakil or a malik happens to pass by a tithe-collector for payment of zakat with his goods of merchandise and conditions for its collection are confirmed, zakat should be taken from him. Again, if authorized slave happens to pass by a title collector with goods which his master has given him for business or an authorized slave without a debt passes by a tithe collector with goods written by himself in both these cases after ascertaining the cond1t1ons for collection of zakat, if the master is with him zakat should be taken otherwise not. Again, if goods of a man are in the hands of another man for selling that at half a profit (in partnership), and there is a profit in it, share of partnership in profit is hisab it should be taken from a share of partnership after ascertainments of conditions of zakat. Again, if a Muslim departs saying that a year has not passed over my goods or I have to pay so much debt and after payment of debt so much as the nisab will not be left with me or says that he has paid the zakat over it, before coming out to the poor or says that he has paid the zakat over the goods to another tithe collector, and there may be another tithe collector or says that his goods were not for business or that those goods were not able to zakat, even though he does not describe the cause thereof or says that those goods do not belong to him and that they are with him in partnership, or by way of deposit or on commission or that he is servant of the owner of goods or a testator or a clerk or a slave, the Muslim's statement should be accepted and corroborated on oath. He should not be molested after oath. Again, if a Muslim passes with goods of merchandise and says that he has paid zakat over it to the poor before coming out or that he has paid zakat over it to another tithe collector and there may not be a tithe collector that year, his statement is not reliable. Zakat should be collected from him. Again, if a merchant says, "my goods consist of such commodities The tithe-collector doubts the goods to be of other commodities and wants to see goods in open. He should open packages and see them. If he feels that some damage will be done to goods in opening them, he should not do it. His statement should be accepted on oath. He should collect zakat from it accord- ing to the goods. If no damage is to be done in opening them, he should not rely upon his words. He should see opening those goods and charge him zakat [Page 268] according. Again, if goods of merchandise, in cash or kind, are owned by some one and before end of the year he buys other goods for business in place of those goods and spends remaining part of the year in selling other things and happens to pass by a tithe-collector, zakat should be collected on the last things.

In the year one thousand and ninety-two, a severe famine took place due to the scarcity of food. People suffered afflictions for want of bread. They carried their complaints and lamentations beyond limit to Muhammed Amin Khan. A short account of this long description is whatever is understood from reports of aged men who heard them from their ancestors in succession, is that when the pan of balance of dearness of corn and high price of cereals rose high, people began to moan and lament. By chance,"I'd fell during these days Muham-med Amin Khan had gone out for prayers. On his return when he entered the city through bazar-road, small and great, young and old, men and women, who had come out for recreation, loosened tongues in complaints and lamentation about dearness and anguish for sustenance. A mischief-monger Abu Bakr, who had become known among people that he was working solely for God, was present in that gathering to induce and excite masses to riot. Mode of his instigation was such that they regarded his instructions. and wicked promptings solely due to attainment of the pleasure of God and so the affairs passed from oral complaints, lamentations and cries to arrogance and daring for throwing stones, clods of earth, rubbish on the litter or Muhammed Amin.


With one utterance of that man of distracted affair
So much mischief arose from every side
Fire of Mischief became so keen
That thou wouldst have said there was a day of resurrection in that city

On seeing this immoderate behaviour, the party of soldiers who were with him failed to repel them. They made use of war weapons in defence Muhammed Amin Khan, understanding the exigency of time that it was a a public revolt, prevented them from so doing. He reached the Bhadra fort at any cost. A report of it was sent to His Majesty by himself as well as by news writers within a few days. His Majesty by himself as well as by a sovereign as a specimen of Divine wrath. He issued an order to Muha-mmed Amin Khan to put him to death as a leader of rioters. As it was a preliminary to public rising, Muhammed Amin Khan, instead of pulling down the pa1ace of his life who created disturbance but worked in the name of God, sowed a flower of goodness and arranged a feast inviting the common-folk as well as the shaikhs (spiritual directors). He also invited Abu Fakr to it.

[Page 269]

A Couplet

He who injures men with a sword of tongue
Drinks poison and uses a sting of scorpion as a tooth pick

When the banquet was arranged and dishes of food were spread out on the table, Muhammed Amin Khan summoned of the Shaikh near to himself. After be1ng free from food, he cut a melon, which was specially kept ready for feasting the shaikh and personally treated him by offering him with his hand, a few poisoned slices.

A Couplet

Do not extend a hand of intention to the way of world
For they have poisoned this morsel

As soon as he ate them, his condition changed. He got up from the banquet and went home. Muhammed Amin Khan said, "Shaikh! where do you go in such a hurry ? He replied, 'To the house I have built I go. It is said that he died by the time he reached home. It was in this year that the chief among those who have attuned to perfection on the path of reality and the leader of those who are intimately acquainted with the minutiae of things, expert in narrative sciences and proficient in rational knowledge, Mulla Ahmed, son of Sulaiman transferred himself from ephemeral earthy place to permanent garden. Muhammed Amin Khan, who was ill for some time, gave up deposit of borrowed life to the seizer of soul at mid-night on 22nd Jamadi II of the year one thousand and ninety-three. His corpse was kept as a deposit in the grave in the fort citadel near the Kutcheri Gate. A dome over his grave and a masjid were erected which still exist. Somebody found his date of death from words "Muhammad Amin Khan murdah". After some time, his dead body was taken out and removed to a holy place Muhammad Latif the Diwan of the Subah wrote out a list movable and immovable property with the help writers and royal servants. A report of it was submitted to His Majesty. A royal order was accordingly sent to the Diwan of the Subah to the effect that he heard from external sources that certain domestic clerks kept Muhammed Amin Khan's death a secret and that much usurpation and confiscat1on have been committed. It is, therefore, written that caution and care should be practised in control of the work-shops. If negligence and ind1fference were noticed, great inquiry will be made. It was also ordered that men of the thana and government establishment which Muhammad Amin Khan had established for order must be continued as before till the arrival of the Nazim of the Subah and their salaries be paid by the government so that order may prevail. He should also be careful about [Page 270] bandobast. Fodder of animals for cavalcade should be supplied by the government as it was in the house of Muhammed Amin Khan. Animals should be kept fat and comfortable. Diwan, major dome of affairs, munshi, Mulla Yusuf. 'Ali Beg and other workers, servants and well known attendants of Muhammed Amin khan ,was intend to serve His Majesty should be sent to the Royal Presence. At present, Shahvardi Khan, one of the military commanders of the Subah devoted himself till the appointment of Nazim to protection and defence of the Subah. Many Irani and Turan1 Mughals who had accompanied Muhammed Amin Khan to Ahmedabad settled down here and their dcscendants reside till now in this region. Order and law as established by Muhammed Amin Khan were not established at any time by any one else, as remarked by His Majesty that none established such order as Muhammed Amin Khan had done.

[Page 271]


Mukhtar Khan, with the mansab of four thousand zat, four thousand sawar do-aspah, se aspah was the Nazim of Malwa Subah. On the death of Muhammed Amin Khan, he was appointed the Nazim of Gujarat with a present of a robe, an elephant and a horse. An order was issued to him that he should proceed to Ahmedabad from Malwa to devote himself to the establishment of order and administrative work there. His son Qamruddin Khan, who held the mansab of one thousand zat and five hundred sawar was appointed the Faujdar of Pattan Sarkar with a mahal of conditional jagir of the Nazim (Mashrutah = a settled revenue of ten percent allowed to jagirdars) Mukhtar Khan, after receipt of the farman, came to the Subah of Gujarat with continuous marches and reached Ahmedabad on 4th of the holy Ramazan of the year one thousand and ninety-three Muhammed Latif, Diwan of the Subah, Mir Bahauddin Khan, Bakhshi, Chronicler, Shaikh Muhiyuddin Sadr (judge) and Qazi, Khwaja 'Abdullah etc accountants, royal servants in military service in the Subah came to receive him The Nazim of the Subah marched for bandobast (land assessment ), administrative work, acquisition of peshkash and taking security for absence of rebellion from rebels and Kolis. It was in this year that the daily alllowance of pious men, faqirs, scholars, deserving poor men, students which was settled in accordance with the Court sanad in this Subah was to be paid from the Public Treasury. An order in this respect was issued to the Diwan of the Subah with the seal of Jumdat-ul-Mulk Asad Khan. An order also was issued in respect of tax on gold and uncoined silver which the merchants etc brought for sale to mints of the empire. The tax was one in forty from Muslims and two in forty from Hindus. Mint-officers should take a bond from merchants etc to the effect that they should not sell and purchase these metals at any other plate except the mint. An event was reported to His Majesty that Mungiya and four other Girasiyas of Jalwasan of the Kadi paragana were arrested by Muhammed Muzaffer Babu, Faujdar of the place on ground of rebellion. They were sent to Muhammad Amin Khan. He kept them imprisoned in the chabutra of Kotwah Qazi 'Abdullah now summoned them from the chabutra and released them. In this manner, he releases many rebels whom Muhammed Amin had imprisoned for four or five years in the chabutra of Kotwah for establishment of order on ground of disturbance. These persons, when released, go to their [Page 272] respective places and take to mischief making. A roya1 order was issued in this respect to the Diwan of the Subah as to why they have been set free. After this, confirmed rebels should be confined in jail and not released.If any one of the rebels who is jailed in the chabutra of Kotwah for revolt should remain in captivity. If he is set free, inquiry of it will be instituted from the asylum of ministership. An order was issued prohibiting acceptance of illegal taxes such as maliya, bhent, baladashi, tahsildari, outgoing and in-coming. He ordered that no Amil and Karon of the government revenue office should accept these taxes. An order was received by the Diwan of the Subah to the effect that if any one has not paid jizya for one year after its levy and another year has set in, due to indifference of its collectors, the payer's word should be accepted and no jizya for the first should be collected. This is the opinion of Imam Abu Hanifah, may mercy of God be on him Jizya of the second year should be collected. If any one has not paid jizya for the first year by way of disobedience, two years' jizya should be collected from him. Such is the view held by the two Imams. The asylum of ministership, therefore, should act according to the tenets of region within jurisdiction of his Diwani. Fifty nine horses belonging to Muhammed Amin Khan were confiscated by the Government, the asylum of ministership Muhammed Latif, Diwan of the Subah sold out seventeen old and deformed horses in consultation with the Nazim of the Subah Mukhtar Khan and the rest were sent with Mir Taqi to the Royal Presence Dev Abdur Rahman Karori of Pattan paragana was transfered due to complaints of ryots. A royal order was issued that the Faujdar of Saurath Sardar Khan should appoint to this post any one from his group of brothers and companions. Muhammed Saeed mansabdar, accordingly, was chosen for the post. An order was issued at the request of the Nazim of Subah in respect of Muslim prisoners and dead persons without rich heirs that one set of wheat flour should be given per prisoner of the chabutra of Kotwali and two sheets of cloth and five Muradi tankas per absconded person from the treasury of Bat-ul Mal. An order was received to the Nazim of Subah that choice mangoes of the garden of Muhammed Amin Khan should be sent with carriers of dak chowki by way of Broach to the Royal Presence. It was also ordered that as he laid out the garden with great trouble, planted various fruit-bearing trees with great care, efforts sbould be made to increase their freshness and verdancy. Income, expense, area of buildings, number of trees etc with the lay out of the garden should be sent to the Royal Presence. On the recall of Muhammed Latif, the dignified office of the Subah's Diwani was entrusted at the close of this year to Muhammed Tahir, who in future received the title of Amanat Khan and I'timad Khan. In the year one thousand and ninety five, an order was issued to the Diwan of Subah, Muhammad Tahir that a sum of one karor and sixty-lacs of dams of the pargana of Dungerpur is in arrears due to the recall of Rana Jai Singh from Suds of autumn of [...] of the year twenty-second. The said paragana was assigned in jagir to Rawal Jaswant Zamindar [Page 273] from 5th Suds of Spring of Paichi I. As the Zamindar has not remitted the written amount of revenue of the in-between period which comes to sixty-six thousand, six-hundred and ninety and a half rupees, the said amount should be collected for the Public Treasury from revenue of autumn season of Tankuz II without delay and negligence. This year there was heavy rain and the river Sabarmati was flooded to such an extent that its waters came as far as the Three Gates near the plain of the bazar. It dama-ged buildings. Walls of city-fortification and citadel of the fort were very much disintegrated. Mukhtar Khan, therefore, submitted a petition to His Majesty for urgent repairs to the fort. Repairs of both the forts were arranged by His Majesty when Makaramat Khan was the Diwan. A royal order was issued to the Diwan of Subah to the effect that a report of expenses home in past years for its repairs during the regime of His Late Majesty should be submitted. It was found from past records that one thousand and four ashrafis from the treasury of weight were spent in the 22nd year of His Late Majesty's regime; in the year 29th of Ascension, Rizwi Khan had collected sixty thousand rupees from mahajans of the city. During the reign of His Majesty, the expenses of repairs were borne by the government. An estimate was, at this time, of two thousand, six hundred and forty-four rupees. An order was issued that the amount should be taken four times from the Public Treasury. No appeal should be made to citizens to contribute towards it. Faujdar of Saurath, Sardar Khan went as Subedar of Tattha and died there after some time. His dead body was consigned to tbe grave under a tomb built by himself with ornamentation near Jamalpur Gate in Ahmedabad. Syed Mahmud Khan afficiated as Faujdar of Junagadh till a new appointment.

[Page 274]


His Majesty assigned the Saurath Sarkar in the fief of the illustrious Prince Muhammed A'zam Shah. An order was issued to Shahvardi Khan that he should soon like himself to Saurath and employ three thousand sawar on the establishment on a monthly salary of fifteen rupees in accordance with rules with the concord of the Bakhshi of the Subah and that he should make real bandobast till the arrival of Faujdar of the Sarkar of His Royal Highness the Prince. A mandate was issued to the Diwan of the Subah that he should send one month's salary of two thousand sawars from Ahmedabad's treasury in consultation with Mukhtar Khan. A Gumashtah, an accountant and a Tahsildar should be sent for payment of salary. A report of payment of salary should be sent to the Royal Presence for the said amount will be debited to the assignment of the Prince Muhammed Sadiq, a mace-bearer was appoint-ed for pressing urgency. As the permanent Faujdar had not yet arrived, it was reported to His Majesty as an event of the Subah that Mir Bahauddin Bakshi Chronicler declared to Mukhtar Khan that the Desais of Saurath have written to him that some mischief-mongers attack and plunder many places finding Saurath without a Faujdar. If a certificate for payment of daily wages to a few persons from the government revenue office is given to the Karori, those persons will be employed for defence. The Nazim of the Subah said to the Diwan of the Subah Muhammed Tahir to issue a certificate. The Diwan of the Subah replied that he would not grant a certificate without His Majesty's order. A royal order was issued to the Diwan of the Subah that he should not wait for a royal order in such cases. They should be paid their salary with a certificate of the Nazim of the Subah. A mandate was issued, before this, to Shahvardi Khan and therefore, daily wages should be paid with the Nazim's certificate till his arrival and the facts should be jotted down. Shahvardi Khan reached Saurath this year. He submitted a petition to the effect that he employed nine hundred and forty six musketeers necessary for maintenance of order in this region on an average of slightly less than four rupees. He hoped that a sanad for the payment of this salary will be granted to the Diwan of the Subah. An order was, therefore, sent to the Diwan of the Subah that one month's salary of musketeers on an average of three and a half rupees per head as fixed should be sent to Saurath in consulta-tion with a Nazim Mukhtar Khan of Ahmedabad. One month's salary of two thousand, nine hundred and forty-six footmen should be recovered from the revenue of Saurath Sarkar under the Prince and remitted to the treasury.

[Page 275]


It was brought to the notice of His Majesty this year that Amils of paraganas do not accept the rupee-coins paid by ryots in the treasuries of the ground that the acceptance of those coins was forbidden under a royal order. The ryots change them in bazars and pay coins of higher quality 1n the treasuries. Delay is thus caused in payment because some time of spent in getting those coins exchanged. A royal order was issued to the effect that rupees of less we1ght and base metal brought by ryots should be accepted in the treasuries from autumn of Sichqan II. They should not be returned. The Diwan of the Subah was ordered that he should instruct 'Amils of crown-mahals and offices for collection of arrears of revenue attached to the Diwani that a rupee of one rati, two ratis and three ratis (less in weight) should be accepted as a genuine rupee. If the weight of a rupee is less than fifteen and a half mashas, it is due to less weight in silver. When it is fifteen and a half mashas in weight, weight (in silver) should be accepted in place of this rupee. Formerly a rupee of one rati( less ) in weight was regarded as genuine. No inquiry was made as to why it was less in weight. Deficiency in weight is now found to be in a faulty balance. Less weight should be accepted in weight of a balance. Again, a rupee which is less in we1ght by three ratis, should be accepted in silver as one rupee per tola. Further, every other rupee except a rupee of Mubarak stamp is, as before, half a dam less. Some residents of Ahmedabad went to the Royal Court. They conveyed to His Majesty through certain officers that after the death of the Nazim Muhammed Amin Khan, elephant-drivers and camel-drivers cut down their huge fruit-bearing trees such as khirni, mahura etc. When owners of trees prevented them from so doing, they harassed them and beat them. A royal order was issued to the effect that if it were a fact, they should be severely instructed not to do it. A bond shou1d be taken from them that they will not commit this deed in future. The owners should be paid price of cut-down trees. It was, at this time, that Muhammed Ja'far who, in future, received the title of Muhammed Beg Khan, was appointed, on the recall of Dawlat Sumrah, as the Faujdar of Godhra. A famine occurred in the year one thousand and ninety-six. In response to a petition submitted by Comprising all perfections, Shaikh-ul-Islam Qazi-ul-Quzat to the effect that poor Muslim residents of Ahmedabad are in a distracted condition on account of dearness of corn. Revenue on corn should be condoned. A royal order was issued to the Diwan of the Subah that the revenue on corn of the Subah was condoned for one year. Shaikh Muhyuddin , son of Qazi-ul- [Page 276] Quzat Shaikh Abdul Wahhab who held the office of a judge, an amin, a collector of jiziya and in addition a price recorder. Common people, on suspicion that he took bribe from corn-dealers and causequently, he fixed a high price, men and women affected by high prices complained to him on Friday when he was proceeding for namaz, started pelting stones, clods of earth and throwing dust at him. The Palki in which the Shaikh was moving, broke. He took himse1f to his house in great difficulty. He wrote about the true state of affair to the Chief Qazi Shaikh-ul-Islam out of jealousy mentioning therein in the cause of people's excitement to the instigation of Khwaja Abdullah, the city-Qazi


Arrogance, jealousy,rancour, hypocrisy and revenge
Old vices of human beings
Truly you will not go round any one
Unless your heart is purified of these

Qazi ul Quzat reported this matter to His Majesty. A royal order was issued that Khwaja 'Abdullah should be brought in chains and fetters to the Royal Presence. A mace bearer was appointed for the purpose. This terrific news reached Khwaja 'Abdullah before the mace bearer started. As he had no knowledge about the attack of people, he chose to go to the Royal Presence saying, "This is a great accusation" for extricating him from the charge alone rather than that he should be carried by the mace-bearer in chains and fetters. It has been said

A hemistfch

An Enemy becomes a cause of good if God wishes

His Majesty, in those days, had encamped in the Dekhan. The dignified prince, Muhammed A'zam Shah Bahadur, under royal su-mmons, was marching to His Majesty. Khwaja Abdullah chanced to meet him at Burhanpur. He regarded, through good fortune, the attendance on the Prince as a means of salvation and a medium for realization of wishes. He reported the event and his innocence to the Prince. The Prince was convinced of his innocence. He ordered that he should accompany him and that he would report the matter to His Majesty to be merciful towards him. Khwaja 'Abdullah was a man of perfection. The Prince was favourably disposed towards him more and more from day to day. His Majesty learnt about his innocence through representation of His Royal Highness. By chance, the Qazi of the Prince's camp had just then died Khwaja 'Abdullah was appointed Qazi of the Prince's camp. Qazi Abul Farah was appointed Qazi [Page 277] for Ahmedabad. As he performed duties as a Qazi in the camp of the Prince and fought with valour and intrepidity in battles that chanced to take place and also that the luck of Khwaja was on elevation, Shaikh ul-Islam obtained permission for hajj of the House of God, may God increase its sanctity and honour. On his departure, Mir Abu Saeed became the Chief Qazi. He resigned the post within a short time. A question arose about another person to be appointed. The Prince represented to His Majesty that Khwaja 'Abdul-lah was worthy for this exalted office and fit for rendering service to beneficent royalty because he is a Qazi as well as a sipahi. He said, "who will then be a Qazi of your camp?" He replied, "Khwaja Abdul Hamid, his son who is also a tried seeker of knowledge". The Prince's request was acceded to both of them were honoured with robes. He gradually rose by means of loyal service, the chief Qazi 'Abdullah Khan attained to high rank. Many petitions of Gujarat were disposed of through him. Nazim of the Subah Mukhtar Khan died on the last date of Jamadi I of that year. His dead body was consigned as a deposit to the grave at the shrine of Shah 'Ahji Kamdhani in the city. After some time, it was removed to some other place


In this path whether a Sultan or a darwish
At last the valley of death comes before him
In this plain where there is no fragrance of joy
Grass is not more impermanent than man

Muhammed, Tahir Diwan of the Subah engaged in confiscating the wealth and jagirs in company of the officers and royal servants. They kept his establishment of horse and foot for defence and protection of the city and paraganas. Mukhtar Khan's wealth amounted to twenty-one thousand and one hundred rupees. Mir Bahauddin Bakhshi and Chronicler appointed Syed Mahmud Khan, in accord with Qamruddin Khan, son of Mukhtar Khan as Risaldar for defence of the Subah. A report of this arrangement was submitted to the Royal Court.

[Page 278]


A report of Mukhtar Khan's death was submitted to His Majesty. The Subedari of Gujarat was granted to the agents of the nawwab with royal titles, the illustrious Prince of lofty family, whiteness of the forehead of greatness, coolness of the eye of Khilafat, lustre of the family of magnificence, and fortune, lamp of the dynasty of pomp and royalty, star of the sign of majesty, jewel of the casket of saltanat, plant of the garden of rank and glory, spring of the orchard of honour and luck, of exalted lineage, dignified Muhammed A'zam Shah Bahadur.

Kartalab Khan,who held the mansab of nine hundred zat and seven hundred Sawar do aspah without condition was appointed the Faujdar and Port officer of Surat Port. His adopted son Nazar Ali was granted the mansab of two hundred zat and three hundred Sawar. With addition in mansab and Sawar, Kartalab Khan was appointed the Port officer and Faujdar of Surat Port. It was heard in continuity from reliable men of Gujarat that Qamruddin Khan reported the inevitable event of his father to the Royal Court with swift couriers. As His Majesty was stationed in the Dekhan, they had to pass by way of Surat. Courters reached there, they had delayed a while for fulfillment of human needs when immediately news of Mukhtar Khan's death and a petition was heard by Kartalah Khan through report of spies. He called the couriers to himself, inquired into the matter, ascer-tained himself this was apparently the cause of halt he gave them more than messengers of Qamruddin Khan. Qamruddin Khan messengers were detained by engaging them with words and stories and then permitted them to go. The saying "Man proposes, God disposes" came true for the petition of Kartalab Khan reached the Royal Court nearly at midnight. It was read that very moment. It became a cause of his cleverness and knowledge of work in the Royal Court.

[Page 279]


God, who, this emeral coloured sphere
Decorated with stars, the moon and the sun
Wonderfully laid foundation of the world
He placed wisdom in head and brain of Adam

As his excellent efforts and good services from the day of his elevation in service as well as his valuable services at Surat Port, His Majesty showed favours to Kartalab Khan more than before. That very night, His Majesty wrote a letter personally for appointment of the illustrious Prince as the Subedar and Kartalab Khan as a Deputy. A royal order was issued that the bearers of letters should depart then and then Orders in accordance with regulations will be entrusted to the Vakil following the farman Kartalab Khan's couriers, who, through good luck, had recalled earlier than those of Qamruddin Khan and besides that, success of the object borrowed haste from morning breeze. They then started. At the time of return, they came across Qamruddin Khan's couriers at a distance of three kurohs from the Royal Camp when they were proceeding to the Royal Camp. It is said that the agents of the Prince , who were mostly the amirs thought looking to the external ranks of Kartalab Khan as to who, on his recall, of base nature, will accept this post of a Deputy.


It is a great defect to raise one's self
To choose one's self from all creatures
It should be learnt from pupil of an eye
To see all and not to see one's self

They were unaware of this that his advancements to highest ranks were ordained in the divine workshop and undoubtful will of God. Causes thereof were being caused. He rose to elevated rank of five thousand zat, four thousand sawar do-aspah, se aspah without condition, the title of Shuja'at Khan,awards of gorgeous robes, issue of farmans, grant of a banner, a drum, an elephant, subedar on the transfer of Princes' agents and in addiction the Faujdari of Jodhpur Sarkar as results of his excellent services, good social intercourse with ryots, patricians, state administration as Deputy of the Prince with addition to proper mansab and daily increasing royal favours. He managed all matters of Nizamat with worthy usages, and landable ways as desired by His Majesty. He never trod upon the path of dismissal for rest of his life. No Subedar enjoyed, for such a long time, the office of Nizamat in the past ages and present time that is upto the year 1170 one thousand and [Page 280] seventy. He established order, security and safety as well as brought prosperity. This is popular and well known among the high and the low Hindu women sing it in their songs ind remember the days of joyousness. Such a thing did not happen

A single Couplet

A soldier and a civilian from him with desire
A soldier with wealth, a civilian with justice.

In prime of youth, he came to this region along with the stirrup of the Prince Mohammed Murad Bakhsh. He spent his life in service, as a thanadar and faujdar under the Nazims. Through good luck and valuable fortune, he got exalted, through divine help, to the mansab and service of the Royal Court. He became a thanadar of Pethapur. In the beginning, he was awarded the title of Muhammed Beg Khan. After that, he was awarded the title of Kartalab Khan due to his skill in work and loyalty. He was also appointed the Faujdar of Kadi. He then got appointment as an 'Amil of Dholka. He was, on the death of Ghiyasudd1n Muhammed Khan, appointed as Port officer of Surat Port. He then became a deputy to the Prince and rose to the rank of rulership. On his death, Prince Muhammed A'zam Shah was appointed as the Subedar. In short, he kept contents of the Royal letter a secret after its arrival, entered without delay into tent, began to look for sepoys and started for Ahmedabad. He reached Ahmedabad within a short time and entered Ahmedabad on 2nd of holy Rajab of the year one thousand and ninety six. He showed the Royal letter to Qamruddin Khan, son of Mukhtar Khan who knew nothing about it and occupied h1mself with admini-strative duties. After a few days, Qamruddin Khan hastened to Malwa under a royal order Muhammed Tahir, the Diwan of the Subah, Qazi Abul Farah etc military commanders of the Subah, nobles, grandees of the city came to see him. Kartalab Khan sent his own men as Thanadars under the Nizamat at various places for protection and defence of paths and roads and occupied himself with establishment of order and performance of administrative duties. The paragana of Petled was assigned at this time in Jagir to vakils of the Prince Muhammed Azam Shah by His Majesty. As the amount of nine thousand, six hundred and seventy one rupees which was one month's salary of the establishment of men who had accompanied Shahvardi Khan at the time when the parganas of Saurath land were assigned in Jagir to the Prince, was paid from the Ahmedabad Treasury. This was not repaid, till now. Remaining balance and the taqawi at Petlad should be prepared. The remainder should be assigned to him. A royal order was issued in this respect to the Diwan of the Subah. Sher Afgan Khan,son of Shahvardi Khan [Page 281] was appointed, on the death of his father, to the Faujdari of Junagadh. In the year one thousand and ninety-seven, I'timad Khan, on the recall of Salabat Khan, was appointed the Port-officer of Surat Bahlol Shirani, who held the mansab of five hundred zat and three hundred Sawar unconditional,was,on the transfer of Sher Afghan Khan,appointed as the Faujdas of Junagadh. A royal order was issued to the effect that the Nazim of the Subah with the concord of the Diwan and Mir Bahaudd1n Bakhshi of the Subah should collect a thousand select horsemen from the neighbouring region of Ahmedabad city, employ them in government service and send them with the mansabdar Syed Muhammed Rafi appointed for the purpose. Each one should be paid sixty rupees as salary for do aspah, se-aspah and thirty rupees for one-aspah on an average per month. A Jamadar of fifty horsemen should be paid one hundred rupees without the fault of collection. Arrangement of payment should be found out from positive taxes. A description-roll should be prepared on increased allowances. Horses should be branded with payment of ready money and the muster-roll should be prepared from the date of branding. Salary for two months should be defrayed on a reliable security from the Public Treasury and they should be sent to the Royal Presence. Those who are worthy of a mansab, their mansab should be decided on the same allowances. Everything should he done in accordance with the royal order. An order was also issued to the Diwan of the Subah for repair of the Pattan fort. It was reported to his Majesty through a petition of the Subah's Diwan that the revenue of corn should be remitted for one year due to dearness and distracted condition of poor men of the city as previously stated. It should then be collected as usual. But the corn is dear this year when compared to the last year due to scarcity of rain. Poor men will raise complaints in case the revenue is collected. A royal order was issued that the accountants of miscellaneous taxes should be informed that the price of corn should not rise due to remission of revenue. They should collect taxes of food stuff at the mandis. In the year one thousand and ninety-eight, Muhammed Tahir, the Diwan of the Subah was granted an increased mansab and the title of Amanat Khan Mir Ghazi on the death of Mir Bahauddin Khan, was appointed as the Bakhshi and chronicler. An order was issued to the Diwan this year that seven thousand rupees from the Royal Treasury should be distributed hand to hand to deserving persons of Ahmedabad city in consultation with the Sadar of the Subah Jam of green myrobalan of Champaner trees as well as or Rakhiyal of the Haveli paragana of Ahmedabad should be sent. Repairs should be done to the passage of water from a canal to the masjid of Malek Shaban Gujarati near the gate of arms-dealer. Two thousand rupees should be paid from the Treasury as requested by the Chief Qazi Khwaja 'Abdullah to the asylum of Syedship. Syed Muhammed sajjadah-nashin of His Holiness Hazrat Shah Alam, may grave be sanctified, as usual. An [Page 282] order was issued to the Diwan of the Subah for execution of these duties. It was reported to His Majesty this time through a petition of Mu'tamad Khan the Port-officer of Surat Port that Muhammed Akbar came out from the desolate place of disappointment and joined the port of Muscat. His Majesty learned from a petition of Syedi Yaqut Khan, the Qiledar of Danda Rajpuri that Muhammed Akber reached the port with intention of going to Iran with several warships. Ruler of the place who is called Imam consoled and conciliated him. After some time, it was reported to his Majesty through a petition of news-reporters of Surat Port that Muhammed Akber spent three months at the port of Muscat and sought help and assistance by correspondence from Shah Sulaiman, Ruler of Iran. The king wrote to the Port officer of Bandar i-Abbas of Iran that some boats should be sent to Muscat and convey Muhammed Akber with his companions in the boats to us. Nazims and Muhafizs(Defenders) of the paths should receive and feast him with royal etiquette at their respective places from Bandar-I-'Abbas to Ispahan. An order was issued that the news should be incorporated in a record of events of His Majesty Prince Muhammed A'zam Shah Bahadur, who had gone in his pursuit, was informed by a mandate to return and join the stirrup of His Majesty Sher Afgan, on the transfer of Bahlol Shirani was appointed the Faujdar of Junagadh a second time Mukhtar Khan, on the transfer of Mu'tamid Khan, was appointed as Port officer of Surat port.In the year one thousand and ninety-nine, 'Inayat Khan, the Faujdar of Jodhpur died. After receipt of this news, His Majesty issued an order that Kartalab Khan should pro-ceed to Jodhpur for vigilance. He went there and minded administrative duties. A proposal for the post of a Deputy to the Subedar of Ahmedabad was made to His Majesty for another man. What rumours this information spread in Gujarat and Jodhpur. It was rumoured from utterances of people that all his sepoys and companions were the residents of Ahmedabad. He was confused by hearing this news. He gave up service and set out for Ahmedabad. Some of his follower accompanied him. After getting knowledge of it, Kartalab Khan began to conciliate them, lie reported to the Chief Qazi Abdullah the true state of affairs of his soldiers. It was reported to His Majesty that soldiers and commandars were needed in the stirrup of H1s Majesty for management or the Deccan Campaign and so there was no need to appoint another man. Experience and valour of Kartalab Khan were well- known in the Royal Court from his establishment of order and administration of the Subah of Ahmedabad. His Majesty so decided that the Faujdari of Jodhpur should be in addition to the Subedari of Ahmedabad. Royal favour combined with his good luck. An order was issued to the effect that the Subah of Gujarat, on the recall of the Prince's agents, and Faujdari of Jodhpur in addition to it, were put in his charge. His mansab-addition and original-was raised to five thous-and zat, four thousand Sawar do aspah, se aspah without condition, four thousand [Page 283] Sawar conditional for the Subah and Faujdari of Jodhpur along with Ajmer and Pattan. He was granted an in'am of two crores of dams, title of Shuja'at Khan, a drum, an elephant from the Royal Stable, and a farman for elevation to the rank of amirship and government. Nazar 'Ali was favoured with the title of his name, in addition the mansab of seven hundred Zat and three hundred Sawar. The Subah of Malwa in place of Gujarat, was granted to the illustrious Prince as desired by him. Dwarkadas Rathod, instigator of Muhammed Akber found the narrow passes of Konkan mountains narrow for himself due to pursuit of royal force after him, embarked Muhammed Akbar in a ship, separated himself from him, crossed, the river Narbada and proceeded towards Hindustan and Marwar with a desire to revolt and disturb. Shuja'at Khan halted for a while for esta-blishment of order in Marwar and left Kazim Beg Muhammed Amin Khan, a born soldier, with ease, as his deputy there and returned to Ahmedabad. It is said that he pressed many military commanders of the Subah and his own Jamadars at the time of appointing a deputy to the Faujdari of Jodhpur. None accepted it through fear of Rajput revolt as at that time Ajit Singh, son of late Raja Jaswant Singh and specially Dwarkadas with him had raised disturbance. Kazim Beg accepted it with intrepidity and valour. Shuja'at Khan proposed a fitting mansab for him. Amanat Khan, the Diwan of the Subah performed financial duties with loyalty and excellent efficiency and so he was favoured with an addition to mansab-original and additional of two thousand zat and a title of I'timad Khan. He was given the charge of Port-officership of Surat, on the recall of Mukhtar Khan, in addition to the Diwani of the Subah of Ahmedabad. Syed Muhammed Muhsin, son of h1s brother Idris hhan was appointed as his Deputy Diwan.

[Page 284]


A royal order was issued to the Diwan of the Subah to the effect that the tithe collectors collected tax on articles at places of purchase and gave a permit. Now merchants shouid not be troubled for taxation at places or purchase of things. Without ascertainment of price and seeing sealed commodities etc they should be entrusted to them in accordance with the voucher. The merchants should give a note of permit with their own seal. The tithe collectors will collect tax, according to rules, from merchants wherever they will sell their goods. A bond shou1d be taken from merchants to the effect that they should convey note of payment of tax with seals of tithe-collectors of the place that a permit is given. An order with this purpose was issued to Diwanis of all subahs of the empire. May it not remain hidden that the collect1on of tax at places of sale was decided upon because the price of an article is more at that place than at a place of purchase. It thus means an increase in revenue. But as the merchants sold many commodities at places where collection of taxes was not regular, the government suffered losses. An order was, thereof, issued a second time for its collection at places of purchase which will be stated at its proper place, God the Great willing. In the year one thousand and one hundred, the Chief Qazi Khwaja 'Abdullah reported to His Majesty that some bailiffs in judicial courts, kutcheries of one in forty taxes and the Diwani etc serve without salary in the city of Ahmedabad. They exact money from residents and cause them harm and injury. They catch hold of people on roads and highways and collect illegal exactions. An order was issued to the Diwan or the Subah that the officers should be informed that bailiffs who are not in employment should be maintained. They should press servants not to take anything illegally from people. If they do it, they should be punished and chastised. Facts should be reported to His Majesty. His Majesty saw the peshkash of the Diwan of the Subah l'timad Khan consisting of two carts with four Gujarati oxen. It was accepted. Shaikh Muhryuddin, the Sadr of the Subah and Amin or jizya died. As Shaikh Akara-muddin took upon himself payment of his father's debt his property was not confiscated. Shaikh Akaramuddin was offered his father's post. The Chief Qazi reported to His Majesty that many deserving persons of Saurath Sarkar receive means of subsistence with certificates of governors and jagirdars. They are not in a position to approach the Royal Presence to get certificates. The accountants of these places confiscate their lands in absence of the courts' certificate. Apparently, they are the same persons. A royal order was issued to the effect that the Diwan or the Subah should inquire into their deser-vation [Page 285] and desist from confiscation and seizure and issue certificates to them. Those who are not in a position to approach the Diwan of the Subah, should depute a reliable person of their own to the Diwan who should issue a certificate after an investigation of his deservation.

[Page 286]


One of the great events or Shujaat Khan's subedari was a revolt of Matiyas at Broach. Matryas are a people residing in Khandesh and Baglana. They live as traders and craftsmen. They call themselves Muslims. Those who live in Ahmedabad are called Monnas while those in the land of Saurath Khwajas. Their ancestors and forefathers accepted Islam because they saw supernatural deeds performed by Syed Imamuddin, may his grave be sanctified and chose to live under his guidance. His shrine is situated at Karmata in the pargana Haveli of Ahmedabad, seven kurohs from the city. Large sections of Hindus belonging to d1fferent castes accepted Islam, and chose direction and obedience of the Syed. Their creed is different from the general creed of Muslims. Difference arose among them after the death of Syed. They are divided into several branches. They have a wonderful belief. They give one tenth part of their earnings including sons, to the Syed with sincere intention and loyal devotion. If any one or them has ten sons, he will dedicate his one son to the Syed. Money, in place of a son, is given with the will and pleasure of the descendants of the Syed. Like inheritance, disciples are distributed arrong the descendants of the Syed. Every one of the descendants of Syed Imamuddin enjoy one-tenth share of the income of the disciples. Disciples are given in dowry of a bride. In short, theirs is wonderful belief and faith. A majority of Momnas outwardly live as Hindus in their caste and group, but inwardly, they follow the Syed. In those days, it was the turn of instruction of Syed Shahji one of the grandsons of Syed Imamuddin. Thousands of Matiyas and Momnas had assembled together. Syed Shahji's rank and status rose very high due to a large number of followers and means of income in the shape of presents. He mostly lived behind a curtain of conceal-ment. He associated very little with the people. Whenever his disciples congregated from various parts for a visit to him to show their ardent faith in him, he took out his foot from behind the curtain. Disciples regarded it as a great favour and a large bounty out of faith and supplication and they kissed it. It is a rule of the d1sciples of this family that they should not shake hands without paying some thing. They give presents according to their capability. They poured rupees and ashrafis by way of offering on the foot of the Syed. The regime of His Majesty was noted for devotion to religious affairs and falsification of various other creeds. Great emphasis and severe stress were laid on this. Many persons, for the sake of God, regarded it as a source of salvation, accused some persons as heretics out of prejudice which is the wicked quality [Page 287] of human nature and brought about death on many persons. Some of them were thrown in captivity. One of them reported to His Majesty about Shahji and irreligious usages of his disciples. His Majesty, on hearing this report ordered the Sadr and the Qazi out of his regard for religion that the Syed should be sent to the Royal Presence so that inquiry about his faith and investig-ation about his creed should be made. During those days, Syed Shahji lived in the neighbourhood of the shrine of Syed Imamuddin. Royal officers appointed for purpose wrote a letter to the Syed and sent it with some persons to summon him. The Syed refused to come to Ahmedabad and turned out the messengers Shuja'at Khan, on declaration of the Qazi, appointed a few companions of the Faujdar of Barah Nainpur under the leadership of a Jamadar Syed Machha to bring the Syed. As Syed had no strength to resist them, willy nilly, he went with them. It is said that he poisoned himself at the time of coming out of his house and thus he died on the way. Others hold the view that he was informed about His Majesty's ca1l after his reaching Ahmedabad. At the time of return from the Nazim, he utilized poison and thus freed himself. He was buried in the mausoleum of his ancestors. His son, who was twelve year's old was sent to the Royal Presence. News of his death reached his disciplines of near and distant places. It became the curse of upsetting their minds. Religious zeal of the Matiyas being moved they doubted that the Nazim of the Subah poisoned the Syed and put him to death. They considered retribution as paper and laudable imagined war as a cause of punishment, assembled in group young and old, small and great with families without carrying for wealth property and native place, washed hands of dear lives, started for Ahmedabad. They arrived at the bank of Narbada opposite to Broach and started crossing the river by boats. The Faujdar of Broach, on getting news of their arrival in such a collective form, sent boats to inquire the cause of their assemblage. As some of them had already crossed the river, they seized the boats by force and brought remaining persons to this side of the bank. By the time, the Faujdar got this news to come here to prevent them from advancing, they rushed on him beat him and occupied the fort of Broach with all force at their command. The Faujdar lay slain with his com-panions in this battle with swords. The fort fell in their hands. They did not mo1est residents and ryots for wealth and life. They strengthened the fort and stayed there. They were reinforced with war-seeking co religionists within a short time. On hearing about this surprising, the Faujdar of Baroda marched against them. As the fort is situated centrally on an elevated place, to one side of it flows the river Narbada, and further because of their large numbers, they had to go back without achieving their object. Power and strength of the Matiyas went on increasing. It was rumoured among the people that war-weapons prove ineffective upon them. Some time elapsed. Reports were [Page 288] repeatedly sent by news reporters about this occurences to His Majesty, he issued a mandate to the Nazim of the Subah, Shujaat Khan that he should extinguish the those fellows and liberate the fort of Broach and that he should extinguish the fire of revolt and disturbance with watering of sharp sword. He sent an arrayed army and equipped force under the generalship of Nazat Ali Khan, Mubariz Babi, military commanders of the Subah,Faujdars and his companions. The royal army reached Broach and occupied itself with a siege, preparations for opening the fort, mining, battering, advancement of safety lanes, and entrench-ment. Those persons came out and displayed skilful fighting. A battle raged with cannons and guns. According to the saying, "Affairs are pledged to time," several days passed in this way. Success was not possible. As the sun of royal fortune shone with brilliance in the meridian of felicity while the star of luck of that party had reached abyss of misery in combust1on of misfortune. Ineffectual crowding and solidarity of the fort proved of no avail. When those persons, false,without means, without a leader, inexperienc-ed had gathered together from different parts, were not subservient to others. They had no knowledge of defending the fort and the method of its protection.

A single couplet

In action weak like worldly pleasures of the world,
In nature, unbalanced, like movements of the sphere

By a heavenly decree, it so happened that they got puffed up with their large number and solidity of the place. Very often, they came to turrets and fortifications in negligence, went to see their wives and children, as well as to natural calls of human nature. This fact came to the light of men of trenches of the royal army. They always waited for an opportunity sitting in an ambush. By chance, at mid day when the appointed time of their death arrived and the cup of life. "When death came to them, it does not come later or earlier by an hour" was full to the brim, of a hot day,

A single couplet

A bird in that burning sun
Got roasted in its own oil

When the sun shone in all its intensity, many garrisoned persons had gone to one side of the wall of the fort and turrets for extinguishing the flame of fire of hunger and those who were left, kept themselves aloof in a shade, the royal army at the trenches, in expectation of such time observed care and caution. On seeing this state of affairs, they regarded it a good fortune and royal luck, put some ladders kept ready for such a day, against fort wall and climbed up [Page 289] Those who were in the shade and on beds of negligence sleeping like their own fortune came to know about their entry, they were sent to the sleeping-place of non existence. They opened the fort-gate for royal forces. Soldiers were ready with their glance at the gate, they rushed for an attack without delay. In groups and parties-horsemen and footmen-with shouts of "Allah, Allah" entered the fort. They set ablaze the flame of massacre and war, and started killing, binding and throwing. Enemies attacked from all sides and advanced forward for repulsion, gave justice to valour and prowess and fell down dead. As they regarded their death in atoning for murder of their spiritual guide as a cause of elevated rank in paradise, they gambled with life fearlessly. If by chance, one of them became a captive in the grip of destiny, he appealed to his captor with humility and lamentations that he remains away from his companions of the caravan, and that he too should soon be joined with them. He who was not graced with death, was killed by others. Many women and men threw them selves of their own accord or ,with the help of others into the river Narbada and went down into the whirlpool of non existence. Some one perhaps may have carried the boat of life safely to the shore. Nuruddin Bhatti, who performed wonderful exploits got martyred alone with other soldiers. Victory was gained by royal forces. Fire of Matiyas' revolt got extinguished. When the event was reported to His Majesty, Shuja'at Khan was made an object of praise and approbation. May it not remain hidden and concealed that most of the events of the regime of His Majesty. Aurangzeb are based on hearsay as stated before. The year of this event is not known,with certainty, it is mentioned on conjecture. If precedence or recedence, more or less are stated in this event, I should be held excused. It was in this year that the Nazim of the Subah, after he was free from the revolt of Matiyas, exaction of fixed peshkash and establishment of order in the Subah, marched to Marwar for administrative work. He spent, till termination of his Nizamat, six months in Ahmedabad and six months in Marwar. During his stay at Marwar, Bihari Das, the private Diwan of Shuja'at Khan devoted to administrative work in consultation with the Diwan of the Subah, Qazi and royal military officers at Ahmedabad. Due to his coming and going every year, complete security and safety were established on roads and highways. In the year one thousand, one hundred and one, Shuja'at Khan made a request of help from the Public Treasury of the Subah for expenses of the army as order was not established in Marwar according to his desire. It was acceded to by His Majesty. An order was issued to the Diwan of the Subah I'timad Khan that one lac of rupees should be given with a bond on his seal. That amount should be recovered from his Jagirs in two years and paid to the treasury. It was reported to His Majesty through Shuja'at Khan's petition that the fort of A'zamabad was [Page 290] disintegrated for the last two years due to heavy rains. It was formerly repaired when late Shahvardi Khan was a Deputy. An order was issued to the Diwan of the Subah to prepare an estimate and get it repaired in the year one thousand, one hundred and two many mas-jids in the city of Ahmedabad needed repairs. The Nazim of the Subah prepared an estimate of twenty-seven thousand and fifty rupees and submitted it to His Majesty. A royal order was issued that they should be repaired with sanction of the Diwan of the Subah Shuja'at Khan led an army for establis-hment of order and collection of Peshkash from zamindars of Jhalawar and Kathiawar. He attached Than in the Saurath region which was the resort or Kathi rebels demolished the fort which they had made as a place of refuge and returned. There were a famine as well as signs of a11 epidemic at Broach, Surat, Ahmedabad and many other places. A large number of persons died. A royal order was received in respect of emphatic collection of jizya for zimmis of the paragana of Palanpur, Jalor etc. The Nazim pressed Kamal Khan Ja1ori that he should collect jiziya with the help of the deputies of Shaikh Akaramuddin Amin. For some reason, the Faujdari of Baroda was deprived of from Muhammed Bahlol Shirani inspite of the fact that he had established good order there. It was restored to him at the request of Shuja'at Khan Syed Muhammed Saleh, Sajjadah nashin of Qutb-ul-Aqtab. His Holiness Hazrat Qutb-i-'Alam, may his grave be sanctified, bade adieu to this ephemeral world and transferred himself to the world of permanence. It was in this year that a report of Dwarkadas Rathod's revolt was received. He extended hand of oppression in the land of Marwar and caused harm to travellers by plunder and pillage. Shuja'at Khan hastened to Jodhpur for bandobast and suppression or his disturbance. He gave patta in place of jagir to many Rajputs and Patawats according to old usage of their forefathers in keeping with exigency of time. He proposed mansabs and Jagirs for some. He kept Kazim Beg as Deputy. He made them well-disposed towards him by laudable treat-ment and regard and encouraged them for royal service and duty. He wrote with emphasis to Kamat Khan Jalor, Faujdar of Palanpur and Jalor Sanchor for suppression of revolt of the above mentioned Rathod and that he should hasten from Palanpur to Jalor and keep vigilance. He stayed for some time at Jodhpur. He despatched Kazim Beg with a worthy army towards Mirtah where it was reported that Dwarkadas was roaming about. He wrote emphatically to the Faujdar of that place that he should take a bond from cart men and workers on hire that they should convey, in future, goods of merchandise by way of Udaipur to Ahmedadabad. The Faujdari of the said paragana, on the transfer of Sujan Singh, was granted to Kunwar Muhkim Singh. Being completely satisfied with the arrangements at Jodhpur, he reached Ahmedabad in the month of Jamadi I. Safdar Khan Babi the [Page 291] Faujdar of Pattan, appointed by Shuja'at Khan wrote to him that the forts of Khatoli and Sanpra needed repairs at an estimate of one thousand rupees. He wrote an assignment of land to the 'Amil of the p]ace to get it soon repaired. In the year one thousand, one hundred and three, His Majesty came to know that Sher Afgan, Faujdar of Saurath had written that the four walls of Mustafabad Fort alias Jagat were in a disintegrated oondition due to heavy rains and that this disintegration of the fort is regarded as the best means of shortsightedness by neighbouring rebels. A royal order was issued that I'timad Khan, the Diwan of the Subah shou1d soon send a mason and a reliable person to repair it. It was in this year that Syed Idris Khan, Faujdar and fief-holder of Nadiad died a natural death. The Diwan of the Subah sent government func-tionaries to confiscate his property. When this news reached His Majesty, a royal order was issued to the Diwan of the Subah that they should not molest heirs of government servants. His property should be left to his heirs Shuja'at Khan, Nazim of the Subah went to Jhalawar to collect peshkash and establish-ment of order. After collection of peshkash from the Zamindar and confir-mation of the paragana conditional (collection 10 p c of the revenue} in his jagir, he insisted on the Naib Faujdar Shaikh Muhammed Zahid for bandobast and proceeded to Jodhpur on an annual visit as usual. He granted leave to his private Diwan Biharidas to manage financial and revenue matters in Ahmedabad. He wrote letters to Faujdars and Thanadars of the Subah to be vigilant in establishment of order and protection of roads and highways against rebels. Shaikh Muhammed Fazil the mansabdar had come from the Royal Presence with a letter of the present revenue of paraganas and a ba1ance of ten years of the Subah. Permits from the Diwani office granted to Desais and Muqaddams of the paraganas of the Subah were sent with the mansabdars of the Diwani Kutcheri to show him because some Jagirdars practised indifference in producing the Desais. Shaikh wrote to Shuja'at Khan about this fact who was at Jodhpur Biharidas, appointed severe monthly rent-collectors at his suggestion. They produced the Desais Qazi Muhammed Shafi' arrived at Mirtah being appointed by His Majesty as the paragana Qazi. He saw Shuja'at Khan. As the Qazi was poor, he was every day paid one rupee by him till he enjoyed ease in the same paragana which was in the mashruta Jagir of the Faujdari of Jodhpur. After being free from bandobast of Marwar he started for Ahmedabad in the month of Jamadi I with double march. When he arrived at Chaurang in the Kadi paragana, he noticed shortage of water while crossing a river. He sank a very big well with a broad mouth at the request of Farjam Khan, Amil of Kheralu. He, therefore, wrote to Mubariz Babi, the Naib Faujdar of Vadnagar about it. In the year one thousand, one hundred and four, an event of Ahmedabad was reported by the chronicler Muhammed Ja'far His Majesty learnt that Shuja'at Khan said to the Diwan that "the affairs of the people are at a [Page 292] standstill for the sake of chalni rupees. When I ta1ked to the gumashta of Abdul Latif, the Darogah of the mint that the chalni rupees have lost some weight. The banker, therefore, give less of black coins as the price of it. It brings less to the people. The shroffs say that the weight of chalni rupees should be fixed". The said gumashta brought this reply from 'Abdul Latif, "I cannot do anything in this matter without His Majesty's permission" A royal order was issued to I'timad Khan, Diwan of the Subah that the rupee of less weight shou1d be brought to the present coin according to rules. His Majesty had fixed that a rupee of one surkha (rati), two surkhas and three surkhas is a rupee, if it is less than three surkhas, silver should be given. A bond should be taken from the shroffs to the effect that the rupee should be regaded as current up to three surkhas. If a rupee is less than three surkhas, it should be taken to the mint and coined. His Majesty saw this year a single estimate for repairs of city fortifications, of Ahmedabad, buildings of the garden of the Kankariya Tank with the Diwan's seal and found that its expenses would amount to four thousand, two hundred and fifty-four rupees. A royal order was issued that the amount for repairs should be taken from the Public Treasury. Syed Muhsin, Naib of I'timad Khan had given seven thousand rupees from the Public Treasury for repairs of A'zamabad fort which fact was represented to His Majesty when he ordered as to why that amount was given and further that it should have been repaired by the Subedar and the Faujdar and that the amount should be taken back. It was reported to His Majesty that year that Ajit Singh has stationed himself in Tahalha at the instigation of Dwarkadas and is a source of disturbance and revolt. A royal order was issued with emphasis to Shuja-'at Khan that he should proceed to Jodhpur to chastise and punish the rebels. He marched in all haste to that side Shuja'at Khan had ordered two hundred carts of marble stone from Pattan for building a masjid, a madresah and a mausoleum. They were brought to Ahmedabad. It was learnt from a letter of Safdar Khan Babi, Naib Faujdar that he was in a position to send if needed one thousand carts of marble stone. Muhammed Sultan was appointed by His Majesty as Chronicler at Mirtah and started his duties. In the year one thousand, one hundred and five, Sultan Nazar, vakil of the Prince A'zam Shah reported to His Majesty that the tax-gatherers come in the way of articles which are ordered by the Prince to be bought in the markets of Ahmedabad (for the sake of taxes). An order was issued to the Diwan I'timad Khan to the effect that the letters written by His Royal Highness for purchase of goods to his functionaries, should be paid due attention to, goods purchased should be despatched and there should be no molestation for the sake of taxes. An order also was issued to the Nazim of the Subah and sent with Khwaja Hasan in connection with demolition of a temple at Vadnagar. He, therefore, empathetically wrote to the Naib Faujdar of the place Muhammed Mubariz Babi [Page 293] that the temple should be pulled down under a royal order. Sher Afgan Khan, Faujdar and fief holder of Saurath intruded into villages of Dhandhuka paragana in the jagir of the Nazim and carried away cattle of the place. He was informed not to trouble his villages. It was in this year that the miscell-aneous taxes collected at Pattan and remitted to the revenue office were granted to the Jagir of Shuja'at Khan with favour and kindness. 'Abdul Ghani was appointed a Muhtasib (censor) at Pattan. For a certain reason, he transferred Sabdar Khan Babi, the Naib Faujdar of Pattan and appointed his brother Mubariz Khan. He then marched to Marwar for bandobast. Kazim Beg, the Naib Faujdar of Jodhpur died this year. F1roz Khan Mewati was appointed the Faujdar of Jodhpur. Being satisfied with arrangements, he returned with ease to Ahmedabad. In the year one thousand, one hundred and six, Shuja'at Khan learnt from the reports of informers at Jodhpur that Mir Shafi, Guardian of fort- citaded died. Mir Muhammed Rafi 'Daroga of the royal arsenal was appointed by His Majesty, Muhammed Bahlol Shirani, Faujdar of Baroda died this year. Muhammed Beg was appointed in his place. As prices of food grains had not yet come down, Shuja'at Khan wrote with emphasis to Amils of the paraganas that every kind of food grain produced in paraganas, the ditto share of jagirs and share of ryots should be sent to Ahmedabad so that it may be sold in its mandis. None of the green grocers should be allowed to purchase for hoarding. He appointed Darogahs of mandis so that it should be sold privately in ready money. It may reach the poor and the destitute. None of the grain-dealers may hoard. As passage of water of a canal supplying water to the Jame'masjid and other masjid was disintegrated, an estimate prepared in one sheet of all by the Diwan of the Subah of the amount of twelve hundred rupees was submitted to His Majesty. A royal order was received that no delay should be caused in such affairs of continuous good. The moment some damage is noted, it should be repaired. Again an order was issued to the Diwan of the Subah to pay twenty five hundred rupees from the Pub1ic Treasury for repairs to the Jame' Masjid built by Shaikh Ahmed at Pattan Mir Hayatullah, Amin of Dholka Paragana retired form service and went to Royal Presence to submit an account. His post was given to Mir Muhammed Baqir Ispahani. His Majesty learnt from the daily reports of Ahmedabad about dearness of food grains so he ordered that an additional sum of one hundred to that which was usually given from the year of Ascension to the throne should be given to the bedehouse (langar) till the prices become normal. Shuja'at Khan marched to Manvar as usual. Being satisfied with bandobast he returned to Ahmedabad in the month of Zilhajj. In the year one thousand, one hundred and seven, Qazi ul Quzat Khwaja 'Abdullah report-ed to His Majesty that the ancient stony floor of Raikhad Gate in Ahmedabad overlooking the River Sabarmati needed repairs as the passers by find it difficult to cross over it. An order was issued to the Diwan of the Subah that it should [Page 294] be soon repaired. There should be no need to wait for royal order in such good affairs which are managed with least expenses.

A hemistich

There ts no need for seeking good omen in good deeds

Again a royal order was issued in respect of funeral rites of travellers, unclaimed corpses of poor men and others who die intestate at the request of Qazi ul Quzat that it should be written to the Diwanis of the empire that the funeral expenses should be met with from the Bait ul Mal where there is one or else from the treasury of jizya with a certificate of the Qazi. A masjid at Dohad needed repairs. An estimate of one thousand, four hundred and thirty rupees was submitted by I'timad Khan Diwan of the Subah. His Majesty ordered its immediate repairs Shuja'at Khan marched as usual to Marwar this year after collection of peshkash and establishment of order of the Subah. He stayed there for nearly eight months. He started for Ahmedabad in the month of Jamadi I and devoted to administrative work Bulak Beg, a mace bearer arrived from the Royal Court for settlement of a dispute between Lakha Varanmah and his brother Faujdar of Nawanagar as well as a complaint of complainants of Saurath. Muhammed Mubariz Babi, Naib Faujdar of Pattan had gone to Sanpra in the Pattan Sarkar for chastising the Kolis. On his way return, after attack and setting fire to the place, an arrow hit him and he died. Shuja'at Khan after his death, assigned Naib Faujdari of the place to Safdar Khan Babi. He proposed a proper mansab for the sons of Muhammed Mubariz Babi viz Muhammed Azam etc. Muhammed Murad Khan was appointed, on the transfer of Muhammed Beg khan, as the Faujdar of Godhra by His Majesty. As the Jame masjid of Mu'ezzampur and masjid of the Asawal mohalla built by Syed Abu Turab got disintegrated, an estimate of four thousand, one hundred and sixty four rupees prepared by the Diwan of the Subah was submitted to His Majesty. His Majesty ordered for his repairs. An order was issued to the Diwans of the empire in respect of octroi duties charged with names of merchants and the places where they take permits should be sent to His Majesty. Isalat Khan, on the transfer of Muham-mad Beg Khan was appointed this year as the Faujdar of Baroda. I'timad Khan who combined in him the Diwani of the Subah and the Port officership of Surat and who had kept his relative Syed Muhsin as his Naib Diwan at Ahmedabad died in the month of Sha'ban at Surat port.

[Page 295]


As good luck would have it, Dwarkadas Rathod, who roamed about in the ravines of mountains due to pursuit of Royal forces and who was a source of disturbance and revolt, began to move the chain of pardon for his fault. Since long, Sultan Buland Akhtar and Safiyat un-Nisa Begum son and daughter of Prince Muhammed Akber were in the charge of Dwarkadas during days of his wanderings. Prince has now left for Iran Dwarkadas spent his life in ravines of difficult and hard mounta1ns where it was difficult for the bird of imagination to cross on account of hardships inflicted by the royal army. Now the days of his misfortune were over. His better days and good time had set in. He wrote a letter to Isardas, who was an Amin and Shiqdar (collector) on behalf of Shuja'at Khan to the effect that "If Shuja'at Khan gives word to me and no hardship is caused to me by the royal forces till the acceptance of my requests by His Majesty, I will send Safiyat un-Nisa Begum to the Royal Presence". That letter in original was sent to Shuja'at Khan. He submitted it to the Royal Presence. His Majesty accepted the requests as soon as he glanced over the letter. A royal order was issued to Shuja'at Khan that he should conciliate Dwarkadas, get the daughter of Muhammed Akber with worthy means and materials ,and send her to the Royal Presence. After receipt of the royal mandate, Isardas, under instructions from Shuja'at Khan went to Dwarkadas who lived in a difficult place. He solaced him with narrative and rational words and returned with his pleasing consent to send the Begum and brought her to Ahmedabad with a force and worthy means and materials. Shuja'at Khan sent Isardas, who was the source of this affair, to the Royal Presence with the Begum. When the Begum was benefited with kissing the feet of her worthy grand father, His Majesty the shadow of Holy God imagined as to how the child would have got the opportunity of reading the Holy Book and the Laudable Word. He proposed a tutoress to give her lessons. The Begum represented that "Dwarkadas had summoned a tutoress from Ajmer on a reasonable salary by way of loyalty. I have become a hafiz of the Holy Quran through her instructions". His Majesty was convinced of loyalty of Dwarkadas. His offences were pardoned. A royal order was issued for the acceptance of his requests. Isardas was ordered to bring Sultan Buland Akhtar and Dwarkadas to the Royal Presence. An order was issued to Shuja'at Khan that he should try his utmost in the accomplishment of this affair. In the year one thousand, one hundred and [Page 296] eight, a royal order was issued to Muhammed Muhsin, son of I'timad Khan who had become the Diwan of the Subah after his father's death to the effect that one lac of rupees should be given as means of subsistence to Dwarkadas Rathod fifty thousand rupees after his arrival at Jodhpur and fifty thousand after his reaching Ahmedabad in consultation with Shuja'at Khan, Nazim of the Subah from the Public Treasury with a bond bearing the seal of Dwarkadas from charge of a Khazanji. The paragana of Mirath in the Sarkar of Jodh-pur was assigned as Jagir to the Rathod from the beginning of Autumn season of Ud II. A royal order was sent to Shuja'at Khan with the mace-bearer. Wazir Beg in his praise and approbation. He went to Jodhpur after being satisfied with bandobast in the Subah and collection of peshkash. A royal order was despatched with mace-bearers and Isardas Shuja'at Khan again sent Isardas to the Prince Sultan. Buland Akhtar and Dwarkadas. Dwarkadas came with Sultan after pledges, pacts,permits of tankhwah etc. Shuja'at Khan perfor-med dues of reception and peshkash and displayed completely the essentials of departure and conduct. He accompanied Sultan and Dwarkadas as far as the Surat Port Hasan Ali Khan and Shah Beg who were appointed for reception and tuition of Sultan had arrived at Surat. They took Sultan and Dwarkadas to the Royal Presence. Loyal services of Shuja'at Khan were appreciated. One lac, twenty seven thousand, three hundred and ninety five rupees were assigned as tankhwah to Prince Muhammed Bedar Bakht to be paid from the treasury of the Subah. Before receipt of this perrmit which was in the name of I'timad Khan, he died. A royal order therefore was issued at the request of the Prince to Muhammed Muhsin the Diwan of the Subah. It was in this year that Hayatullah, Muhammed Muqim and Muhammed Baqir, dismissed Amils of the Dholka paragana had gone to the Royal presence. Their issue failed to be proved. A hard hearted mace-bearer was appointed to to carry all the three Amils to Muhammed Muhsin the Diwan of the Subah and prove their expenditure and accounts face to face with the subjects. A royal order was issued to the Diwan of the Subah that the amount in respect of expenditure of the revenue office which Lakha etc sons and grandsons of Tamachi zamindar of Islamnagar had to pay should be recovered. It was reported to His Majesty that three hundred and ninety ashrafis and five lacs, seven thousand, four hundred and fifteen rupees to the end of Shaban month of last year, were in the Ahmedabad Treasury. A royal order was issued that the Diwan of the Subah should send the above amount along with the money that may be collected till receipt of this order without delay and postponement in accordance with rules and regulations to the Royal Presence. It was in this year that Syed Muhsin who formerly was the Naib of I'timad Khan in the Diwani of the Subah was appointed as Amil and Amin of the pargana of Dholka Khwaja Qutbuddin on the transfer of Mir 'Atiqullah was appointed as the Kotwal of the city by His Majesty. A royal order was received that one hundred footmen on a [Page 297] monthly salary of two hundred and seventy rupees which after deduction of fault and permanence comes to one hundred and ninety rupees should be kept with him except the royal force of the Nazim of the Subah consisting of twenty-two horsemen and fifty footmen which were with the dismissed Kotwal. Their salary should be paid from the Subah's treasury with a certificate of the Kotwal. Five hundred rupees were given as in'am to Shaikh Muhammed Isa Ghausi which should not be recovered. An order was received by the Diwan of the Subah to the effect that the salary should be paid to him through Qazi Abul Farah Qazi of the Subah. A royal order was issued with the seal of Umdat-ul- Mulk, Madar-ul-Maham Asad Khan to the Diwanis of the empire that the parwanas for return of examined matters and royal orders as events and chronicles issued to the Diwanis are not replied in time. It is, therefore, written to the Diwanis that replies of parwanas and royal orders should be written opposite to them with detailed explanations. Care should be taken that reply of a case indited by His Majesty should not be postponed and delayed. A letter of the Sadr to Muhammed Muhsin, Diwan of the Subah was received Amanat Khan, on the death of I'timad Khan, was appointed as the Port Officer of Surat Port. He came and took charge of his post. An event of Chakla Ranud in the Sarkar of Chanderi was reported to His Majesty that Niyaz Beg son of Saqi Beg mansabdar of mace-bearers who carried a royal order to Syed Ghairat Khan. He now went to the Royal Presence. He declared that as Dak horses are not present at Kalah Bagh and Shahpurah, he had to cover a long distance on foot. A royal order was issued that it should be written to the Diwanis of the Subahs that dak chawki horses should be maintained by the Faujdars. Whenever a horse died at a chawki, the Faujdars should replace dead horses so that royal orders may not be delayed. An account should be sent to His Majesty. Such an order was issued to the Diwan of the Subah. It was in this year that Shaikh Nur-ul-Haq was appointed as a muhtasib of the city. He took charge of his post, Asylum of scholarship. Shaikh Karamuddi1n, the Sadr of the Subah sent a single letter to His Majesty's office wherein it was written that men who receive means of subsistence do not produce their sanads for inspection. Hence delay is caused in getting hold of a copy immediately. A royal order was issued to the Diwan of the Subah that those persons should be empathetically informed that they must produce their sanads before the Judges in accordance with rules and usages so that they may prepare a copy after inspection and send it to His Majesty. Syed Muhsin was appointed the Port-officer this year. A royal order was issued that four thousand rupees should be distributed to deserving men and women of Ahmedabad city from the government treasury in accord with the Qazi, Sadr and chronicler Mir Abu Talib, the chronicler reported to His Majesty from Saurath about disintegration of the fort. His Majesty issued an order to the [Page 298] Diwan of the Subah for its repairs. As the rainfall was insufficient this year in most of the paraganas and specially, in the district of Marwar there was a famine uniformly from Pattan to Jodhpur so much so that grass and water were not available. Shuja'at Khan went from Ahmedabad to Jodhpur on 7th Jamad1 I. Muhammed Purdil Shirani, on the transfer of Isalat Khan, was appointed by His Majesty as the Faujdar of Barodi. Muhammed Mumin was appointed as Qiledar of Jodhpur. A royal order with the seal of Bakhshi ul-Mumalik Mukhlis Khan was received by the Nazim to the effect that Muhammed Fazil should be appointed at Tattha for writing reports about the rebel Muhammed Akber who then was said to be at Multan so that he would convey true reports about him to the Court. A royal order bearing the seal of Wazir-ul Mumalik Asad Khan to the Nazim of the Subah that the asylum of valour and exaltation should take a bond separately from each zamindar, Faujdar, Thanadar of the Subah to the effect that if the rebel enters area of his jurisdiction, he should make utmost efforts to kill and capture him without caring that he is a prince. If companions of the rebel declare that he is prince, he should try his best to kill or capture the rebel without paying attention to their words. He should be enchained or killed. If this royal order is violated, he will be involved in various kinds of torture and punishment of His Majesty which as a specimen of Divine wrath. The royal order was obeyed in toto. As Muhammed Mumin, qile'dar of Jodhpur submitted resignation of his post to His Majesty, an order was issued to Shuja'at Khan that he should appoint one of his companions who had ability for defence of the fort and report his appointment to His Majesty. Latif Beg was appointed to the post. As Muhammed Muhsin, son of I'tamad Khan failed to manage some affairs of the Diwani of the Subah Khwaja 'Abdul Ham1d, son of Khwaja 'Abdullah the Chief Qazi who had joined the Royal service at close of the year after performance of hajj was appointed to the Diwani from the beginning of half spring of Pars II of that year reached Ahmedabad city on the 4th or Ziqa'ad and actively devoted himself to his duties. The Kolis of Khambah had shown insolence at the time of his arrival. He stayed there, built a fort and established a thana. A royal order was received by the Diwan of the Subah that services of the subordinate officers of the Diwanis of the Subahs appointed by His Majesty are terminated. The Diwanis should work as before with the help of private peshkars ( subordinate officers ) Yar 'Ali, Darogah i Dak ( postmnster ) reported to His Majesty that the Nazim of the Subah said, "Miscellaneous taxes of the city are assigned to me ". Many persons have founded new suburbs in the Subah of Ahmedabad. He collects octroi duties himself from carts of food grains. Under these circumstances, there is loss of income to the government. A royal order was issued to the Diwan of the Subah that true state of affairs should be known and empathetically [Page 299] settled that grain-sellers should not bring their goods to the newly-founded suburbs and they should take them as before to old places so that no loss in revenue may accrue to Shuja'at Khan to whom miscellaneous taxes are assigned. It is reported to His Majesty these days that some persons produce forged permits out of deceit before the Diwanis of the Subahs. It was decided for removal of doubt that occupies of permits issued from the Royal Presence in the name of Diwanis should be sent to the Royal Presence with their own seals. A royal order bearing the seal of Madar-ul-Maham. Umdat- ul-Mulk Asad Khan to the Sadr with the knowledge of His Majesty that city-bankers of Ahmedabad have unanimously given currency to rupees of less weight. They give rupees at a discount of less weight and accept rupees from poor and indigent persons two and three tankahs more per rupee. Poor persons, therefore, suffer losses. A royal order was issued that the Nazim and the Diwan of the Subah should take a bond from the bankers that a rupee which weighs eleven mashas and two ratis as fixed by His Majesty, should be made current. A rupee, which is of less weight than this, should not be given currency. Ghiyasuddin Muhammed reported to His Majesty that there were many rose-gardens in Bagh-I-Shahi and Gulab-bagh. Roses were in abundance. There are tamarind-trees and pipal trees, high and shady are in these gardens these days. Trees produce very few fruits because of shadow and less supply of water. If tamarind-trees are cut down and water is supplied in sufficient quantity, gardens will luxuriate in flowers. A royal order was issued to the Diwan of the Subah that he should inquire into facts and take steps to see as to what contributes to verdancy and increase in produce of gardens. They should lay stress on this that gardens do not become barren otherwise the Darogah will be taken to task.

[Page 300]


It was in this year that the custody of wealth of Baitul-Mal was put in charge of the Qazis of respective provinces under a royal order. A royal order was issued to the effect that the custody of the mahal should be entrusted to Abul Farah Khan, Qazi of the place. Again it was decided that fifteen hundred robes and five hundred blankets at the price of three tbousand rupees, price of each garment is one and a half rupees while that of a blanket is half a rupee, should be distributed among the poor and the destitute according to their condition of the city and the paraganas by way of charity with the accord of the Qazi and the Sadr. The brahmins of Sinor complained to Shuja'at Khan that the Faujdars and the Amils trouble the plaintiffs by forcing them to work as couriers. This forced labour is a source of distraction to the plaintiffs. An order was issued for removal of this innovation as included in the list of prohi-bited matters. Mir 'Abdul Ghani was appointed to cut down the forest of Mahmudabad district. Paragana of Dhanduka and other mahals (places of revenue) were granted this year in jagir to Rathod Dwarkadas by His Majesty. It was in this year that a special robe and a jamdhar were sent to the Nazim of the Subah out of beneficence and favour with mace bearers Khwaja Muhammed Zia and 'Abdullah Beg. They had reached Vada Nainpur outside the city. Shuja'at Khan went to receive them on Saturday, 12th Zilhajj, and accepted them with due etiquette. A disagreement took place between the Naib Faujdar Safdar Khan Babi and Shuja'at Khan for some revenue cases. He left in disgust. He wrote to Muhammed Bahadur Shirani for defence till the appointment of another Naib. He sent one jamadar appointing him for this purpose. He proposed thanadari of Kajnah, on the death of Dawlat Sumrah for Syed 'Ali Muhammed Beg khan was appointed as the Faujdar of Saurath by His Majesty.

This text is an English-language translation of the original version:

This is a selection from the original text


drink, famine, food, grain, price, religion, revenue, riot, taxes, wealth

Source text

Title: Mirat-I-Ahmadi

Subtitle: A Persian History of Gujarat

Author: Ali Mohammad Khan

Editor(s): M.F.Lokhandwala

Publisher: Oriental Institute

Publication date: 1965

Original compiled c.1750s

Original date(s) covered: 1595-1696

Edition: 1st Edition

Place of publication: Baroda

Provenance/location: This text was transcribed from print at the National Library of India. Original compiled c.1750s Original date(s) covered: 1595-1696

Digital edition

Original author(s): Ali Muhammad Khan

Original editor(s): M.F.Lokhandwala

Language: English

Selection used:

  • 1 ) 223-225
  • 2 ) 267-270
  • 3 ) 271-273
  • 4 ) 274
  • 5 ) 275-277
  • 6 ) 278-283
  • 7 ) 284-285
  • 8 ) 286-294
  • 9 ) 295-299
  • 10 ) 300


Texts collected by: Ayesha Mukherjee, Amlan Das Gupta, Azarmi Dukht Safavi

Texts transcribed by: Muhammad Irshad Alam, Bonisha Bhattacharya, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Muhammad Ehteshamuddin, Kahkashan Khalil, Sarbajit Mitra

Texts encoded by: Bonisha Bhattacharya, Shreya Bose, Lucy Corley, Kinshuk Das, Bedbyas Datta, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Sarbajit Mitra, Josh Monk, Reesoom Pal

Encoding checking by: Hannah Petrie, Gary Stringer, Charlotte Tupman

Genre: India > official legislation

For more information about the project, contact Dr Ayesha Mukherjee at the University of Exeter.