Famine and Dearth

John Marshall in India: Notes and Observations in Bengal, 1668-1672

JOHN MARSHALL
IN INDIA


Notes and Observations in Bengal
1668-1672

EDITED AND ARRANGED UNDER SUBJECTS
BY
SHAFAAT AHMAD KHAN
LITT.D., F.R.HIST.S.
MEMBER UNITED PROVINCES LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL
UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR OF MODERN INDIAN HISTORY, ALLAHABAD UNIVERSITY

London.
PUBLISHED BYOXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
1927

1.

[...]
[Page 39]

1.1. I
DIARY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE UNICORN TO INDIA
1667/8 - 1669

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 28a.

[...] January 1667/8, Wednesday. I writ to my brother Ra[?]lph Marshall That I had a great desire to travell.

4 January. My brother desired my Lord Cravens ass[?]istance to have mee admitted into the East India Company's service in India, who took my brother along wi[?]th him in his coach, and that morning went to Sir An[?]drew Riccards house, where they found him in [...]; so my Lord recommended mee to him (being the[?]n Governor of the Comittees) to be imployed in the Companys service in india, which Sir Andrew Riccard told him hee should have what assistance hee cou[?]ld afford him.

After my Lord went to Sir William Riders house, where they not finding him at home (hee being Deputy G[?]overnor), my Lord bid my brother go to him and besp[?]eak from him what hee thought convenient, which hee did.

5 January. My Lord Craven met with Lord Berkley at the Parliament house and desired him to assist mee into the Companys service, which hee promised hee would do, being one of the Committee.

[Page 40]

I received a letter at 11[?] h. morning from my brother Ralph Marshall, dated 4th current, wherein hee advised mee hee thought hee should procure mee an employment in {[the]} Company's service, and therefore would have mee come up to London (I being then at Bromfield near Chelmsford in Essex) assoone as could conveniently, but {[to]} say nothing of {[the]} business till knew certainly how it would bee.

6 January. Beeing Munday and Court day, Sir Andrew Riccard mentioned mee to the Committee, and my brother promissed them to have mee there upon the next Court day.

7 January. I came from Bromfield at 7h. morning and got to London at 4 afternoon.

Note: Harl. M.S. 4254, fols 25n-29

8 January. 1667/8 Wednesday. My brother and I about 9h. went to East India house, where stayed till Sir Andrew Riccard and Sir William Rider were come, who told my brother they would send for mee in before the Committee when it was full. About 11h. they sent for mee in, and Sir Andrew Riccard asked mee how old I was, who answered 25 yeares, also how I had been educated, who told him, also why I left Cambridge, who told him I was not capable of preferment in the Colledge in which I was, by reason Dr. More my Countreyman {[was there]}, and by the Statutes of the Colledge 2 men of one County could not at the same time be fellow{[s]} of that Colledge. They asked mee severall other questions and then bid mee withdraw.

So I went into the Hall, where immediately my Lord George Berkley came from the Committee to my brother and mee into the Hall and asked me severall Questions, also what part of India I desired [Page 41] to go too, saying the South seas might be as advantagious, but was more unhealthfull; therefore hee thought twould bee better to go to the Coast. So I referred my selfe to him. He told me that that day he had some business at Court, but came thither merely upon my Account, having promissed my Lord Craven his assistance, hee being a person hee so much honoured. Hee staid nigh halfe an houre with mee and then went in againe, immediately after which I was sent for before the Committee, who told mee they had admitted mee into their service and hoped I would answer the character given of mee. This was about 11 1/2h. morning.

9 January. Returned againe to Bromfield where came at Sunset.

14 January. At 7h. morning left Bromfield, having taken my leave of all my friends there.

20 January. My brother Ralph Marshall and Mr. Robert Laws were bound in a Bond of 1000 li. for my trust, and I sealed to my Indentures and signed to a Bond of 1000 li. to perform the Covenants of them; after made choice of my Commander and ship would go in.

20, 21, 22 January. I dispatched my business and bought all my goods, etc.

23 January. I shiped my goods on board {[the]} Unicorne at Gravesend, my brothers Ralph, Robert and Thomas Marshall, and Mr. Ralph Lampton going along with mee on board; and at night we returned back again to London.

27 January. About break of day I took my leave of my friends and came from London, my brother{[s]} Ralph and Thomas coming along with mee. Wee [Page 42] took water at the Stairs against the Maypole, and so shot the bridge, and rowed to Tower stays, from whence the Gravesend baarge was lately gone; so I hired roome in another boat and rowed to Gravesend.

30 January. About 10h. morning set saile from Gravesend and came that night to an anchor within a League of Leigh.

31 January. Sayled one League below the Buoy in the North.

1 February 1667/8. Sayled into the Downes, where anchored at 4h. evening.

4 February. I went on shore at Deal, having first agreed with the Captain to bee of his Mess. I bought wine and strong waters.

5 February. I sent my things and goods on board.

9 February 1667/8, Sunday. At 3h. afternoon came from Deale and got on board about 5.

18February. At night our ship in great dainger of being drove upon the Loyall Merchant.

20 February. About 11h. or 12h. night in great dainger of being drove upon the Portland {[Bill]}.

29 February. A Violent Storme, when some Vessell{[s]} cut their Masts by board for fear.

1 March 1667/8, Sunday. I entred into the Captains Mess.

3 March. Faircliff being informed I was a private passenger, came on board the Unicorne and enquired of mee, who shewed him my Indentures, which satisfied him.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fols. 29-31.

10 March 1667/8, Tuesday. At 9 1[?]/4 h. in the morning we heaved anchor, and the wind being N.N.W. wee set saile about 10h.

[Page 43]
14March, Saturday. About 1/2 houre past 6h. night lost sight of England.

1.2. MADERA

26 March 1668, Thursday. At 3h. after noon arrived in Funchall, a Port towne in the Island Madera, where are plenty of Lemons, I being profered 500 for 3s. 9d., also plenty of wine, which is sold in their Taverns for 3d. per quart. It is a red wine and very strong and drinks like Sherry. I bought one Butt of it which cost me 30 Dollars.

The Island is very high and all Rockey. The towne is paved with sharpe cobble stones; their houses but 2 stories high. There is excellent Sweetmeats. I was in their Cathedrall, Colledge, Convent and Nunnery. I bought some Sweetmeats in the Nunnery. The water is excellent good. The Island is governed by Portuguees. Here are also many Guiny {[West African]} Slaves. I lay one night at Mr. Albinus Willowbies house. Here is plenty of Sugar. Their horses here are very small.

When I was in the Nunnery, we prevailed with an old Fryer there to have the great door opened, whether about 40 or 50 of the Nunns came to us with the Abbess, who talked with us about an houre. They uncovered their faces and came neare to us, the doore being open. Wee stood within a yard of them, nothing being betwixt us but air. The roome they and wee were in was a hall or long roome. I see not about 5 or 6 women that were handsome, the rest being pale coloured and looked as if they had the Greene sickness.

The Nunnery is a handsome place and hath in it a [...]

2.

[Page 61]

2.1. II
DIARY OF A JOURNEY FROM BALASORE TO PATNA
1669-1670

BALLASORE

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 4 (reverse)

5 July 1669. Came from Metchlepatam {[Masulipatam]} and arrived in Ballasore Road 9th {[July]} 4 clock afternoone, and anchored about 2 1/2 Leagues from Shore, we going ashore in a Purgo, which is a great Boat of 10 or 15 Tunns with their heads very low and Starns very high. Wee came at a Barr 1 mile from shore, which is a very dangerous place to sail over, being very narrow and being very great seas. After our arrival on Shore, sayled about 16 miles up a river called Ballasore {[Burabalang]} River, and then arrived at Ballasore, where the English have a Factory a little way from the River side. This in the Rain times is very dirty, vizt., from May to October after the first full or new Moone, when the Moonsoones break up, but after is very pleasant, having about a mile from the Towne severall very hansome Mango gardens.

2.2. ROMANA {[RAMUNA]}

This towne lies about 4 miles from Ballasore which was formerly the Rojas King Towne where hee lived, [Page 62] but now a very demolished towne haveing as many old peeces of walls where houses stood, as now houses left, but it is situated in a very pleasant place, about 5 or 6 miles from the Hills called Nellegree {[Nilgiri]} Hills, which are 8 miles from Ballasore. Neer Ballasore are many wild Buffalo, Tygers, etc. esp{[ec]}ially neare the Hills. Ballasore is a very great Stragling towne, but scarce a house in it but dirt and thatcht ones.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254. fol 5-6(reverse).

14 February 1669/70[?]. Came from Ballasore, 3 Clock afternoon. To Ramchandrapore {[Ramchandrapur]}, being 3 1/2 Course or 10 1/2 miles, where lay untill 20th, ditto morning. At this place are plenty of Wild Deer very larg, wild hogs, Peacocks, cocks and henns, Jackalls and Tygers. Tis reported That every Thursday at night a Tyger comes out and Salams to a Fuckeers Tomb there, and when I was there on thursday at night, it was both heard and see[?]ne.
{[Distance travelled]} - - - - 3 1/2 Course.

20 February. Went to Gurropoda {[Garhpadā],} 2 Course, where dined by a very larg Tank wherein are many Teal, and by it severall Graves: 3 I saw suppose{[d]} to be inchantments, being the Shapes of Men with sticks stuck in their middle, through their members, legs and armes, supposed{[d]} to be bewitch some people liveing and make them consume away as fast as them stick{[s]} rotted.

To Busto {[Bastā]} after dinner, 2 Course off, where are plenty of Deer, etc. as at Ramchandripore. Here met with the Nabob which was going to be Nabob of Orixa[?]. Hee could not have fewer in his Lascarr {[lashkar, army, camp]} than 10,000 people, haveing [Page 63] many Elephants and aboundance of Camells and horses.
{[Distance travelled]} - - - - 4 Course.

23 February. Came to Narsampore {[Naranpur]}, 2 Course, where dined. About 2 Course further wee crossed Pipley River, by which wee met with the Rojas Souldiers who stopped one of our Banians called Morte {[Mūrti]} Ram. They begged money of us, who giving them none, they followed us and went with us to Gelliser {[Jaleswar]}, being 1 Course further, where Mr. Bridges the Chief gave them 7 rupees. They were daubed almost all over with Turmerick and white stuff, and naked except their members; have great swords, bowes and arrowes; Drumms which they beat as wee went along; there were in all came to us about 60 or 70.
{[Distance travelled]} - - - - 5 Course.

24 February. After dinner went to Suna Cunnea {[Sonakania]}, 2 Course; To Dantam [Dantan[?]], 2 Course more. Here are Oftaes and Chellamaches etc. {[and other]} bras{[s]} thing{[s]} made.
{[Distance travelled]} - - - - 4 Course.

25 February. Came to Ranicussara {[Rānikisarāi]} 2 1/2 Course; To Mankairpore {[Matkatpur]}, 1 1/2 Course; To Boccarabole {[Bākhrābād]}, 1 1/2 Course; To Narrangur {[Narāyangarh]}, 1 1/2 Course. This last is a vey Antient Roja Towne, where at the entrance is a great Bridge, after which is a Castle or Strong place of Bambo, about a [...] mile thorow on each side, being exceeding thick with Green Bamboes, which make the place impregnable. There are three Gates, but only 2 entrances into the Castle, the 3d gate [Page 64] being in the middle of the Castle. This is a pleasant place to live in; here are many Muskeets {[masjid, mosque]}, etc. There are aboundance of Tygers, Peacocks, etc.
{[Distance travelled]} - - - - 7 Course.

26 February. Came to Moccorumpore {[Mokrampur]}, 2 Course.

27. February. Came to Bennapore {[Benapur]}, 2 Course. To Arrack {[Khargpur]}, 2 Course; dined. To Medinopore {[Midnapore]}, 2 Course.
{[Total]} 6 Course.

28 February. Came to Potchcurrea {[Panchkhūri]}, 2 Course. To Humblea, 2 Course. To Huddelaband, 2 Course; dined. To Aaseraphore {[Ashrāfpur]}, 1 Course; in all the day, 7 Course, And in all from Ballasore 36 1/2 Course, which at 3 miles per Course is 109 1/2 miles. All the said 19 1/2 miles have beene in Orixa.

1 March 1669/70. Came to 2 great Pagothoes together, which part Orixa from Bengall, 1 Course; soe travelled in all Orixa 112 1/2 English miles.

To Jeckara {[Jhakra]}, 2 1/2 Course or 5 3/4[?] miles. To Burbanpore {[Birbhānpur]}, 2 Course, wher {[sic]} dined. To Cottan, 2 1/2 Course. Travelled this day in Bengall - - - - - - 7 Course.

2 March. To Jaunnabad {[Jahānābād]} near the River, a very great towne, 4 Course, a pagotho 1 Cours{[e]} off, very great. - - - 4 Course.

3 March. Came to Bangamoddan, 5 Course, by the River, wher dined. To Sarampore {[Srirāmpur]}, 2 Course, by a Tank. Here they grind Sugar Cain.
Travelled this day, 7 Course.

4 March. To Diniacolley {[Dhāniakhāli]} 2 Course. [Page 65] To Duarbarsley {[Dwarbasini]}, 3 Course, where dined. To Palpah {[Polba]}, 2 Course. {[Total]} 7 Course.

5 March. Came to Hugly, 2 1/2 Course, Soe that in all Bengall we travelled 27 1/2 course, which at 2 1/4 miles per Course (these being much less than Orisa Course), are in all 61 7/8[?] English miles, which {[with]} the 112 1/4[?] miles which travelled in Orixa, make in all 174 miles. I esteeme the whole way from Ballasore to Hugly to be North East, which makers the Meridian distance to be East 123 2/10[?], and Lattitude raised North {[illegible].} There were in Company that travelled overland Mr. Shem Bridges Chiefe of Bengall, Mr. Walter Clavell Second, Mr. Edward Read and his wife, Gabraell Townesend, Sarah the wife of Wm. Bramston, and my selfe.

Hugly is a vey great Towne in which live very many Portuge{[es]}; great part of the towne was formerly called Satagam. The English and Dutch have each of them a stately Factory scituate by the River which is a Branch of the River Ganges.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254. fols. 7-8(reverse).

Monday 28 March 1670. About 4 Clock afternoone came from Hugly to English Garden, which is 1 Course and lies on West side River.

Memorandum. Where to {[two]} Townes lie of Left hand going up River, 1 writ west, and where on Right, East.

Tuesday 29 March. At 3 Afternoone came from Garden to Trevinay, West 1 Course. To Mucktapore, West 4 Course. To Hotkonda [Hautkunda, R., 1774], West 2 Course. To Sandalpore, West 2 Course.
[Distance travelled] - - - - 9 Course.

[Page 66]

Wednesday 30 March. To Cohandarea [[? Cushadanga, R. 1774]], 2 Course East, where are good Mulmulls for Nainoes to be bought; a great town in extent, by the water side. Here the Choukeedar [chankīdār, watchman] came to know what wee were. Hee asked buxes [bakhshīsh].

To Taptapore and Amboa, West 1 Course; very long Towne, at least 1 1/2 Course. To Hurnadee, East, from beginning of Taptapore 2 1/2 Course. To Murghhapore, West 3 Course. Here a Choukadar desired Buxis. To Sahmadugur, West 3 Course, where the River parts that runs up to Cassumbuzar. To the place where stayed that night, 1/2 Course. Sayled and rowed and pulled this day - - 12 1/2 Course.

Thursday 31 March. To Nuddea [Nadiā], West 1 Course. This is a good place to buy Mulmuls, Cossas, etc. at. I bought severall there. The natives will aske 3 times as much as you may buy them for. This towne lies a little from the River side. I had a feaver in which I sweat from 2 Afternoone yesterday to 4 this morning, and had a hot fit for 4 houres before my sweat.

To Panuella, East 2 Course. Here a Chowkedar asked for buxis. To Gundithpore [[? Punditpur]], West 3 Course. To Gabbah [Jaba], 1/4 Course East. To Motpore [Makatpur], 1 1/2 Course East. To Juanpore [Javarā[?]mpur, R. 1774], 1/2 Course West. To another towne neare which wee lodged, East, nere which wee stayed that night under a steep bank, 2 1/4[?] Course. Here is a place to ferry over the water at. [Distance travelled] - - - - 10 1/2 Course.

Friday 1 Aprill 1670. To Umlea [Andulia], East 2 Course; a Hindoo little Pagotho. To Culganchee [Page 67] [Kulgāchi], 3 Course East. To Gaulbattan, 2 Course West. To Bower [[? Baxipur]], West 5 Course. [Total] 12 Course.

Saturday 2 Aprill. To Patkaburree [Patkabari], 1/2 Course West. To Assalappore [Azlāmpur], East 3 Course. To Gopolpore [Gopālpur], 1 Course East. Here a Choukedar asked us whence we came, etc. To a little Towne, East 2 Course. From hence the River is very winding and our Course was from SBE [sic] to SSW. In about 1 Course here, passed by a boat sunk, which had lead and long pepper in it, belonging to the Moores [Muhammadans].

To Mergee [Mrigi], 2 Course East. To Gubbarampore [[? Jairāmpur]], 1 Course, a place to ferry over at. To Jaggaipore [Jogipur], 1 Course. To Sandalpore [Surangpur], 1/2 Course. To Hussanpore, West 3/4 Course. To Lattigundy [Natidānga], 1/4 Course, a pleasant place for topes of trees - - 12 Course.

This day our Course was most East and West, little North or South. Here some Jackalls coming to eat the Rice the Boatmen had left, I shot one very great one at 8 clock night, after which very many came to him and seemed to mourne.

Easterday 3 Aprill. To Moddoopore [Madhupur], West 1/2 Course. To Gungadurtee [Gangadhari], 1 Course East. To Kelagatchee, 1 Course. To Gungurreepore [[? Ginerpur]], 1/2 Course. To Hanpore, 1/2 Course. To Herrampore, 1/2 Course. To Monterpore [Monkterpour, B.A. xii.], 1/4 Course. To Jagganurpore, [Jagobandhanpur], [...] Course. To Dungarpore, 1/4[?]. To Guyghaut, 1/2[?]. Here a Choukeedar demanded to see our Dustick [dastak, pass, permit], soe wee shewed him Shasti Cauns Phirwanna [Shaistah [Page 68] Khān's parwā[?]na] and gave him one Rupee. This is a great towne which paies to the Nsbob 18000 Rupees per annum. To Ottampore, 1/2. To another called Guyghout [gaighār], 1/2. To Gurrinarre [Gorimari], West, 1/2[?]. From this place the River is very broad. To Suddeegandecar [Saddiconkatler, R., B.A. xi], East 4 Course. To Hubbe behaungchaw, West 1 Course. To Gungades [[? Goass, R., B.A. xi,]], cam[e] opposit[e] to Hubbee ba. Rowed 1 Course further and stayed West - - - 12 1/2[?] Course.

Munday 4 Aprill. To Herrampore [[? Hirampur]] and Calcapore, West 1 Course. To a River, part of that which runs to left hand, 1 Course. To Nuddadpore [[? Naudapara]], 1 Course. Here a Chowkeedar [choukīdār] came to us and wee gave him 1 Rupee and 1 knife worth 1/2 Rupee. About 1/2 Course further the River Runs upon the right hand to Decca [Dacca], soe here enters the great River of Ganges. To Gurrerhaut, 3 1/2 Course East. Opposit to the towne wee put into a creek to stay at 2 1/2 Clock afternoon - - - - - - - 7 Course. Here G.T. [Gabriel Townsend] said hee see the Great Hills, but I did not.

Tuesday 5 Aprill. To Querpodda [[? Kumarpārā, Comerpour, R., B.A.]], East 2 Course. To Chaddegarampore, West 1/2 Course. To Colmegar, 2 1/2 Course. Here wee were but 7 Course by Land from Cassumbuzar. Here [were] severall boats and a Buzzar [bāzār] for corne etc. To Hedderapore [[? Bidderpour, R, B.A., xv.]], East 1 1/2 Course. To Salampore [Islampur], West 2 1/2 Course. To Wodderapore [[? Hoodrapour, R, B.A. xv]]. 2 Course
10 Course.

[Page 69]

This towne lies 1/2[?] of Course up a River or Harber. Here I see the Great Hills Westerly, but farr of.

Wednesday 6 Aprill. To Nickipore [Luckypour, R. 1775], 1 1/2 Course East. To Turtipore [Turtipur], 1/4; here a buzzar. To Hodgopolpore, West 1 Course. To [a] Place East, where were forced to take up to lodge [2 1/4], by reason of stormy weather at 3 1/2 clock afternoon, haveing a rainy and stormy night - - - - - - 5 Course.

Thursday 7 Aprill. To Narrumgabad, 1 Course West. To Geealmarree [Jewalmaree], 3 Course. To Downapore [Downapour, R., B.A. xv], 1 Course; this a great towne. To Dougotchee, 8 Course; here a Surray and Chowkee. To Urriapore [[? Harryapour, R. 1775)], 1 Course. To a River coming from the West where lay - - - - - 15 Course.

Here the Hill[?]s seemed about 10 Course of, the South end about S.W and the North end N.W. The River [I] suppose to come out of Ganges or from the Hills. This day my ague left mee, having had it March 28, 30, and Aprill 1, 3, 5, the 3 last being very violent, but took 2 Pills upon 3d and 2 upon 5th at night, having brought them from England, which carryed away my ague.

Friday 8 Aprill. To Nisseray [Nai Sara[?]t, ? Serāi, R., 1775], West 2 Course. To Chandapurra [Chandpur], 1 Course. To a little Surray [sarāi, inn] in a Cola [kol, creek] or Harber, 5 Course. To a branch of the River which goes to Rojimaul [Rājmahal] 1/8 Course. To Rojamaul [...] - - 9 Course.

About 1 Clock p.m. arrived 1/2 Course from Rojamaul, where stayed and could get noe nearer by reason of shallow water.

[Page 70]

Arrived at Rojamaul, which is about 1 Course from the River Ganges. The Towne is very long from East Southerly to West Northerly, being about 4 Course from the Hills. The towne is very large and hath many stone houses tarrassed at top, and the other very pitifull ones and thatched, and the walls of brick.

The house in which the Kings sonn some years since lived is very long. There is a Garden belongs to the house which is about 1/2 Course out of Towne South, which with the house cost 25 Lack of Rupees or 2,500,000 Rupees, which at 2s. 3d. per rupee amount to in Sterling 281250 li., The house haveing Cost 16 Lack and the Garden 9 Lack. The Garden consists of 4 Quadrangles, 2 of them built and walled with stone round about, each side being at least 200 yards long.

Cross [across] the Quadrangle are two walks paved with large freestone. In the middle of each walk is a channell paved, about 2 yards broad and a foot deep, into which are very many leaden pipes, through which water is carried and runs through the Garden. The walk[s] with the channell are about 8 yards broad. In said Channell is severall Great stones for to step upon to goe over it.

In the middle of each side of the Quadrangle is a large and stately Banqueting house 2 stories high, adorned with mch marble marked neatly, and in the middle of [the] Quadrangle a neat Banquiting house. The South West and North West sides lie against a great Tank. At the outside of [the] Garden South is a place behind the Kings sonns seat to convey uo water into a C{e}stern, from which all the Pipes are supplyed with water, which in some Banquiting [Page 71] Roomes is conveyed to the Second Story high. On the South West side is a marble table about 3 inches thick, 7 foot long and 4 foot broad.

The Garden hath a pleasant fruit in it called Toote [tūt], which signifies a mulberry, about 3 inches long and about as thick at the great end as a mans little finger. It consists of little berries as mulberries doe. It is very sweet and pleasant.

The Garden is now much ruined, but hath been a very stately one. In the lodgings and rooms about it is accommodation for 1000 men.

The Towne of Rojamaul cannot be less than 2 Course long. The English house is stone and tarrassed as all their stone houses are, and it consists of 3 little small roomes and 1 little upper room, lies about a stone cast from the River, but wee could not goe up the Rover [sic] to the house by reason of the Shallowness thereof.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 9-13 (reverse).

11 Aprill. Came from Rojimaul 6 1/2 Clock morning, night, when lodged in the Boat, being very stormy having come from English house the 10th at 8 clock and rainy.

Wee sayled through the little River North Westerly, a[b]out a Course. To Moaddipore [Mehendipur], West 4 1/2 Course. To a Point where appeares a new opening of the Hills, 3 1/2 Course, the Hills now being about 2 or 2 1/2 Course from the River and the new opening hill 5 Course of. Here suppose to be the North point, when first saw the Hills which appeares now West By North, and the North point of new land North West and South Point of whole South West.

[Page 72]

To Puttahaw, East 1 Course. To Burgungall, West 1 Course, here a great Chowkee [chaukī, customs station]; here a great gate through which none can pass by Land unexamined.

This towne is 1 mile from the bottome of the Hill; here a stone house upon the top of a Hill. Here a Chowkeedar called us. Wee sent our Dustick [dastak, permit] which wee took out at Rojamaul, and 6 pice was demanded of us, and paid.

To a Cola [kol] or harber where stayed that night, 1 Course.
[Distance travelled] - - - - 11 Course.

Tuesday 12 Aprill. To Gundadurkee, West 1 Course. To a Towne East 1/4 Course from the River, 3 Course. To Popolpore, 2 Course. To Baukerpore [Bakarpur Ogairah], 1 Course. To Gorre West, 1/2 Course. To Dellegola, East 1 Course, where is a Chowkee. Here for about 1 Course the Hills are low and far of, seeming to break of.

To Paintee [Pirpainti], 1/2 Course West, at the bottom and sides of the Hills, being low and also close by the River. To Dolladee, East, where lay in a Cola [kol] that night, being opposit to Paintee and 1/8 Course from the River; here bought provisions.

Wednesday 13 Aprill. To Rampora [[? Madho Rāmpur]], West 2 1/2 Course. To Hardora, 2 1/2 Course East. To Caushdee, 3 Course West. Here the Hills come close to the River. Here wee sayled S.S.W.

Here at the bottom of the hills, which are but low, are rocky; here one house of stone and one muskeet [masjid] at the top of the Hill. Near the middle of the River a knot of Rocks about 3 or 4 yards above the water. Here the Hills discontinue and are in [Page 73] parts about 1/2 Course and 1 Course distant from each other, there being now in sight not above 3 or 4.

Opposit to this place is a good Cola [kol] East, and a Chowkee [chaukī] which wee spoke not with. Under the next hill West, being 1/2 Course of, is another or part of this towne. Here wee saled West By South. To the Cola where stayed this night from Cauhdee, 2 Course.

Here are in sight 2 parcells of Rocks, which in time of the Rivers flowing, the water flowes by them. They appeare like 2 little hills and bear from the Cola South East by South and are about 2 Course of. About 1 1/2 Course from these Rocks in the furthest hill by or near the River, bearing South East, upon the top of which is a towne appearing with severall white houses. The rest of the Hills seeme very farr of and the furthest southerly point appearing South by East. Here see several Pellicans.

This day sayled in all 10 Course. Here are in sight 5 hills near the River, the furthest up the River bearing South East and the nearest East, besides the 2 Rocks, and the 2 Hills far of.

This afternoon sayled much Westerly and Southerly. The 5 hills here seeme all equidistant from each other, that East being the least; the next it the bigest, and the other 3 all alike - - - - 10 Course.

Thursday 14 Aprill. Lattitude N. 2d. To Salarpore [[? Sālpur]]. West 2 1/2 Course; here the River broads and full of Islands of Sands. To Cassipore [[? Gauspur]], East 2 1/2 Course. To Barraddee [Barāri], 1 1/2 Course. To Agalpore, 2 Course; here [a] Chowkeedar [chaukīdār], to whom wee gave 1 Tuaka [takā] or 2 pice [paisā]. To a little towne where stayed that night.

[Page 74]

This day sayled almost all the day West and West a little Southerly and Northerly, soe suppose true course to be West. Here are innumerable company of green Parrats [parrakeets], green pig[e]ons and other fowle. Here I killed 5 Parrats when could not see one by reason of night, only see the bowes of the trees bend, at which I shot. Here the Hills are in 2 parts, the one seeming long and the furthest end West, and the further end of the other South{.}
12 Course.

Friday 15 Aprill. To Goura, 2 1/2 Course East. To Meste [Masdi, adjoining Sultanganj], 3 Course West. This towne is a very large towne, hath a Maskeet [masjid] or Stone house upon a Rock by the water side. Opposit to this towne East is a little towne called Jengera [Jahāngira].

To Gurragaut [Ghorghāt], 3 1/2 Course West. This towne hath a stone bridge with 7 Arches, which is about 40 yards long, 15 or 20 high, and 6 or 7 broad. About 1/2 Course South of this towne is a little hill with a Muskeet or white stone house upon it. I suppose said Bridge is for the water in rain time to run under in the Ditch, which probably may come from the Hills, which now is dry.

By reason of the hazy evening cannot know how far the Hills may bee seen when clear weather, but now can see them from about South West to North West, they appearing about 6 or 7 Course of and are as high as Nelligree [Nilgiri] hills near Ballasore.

This day sayled most Southerly and Westerly, soe suppose our Course to be West or West By South; severall sands in the middle of River, and the River very shallow, which much hindered our [...] [Page 75] long towne, or rather severall Hindoo townes joyned together. Here bought provisions.
[Distance travelled] - - - - 9 Course.

Saturday 16 Aprill. This morning see very many Alligators, some very great ones.

To Aggiapore, East 2 Course; sayled all North. To Gogee [Gogri], 5 Course; sayled North Westerly. To Gemallpore [Jamālpur], sayled 1 Course North. To [a] little towne, 3 Course, sayled West. To a little Towne, 1 1/2 Course, sayled South West by West. To Cola [a kol, creek], where stayed this night, sayled South West.

Now hazy that can see but one little hill bearing South By West. Here very many Parrats. Suppose our Course to bee this day North West. Here many Jackalls and Muskeetos [mosquitoes]. Sayled in all this day - - - - - - 13 Course.

Sunday 17 Aprill. To Mungere [Monghyr], West 2 Course, sayled South. This towne by the water side lies North and South. Here a very large house where the King lived, walled next the River for about 1/2 Course with brick and stone, with a wall about 15 yards high. At North end of this towne, at the North end of said house, is a great garden. By the river side are few great houses in sight except the Kings. The wall at South end runs up East, soe suppose [it] to goe round about the house. At South end of towne are severall thatcht houses and severall toomes and Muskeets [masjid, mosque].

About 1[?]/4 Course further South are 2 hansome topes [tōp, grove] of trees, from which sayled South Westerly, the Hills bearing one end South West By [Page 76] South and the other end South South East, but being hazy could not clearly see their extent, but they seemed indifferent [moderately] high and about 7 or 8 Course from Mungere. At Mungeer see severall women washing at the River, which were whiter then most women I had seene in India for poore women.

This towne stands upon an ascent, the River banke by it being 8 or 10 yards high. From 9 clock, being then 1/2 Course from South end of Mungere, being against a wall made of brick by the River side about 5 yards high and 20 long, with a little tower at each end, which wall is a fortification to put Gunns in; 1/2 Course further the River bends North West, soe now from North end of Mungere 1 1/2 Course.

To Jagarinutpore[?], East 3 Course, sayled North West. To Laulpore, 1 Course, sayled North West. To Cutluh[?]pore [Kutlupur], 2 Course, sayled West. To Cotgola, West 2 Course, sayled West. To Sugegurrah [Sūrajgarhā], 1/2[?] Course. Suppose our true Course this day West. Here the hills bear from South West by South to East South East. Here many Muskeetos and other flies[?] - - 12 Course.

Munday 18 Aprill. To Sugegurry, 1/4 Course[?] West, lying a little up the River and some thatcht houses near the River; this a great towne. To Fottarepore, 1 2/5[?] Course; here 5 little townes together or one town of 5 names. Sayled West Northerly. To Gehaumah, 5 Course East, sayled West. To Sheeolee, 1 1/2[?] Course, sayled West. To Durriapore [Dariapur]; West 3 1/2 Course, sayled West by North. Suppose our Course to bee this day West Northerly.
12[?] Course.

[Page 77]

This town hath all thatcht houses, and at each end a neat tope of Trees. Here a Buzzar where bought provisions; here toddy and many fields of Cotton. Here we lost sight of the Hills.

Tuesday 19th April. To Mokoia [Mokāmeh], West 1 1/2 Course, To Goleighey 1 1/2 Course. To Mohore [Mor], 1/2 Course, To Chowkey [a chaukī, toll station], 1 Course, sayled all North West. To Cundoreck [Punārakh], 1/2 Course. This day at 11 clock forced to put into a Cola [kol, creek] to mend our boat, being leaky, that ready to sink. Wee took out all things and found 6 or 7 Rats which had eaten and spoyled about 7 yards English Cloth and torne bags of Cloves. Nere this harbour lay a dead man in the River and a crow and raven eating him. Course this day North West - - - - 5 Course.

Wednesday 20 Aprill. To Jangera [[? Jahāngira]], 2 Course West. To Aunichocarra [[? Achuara]], 4 1/2 Course. To Gunsurpore, 1 1/2 Course. To Bidderea [[? Bushara]], 1 Course. To Rannicassera [Rāni Sarāi], 1 Course. To Hansurepore [Ghansurpur], 1 1/2 Course. To [a] little towne East, 1 Course. To Cola [a kol], West, 1/2 Course. Suppose our Course this day North West Westerly - - - - - 13 Course.

This day Gab[riel Townsend] fell from words to Blowes about 1 Clock afternoon. This day see 3 dead men in Ganges.

Thursday 21 Aprill. To Bunderbunna, West, 5 Course. To Footooa [Fatuhā, Fatwā], 1 Course. This long towne of little houses, at least 1/2 Course long; here [a] stone bridge. To Punpun [Pūnpūn], 1 1/2 Course. To Subalpore [Sabalpur], 1/2 Course. This [Page 78] belongs to Pattana. At the North end of this towne is Jaffercawns [Ja'far Khān's] Garden, which hath a Turret at each end North and South and in the middle a little white house with a Belcony towards the River, [and] is walled with brick and stone. Came against this garden at 4 clock afternoon.

To the begining of Pattana [Patna], 1 Course; here at 5 3/4[?] clock. To Nabobs house 1/2 Course, 6 Clock, To English Godowne, 1/2 Course, 6 3/4 clock; in all this day North West - - - - 10 Course.

Against the Nabobs [Shāista Khān's House] and in severall other places the water was very strong against us. These 2 last dayes had severall whirle winds in the afternoon, not above a quarter of an houre one after another, and sometimes not 2[?] minutes; sometimes they were ready to overset the boat.

Fryday 22 Aprill. To Hodgipore [Hājipur], East 3 1/2 Course. This is a great towne:[?] here the great River Ganges or Gunga Gunduck [Gandak] River neere, which comes from Singee [Singhiyā], the River Ganges coming from North West and Gunduck North. Opposit to Hodgipore is Soneigh [Sonpur], West. To Budgerpore [Baijalpur], West 1/2 Course. To Simra [Semara], 1 Course. To Sucarpore [Shikarpur], 1/4[?] Course. To Cuttarpore, 1/4 Course East. To Peeruddur, 1/2 Course West. Bannowa [Baruā] is opposit to this towne. To Herraule [Haruali], 1/2 Course East. To Nuctissarony, 1/2 Course. To Mounda, 1 Course West. To Brissunta [Basanta], 1/2 Course East. To Jonabad [Jahānābad], 1/2, where is[?] the English Factory, being about 1/2 Course from Singhee [Singhiyā]. Arrived at Factory at 6 a Clock night, in all - - - - 8 Course.

[Page 79]

The whole sayled is 231 3/8 Course, which at 2 1/4 English miles per Course, is 520 1/2[?] English miles. The way by Land from Hugly to Pattana is esteemed to be 170 Course, which are, at 2 3/4 mile English per Course, 382 1/2 English miles.

I perceive Patna lies North West By West of Huglie, soe that by this account Pattana would be 320 4/10 miles or 5d. 20m. West, And 208 miles or 3d. 28m. North of Huglie; but I suppose the way by which men travell lies not in a right line North West by West, by reason of the Great Hills which hinder their passage.

27 May 1670. Upon the 27th day of May 1670 at Singee at 12 clock I observe with a wooden Quadrant when the Sun was 87d. 20m. high; the Suns declination then beig 22d. 45m. makes the Lattitude of Singee to be 25d. 25m., soe supposing Singee to lie 10 mile North from Pattana makes the Lattitude of Pattana to be 25d. 15m

Note: Harl. MS. 425[?]4. fol. 3a.

Memorandum. Boat called Budgeroe. The Boat I came from Huglie to Pattana in was made about 23 1/2[?] yards long, 2 1/2[?] yards broad in middle, and rowed by 14 men and 2 steermen, one at the head and another at the starne.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254. fol. 6.

1st June 1670. The raines in the yeare 1670 at Pattana came in June the first.

6th July 1670. Memorandum. I observed the Sun at rising bore East By North 1/2 Northerly.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254. fol. 6a.

Memorandum. The 6th July 1670 I observed in Pottana the Suns hight at 12 Clock which was [Page 80] 87d. 30m.; the Declination then being 21d. 23m., [I] make [the] Lattitude 23d. 53m.; but the Observation being by a small Quadrant, [I] cannot give so much credit to it as to former [observations].

Note: Harl. MS. 4254. fol. 14-16 (reverse).

29th July. Went to ? Bannia, North 6. Course, where lay that night under a great Tree.

2.3. BRINKALATTEE [BHĪM KĀ LATHĪ, BHĪMĀ'S CLUB]

30 July. Went to ? Brinkalattee or Brins [Bhima's] club, 1 Course North, which is a Piller [the Lion Pillar] of one stone as I conceive. It is 9 yards 9 inches high and 3 yards 33 inches thick or round about. At the top of this piller or Lattee [lāthī, staff, club] is placed a Tyger [lion] ingraven, the neatliest that I have seene in India. His face looked North North East, 1/2 Easterly.[?] It stands in a pleasant grove close by this, in a little but high hill, higher than Lattee, within which is a Fuckeers [faqīr's] house, the entrance into which is like an oven, being so little that I was forced to creepe to get into it, and when within it could stand upright in it, it being within built like the roofe of an oven, and something steepling. In it was a Fuckerre man.

The Story or Fable concerning Brin, some of it is (vizt.); There was a Great Gyant whose name was Roja ? Durren [Dharmā], whose wifes name was Cunta [Kunti]. These two had 5 Sonnes (vizt.) Doojustee [Yūdisthira], Orgun [Arjuna], Succo[?]doo [Sahādeva], Lackoor [Nakula], and Brin [Bhīma], Of the rest no further but Brin lived here, and this pillar was his Stick to walk with, which is said to be [Page 81] twise as much under as above ground. Oft men came into the world [and] Brin see them so very little creatures and yet so cunning and so far exceeding him that hee was much troubled thereat, and went into the Tartarian Mountains and there betwixt 2 great hills lay downe and dyed and was covered with snow. The hills are called Brin hills after his name.

The Hindoos have this Fiction of him (vizt.), That one time this Cunta and her 5 Sonns were travelling together, and at length coming to a great River which they could not leap over, they met with a great Alligator, who understanding that they could not get over, told them that if they would give him one of them he would carry over the rest, to which it should bee, every one being desireous to cleare himselfe. At last it was voted that the Alligator should have Brin, the youngest of them. So the Alligator carrieth Cunta and her 4 eldest sonnes over, and coming to Brin, hee eat him at one mouthfull. But Brin,[?] when hee was in the Aliigators mouth, having a great peece of Iron in his hand, grated against and cut the Alligators belly within, which made the Alligator cry, and bid him come out againe; and Brin asked him which way. The Alligator told him at his back side, at which Brin was so angry that hee came out at his mouth, and as hee came, cut out the Alligators Tongue for that affront and carryed it away with him. Ever since which time Alligators have had no tongues nor could speake. Also after Brin came out, hee got upon the Alligators back and puld of the Skin from thence and from his sides, which before was Scaly and extroordinary hard.

[Page 82]

Neare this Piller or Lattee are two little Hills about 1/4 mile distant neare each other, the highest and Northerly of them, bearing from said Lattee North West. These two hills are said to be raised out of the ground with 2 kicks of Brins foot. About 1/2 mile from these 2 Hills North in [[? is]] a Towne called Buckera, where is [[? wherein]] one great Moore [Muhammadan] lives, who belongs to the Nabob of Pattana. Hee hath severall brick houses, all enclosed with a dirt wall, dented at the top. This towne is not great, but well scituated amongst pl[e]asant gardens, etc.

2.4. MOORES TOMBE

In returning back, about a Course, or 2 mile, on this side the Latte [lāthī], is a Tome [tomb] upon the top of a steepe hill, wheron growes extroordinary great trees, and under are pleasasnt groves. The Moore buried in the Tombe, his name was Merza-Syed-Mamood-Obdull [Mirza Saiyid Mahmūd Abdu'l]. This tombe is scituated in an extroordinary pleasant place, both for coolnes, prospect, and musick of many birds chirping. It is about 1/4 mile from Bursta.

10 August 1670. At 9 clock afternoon came from Johnabad [Jahānābād]. Came that night to Sowages [Sivaji's] Garden.

11 August. Came 7 1/2 clock from Sowadges Garden. Arrived at Pattana 9 clock morning, stayed halfe an houre and returned back againe.

12 August. 6 1/2 clock morning, came from Sowadges Garden againe and arrived at Pattana at 8.

[Page 83]

Note: Harl. MS. 4254. fol. 10a.

30 August. Memorandum. Then in Pattana I observed the hight of the Sun at 12 Clock when it was high, 69d.

2.5. MAMOOD HUSSAINE

Note: Harl. MS. 4254. fol. 12.

Memorandum. About the 7th September 1670, when Mamidarif [Mahmūd Ārif] the English Vakeele [vaqil[?]], was about to get the English boats cleared, which had been stopped by the Governor about 23 dayes, hee desired Mamood Hussain's [Mahmūd Husain] (one of Abraham Chawn's Mulvas [Ibrahim Khān's maulavi]) assistance, and desired him to do us that courtisie, who said, "Are the English of my relilion [sic, religion], or are they Mussellmen [Musalmāns]? They are neither, nor are they either friends to God nor man; so that should I do them any courtesie, God would be displeased with mee and men would not praise mee."

Note: Harl. MS. 4254. fol. 16 (reverse).

13 September. I went to Punpund [Pūnpūn], where I put on board the Patelloes of the Company's and those hired by them, my goods, and those committed to my charge, and that night returned againe to Pattana.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254. fol. 12a.

In Pattana a Hindoo brought to mee upon the 14th September 1670 some barly which hee had Sacrifized, which hee said was of but 10 days growth, and it was some of it 11 inches long. Hee gave some to others also, as the custome is, to signifie that as hee distributed that corne, it would bee pleantifull, it then being very scarce.

3.

[Page 95]

3.1. III
DIARY-PATNA TO HUGLI
1670-1671

Note: Harl. MS. 4254. fol. 16-18 (reverse).

17 September. At 5 1/2 clock morning went on board the Dingee [dingy, small boat, skiff] [and] departed from English Factory in Pattana, then scituate neare Shasti Cauns [Shāistah Khān's] garden, at North end of Pattana. Rowed with 10 oares and steared with one man more, and then arrived at Jaffer Cawns [Jaf'ar Khān's] Garden, being the South end of Pattana, where stayed untill 8 1/4 clock, when parted with Mr. Elwes, Second of Pattana.

At 8 1/2 clock departed thence and went to Punpund [Pūnpūn], being upon Right hand about 1 Course; there dined, and at 11 1/2 clock went thence, and about 16 Course further came to a Barr [Bārh] where is on right hands a Milkees or Almesman's house, very neat and handsome. From thence went 3 Course further by Sunset, them supped, and after went 6 Course further that night, our Course bein that day about East 29 Course.

18 September. In the morning, 5 clock, rowed thence, and when light, See Mungeer [Kharagpur] Hills plane, bearing from East to South. At 1 clock afternoon came to Mungeer [Monghyr], being 16 [Page 96] Course further. In all by water 45 Course and by land esteemed but 40 Course from Pattana, our true Course hither and 3 Course further being East, after South by East for 4 Course, when came to Gogligamiolpore [Gogri and Jamâlpur], distant from Mungeere 7 Course. It lay on left hand and is a very pleasant place, by reason of many handsome topes [groves] of trees. This place by the River is reckoned halfe way betwixt Pattana and Rojamaul [Rājmahal]. From hence rowed 7 Course South and came to Jangeere [Jahāngira], then steared East and East by South in the night - 7 Course at Sunrise the 19th day, having 18th day rowed 37 Course. Mungeer by land is but 8 Course by Land [sic].

19September. At sunrise the Sun bore East by South. At 7 clock came to Boggulpore [Bhāgalpur], being 3 Course. At 8 clock 2 Course beyond, when see on head severall peeces of hills and had lost the sight of the other Hills called Mungeer hills, these 4 Course being true about East South East. These Hills on head beare from East By North to South. These Hills are said to reach within 3 dayes jorney of the hill[s] which go from Ballasore. At 12 clock came to these Hills North. After rowed North East By East. After past the Northmost hill, Which is the point of all the rest, steared South East By East to Pente [Pirpainti], where came at 2 1/2 clock afternoone. The towne is scituate on right hand under a pleasant little Hill, on the top of which is a Muskeet [masjid], and at the side next the River a pleasant Bungelah [banglā, bungalow] here. Very many Tygers said to bee here. East point of Rojamaul hills bore East South East. Here G: T: [Gabriel Townsend] his [Page 97] dog leaping out of the Budgerah [bajrā], would not come in againe, and so was left behind.

Here the Merbaar [mīr-bahr, custom or harbour master] came from the other side to us and desired something of us, but demanded not anything nor asked us for our Dustick [dastak]; 1/2 Course further is the house Sova Gee lived in, scituated under the Hill on the right hand.

From hence 4 Course further rowed South East By South, when said hill appeared as before, South East By South, and a river came runing into Ganges from East from a towne scituate about 1/2 Course from Ganges amongst handsome topes of Trees. This river is very broad and beleeve came not from the same fountaine Ganges doth.

At sunset went 1 Course further, after 2 Course further South, when came where the Company's 20 Patelloes or Peter boats were. The Sun this night set within 3d. of West By South. This day wee had sailed in all about 48 Course.

20 September. When set out, the farthest Southerly point of the Hills bore South, wee being distant from Rojamanul [Rājmahal] about 4 Course. At 9 1/4[?] clock arrived in a Harbor over against Rojamaul, haveing rowed this 4 Course South this day. Presently [immediately] after arrived, rowed to Rojamaul, where went to English house, where found a Vokeele [vakīl, agent] which was sent thither by Mr. March from Cossumbuzar.

21 September. Our Dusticks [dastak, pass] being got ready, at 1 1/4[?] clock afternoone departed thence and went to the Patelloes, where stayed that night.

[Page 98]

22 September. First boots [boats] opened [set out] at 5 1/2 clock morning. Here the Southerly hill bore South by West Westerly, the Northerly Hill North By West Westerly, and the middle of Rojamaul West By North. Wee rowed South 10 Course, then South East 4 Course to Towditch, then South 2 Course, when 4 peeces of new hills, or else some of old hills, appeare, the South end bearing South West; then 1 Course South West, when came to an Anchor at 1 1/4[?] clock afternoone, and sent some little boats (which guided the Patelloes) before to find the depth of Sutee [Sūti[?]] river, to know whether it would be safe going that way for the Patelloes or not. At 3 5/8[?] afternoone the boats opened and rowed one Course further West, and there stayed that night. Here wee haveing advise that Sutee River was but 4 Covets or 2 yards deepe, and Coclet, etc. saying some of their Patelloes drew 3 1/2 Covets water, I thought it very daingerous to venture the Patelloes with the Company's Salt[peter] that wayes, and therefore acquainted G. T. [Gabriel Townsend] therewith, who after very many perswasions was willing they should go thorow the great River. So wee ordered them accordingly; for I had made it appeare to them that to go by the Great River was nigher way by 2 or 3 dayes at least, for that they had come from Pattana thither, which was 20 Course above halfe the way from Pattana to Hugly, and they had come thither in 5 dayes time, not reckoning their stay, therefore probably they might get to Hugly in 4 or 5 dayes more at most; and they said it would cost them 8 dayes to go by Sutee river. But I knew their desire was to go by Sutee that they might sell their Comminseeds [Page 99] and Anniseeds at Cossumbuzar [Kāsimbāzār] where they pay noe Custome for them.

23 September. Opened at 5 1/2 clock morning. Sun rise, East 1/2 Southerly Course South for 1/4 Course to Donapore [Downapour, R., B.A. xv.] on right hand, then South South-East, East etc. severall courses; 2 3/4[?] Course to Nourungobad [Aurangābād] on left hand, when entred into Sutee river, which goes East by South, the great River runing East, then severall Courses, but true Course East South East 2 Course, when came to a towne called Sutee [Sūti] on left hand, which gives the name to that River. At 9 clock came hither, which is a little towne. Here Sutee River is vey narrow, not above 10 yards broad, and runs South South East, here being a branch running East which runs East into Ganges.

A little before wee came to enter into this narrow river, I charged Coclet who was the Chiefe Patello man (being in the Company's owne boat and go[ing] first), not to go this way through Sutee River, but G. T. [Gabriel Townsend] asking him againe if there [was] water enough, hee said, "Yes," so G. T. bid him then go that way, which hee was willing to obey, though I had charged him at his perrill to the contrary, and within 1/2 houre after one of the Patelloes was runn upon a Sand, which with very great difficulty (wee sending other boats to help her) got of[f] againe. Then, after severall windings for 7 Course, the true Course being about South, came to the River on left hand which runs up to Decca East, when Sutee River runs South By West, and now but 3 Course from Sutee by Land.

Then severall Courses, 13 Course, the true Course [Page 100] West By North, to Bulgutta on right hand, [a] great towne, where formerly a Chowkee [chaukī, toll station]. Here nearest hills in sight, West By North East, 1/2 Northerly, but suppose the end of them, which see at 9 clock, to be South. Sun set West by North, 1/2[?] Northerly. Hence by land but 12 Course to Cassumbuzar [Kāsimbāzār]. At 10 1/2 clock night set out againe, at [[? and]] at Sunrise n[ext] day had got 12 Course; true Course suppose to be South East.

Saturday 24 September. Sun rose East by South 1/2 Southerly, Severall Courses; 6 Course to Muxidavad [Mukhsusābād] on right and Left hand, being a very great towne in extent; true Course South East by East, then 4 Course further to Cassumbuzar, where at English Factory, left hand, arrived at 12 clock, where stayed that night.

25 September. At 9 clock morning some Patelloes arrived at Cassumbaz[a]r, where Anchored, but wee presently [immediately] forced them away. Then 2 Course further South West on right hand, when came to a tree called Arbor de rayes, 130 yards about the bowes. In the body therof I carved J. M. Here dine[d] after 8 Course severall wayes, but trew [Course] South West, where over took the Patelloes at 7 clock n[ight]. At 12 clock night set out and at Sunrise got 12 Course further.

26 September. At Sunrise set out. Steared severall Courses for 24 Course, but suppose true Course South, and at 7 clock arrived within 4 Course of Nuddea [Nadiā] where stayed.

27 September. At Sunrise came to Nuddea, being 4 Course. At 10 clock at Mur[za]pore, where a river runs out of this to West and into Ganges. [Page 101] To Sandalpore, 8 1/2 Course, where 2 rivers come from Dacca ward North, [[? Hugly]] river up towards Hugly runing West. At 8 clock night arrived at Hugly [Hooghly, Hūgli] Factory, where stayed etc.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254. fol. 16.

16 October 1670. At 4 clock morning went from Huglie in the Madras Pinnace, and arrived in Ballasore [Balasore, Baleshwar] road 22th ditto at 5 clock night.

5 November 1670. Went from the Happy Entrance, having dispatched her to the Coast at 6 clock morning.

7th November. At 10 clock, with much trouble, arived on shore, being driven to leeward of Ballasore river about 3 Course, or 6 miles. At 5 clock afternoone arrived at Ballasore Factory, haveing gone about 12 miles on foot.

30 December 1670. At 2 clock afternoone went from Ballasore and came to Ramchandrapore at 5 clock, and lay there that night.

31 December. Went about 10 Course further, and about 1 1/2[?] Course before came to Pipley [Pipli] wee stayed under a great Tree which had but one Trunk, and its branches was in Diameter 43 yards one way, and 41 the other, at least according to measure by pace.

At 4 clock came to Pipley where the Dutch have a handsome Factory. There we lay that night and all New years day.

2 January 1670/1. At 8 Clock morning went from Pipley. Went about 10 Course and stayed under a tree that night; ? at 4 clock stayed.

3 January. At break of day set out, and at 2 clock afternoone came to Kendoa [Kenduā], where the Budgero with 20 oares was ready for us. At 9 clock [Page 102] night wee went thence and rowed about 3 Course, when come to Kedgeree [Khajuri], which is the entrance into Huglie River.

4 January. At 6 clock when the Tide served, wee rowed towards Hugly, and that night came to a place where are many Tygers. I s[aw] the impressions of 3 or foure severally which had been there that day.

5 January. At 1 clock morning came from thence and at 5 clock night arrived at Huglie.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254. fol. 13a.

9 February 1670/1. When the Moone was past the Meridian in the night and was about 45d. high, then was Mrs Vincent delivered of a Sonn. I suppose it was about 11h. 15m. night. This was also the first night that Mr. Billingsley was married.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254. fol. 15.

15 March 1670/1. About 6 1/2 clock night, when the Moone was full, which was when shee was about 6d. below the horizon, shee suffered almost, if not a totall, Eclipse. The Evening was cloudy so could not well see her till was about 4d. high, and when shee was about 7d. high, she was half Eclipsed, and when shee was 13 1/2 degrees high, the Eclips was over. I observed in my Tube the most part of the Eclipse, and when the greatest part was over I observed the darke part of the Moone, which last received light, to be much darker, as it received the light, than the other which had first received it, and could not believe it was the darkish part which wee ususally see in the Moon, but thought it had beene some unusuall spots, for twas so dark that without the Tube I could not sensibly distinguish it from the dark part which had first been enligh[te]ned, that it seemed like a cloud [Page 103] before it. This darkish part, which was so long before it was cleare, reached to 1/2 of the diameter of the Moone, and was sensibly darker than the rest untill the Eclipse was over, after which in little time twas as cleare as any of the rest of the darkish part of the Moone.

This observation I tooke in Huglie which lies neare Satagam [Satgāon] upon a branch of the River Ganges in Lattitude 22d. 40m. Senior Van Leen, the Dutch Fiscall, was with me when I tooke this observation and said that hee had an Almanack dated at Holland which said That at Amsterdam the Eclipse would not bee seene there, but Easterly at 11h. 45m. noone would begin at that time. I afterwards see the same Almanack which confirmed mee in the same, which said would happen 25th March new Stile, which is 15th old. According to these Braminies [Brahmans] Account, the Eclipse began when the Moone was 25 1/2[?]d. below the horizon, which was about 4h. and 22m. and ended at 7h., so that substract 4h. 22m. from 11h. 45m., the difference is 7h. 23m., which makes the difference in Longitude 110d. 45m., for the Braminies say the Eclipse began 4 Gurries before and ended 2 1/2 Gurries after night. At Pipley by the mouth of Ganges the variation is 7d. 23m.[?]

Note: Harl. MS. 4254. fols. 16-16a.

29 March 1671. Upon the 29th March 1671 (which was a great day of pennance amongst the Hindoos), I see severall men and one woman throw themselves downe about 2 1/2 yards upon broad and somthing sharp irons, 6 or 7 of which irons being stuck into a peece of board with their edges a little bending from the persons that fell with their brests [Page 104] upon them, which with their weight they bended and laid flat to the wall with the force of their fall. They stuck up from the board about 8 inches. The board was laid upon a pillow and supported by men with towells; also men held towells for the persons feet to fall upon. After severall had throwne themselves downe thus, they suffered their tongues to be boared thorow with an iron, which was at one end about one inch [and] about 8 at the other end, and the rest of it but small; but it was about 1 yard long. After that the same persons suffered their armes to be stuck full of iron needles about 1 foot long and 1/2 inch thick, the needles being run thorow their skin and stuck therein, and also the skin on their breasts and back being stuck full of like needles, and thorow each ear one, which ran thorow their back skin and pinned their eares thereto. I numbred the needles on one arme on one man, and there were 60 needles stuck in it, so that I believe hee had stuck in his skin at least 200 needles.

And 2 great iron hookes about 3/4 inch thick run thorow their Backes and could not be run each of them into less tham 1 1/2 inches of their flesh and skin; and by these hookes (with a cloth tyed to preserve them from falling if the flesh and skin should breake) were with a pulley lifted from the ground about 14 or 16 foot, and was swung swiftly 3 or 4 times about in a circle, about 28 or 30 foot about, by bamboos which were placed across a post stuck into the ground. But all that swung so by the back had not needle[s] stuck into their skin. And I see one man that had so much confidence in the strength of his flesh and skin, that with 2 hookes through the flesh and skin of his [Page 105] back, and 2 through the skin and flesh of his breast, hee ventured to swing without any cloth tyed to preserve him from falling in case the flesh and skin should breake.

When their tongues are run thorow, they put a leafe above and another below the hole, and make no more of it, nor seeme more concerned at it, nor for their falling upon the irons, for I see one man do it twice, and presently after each other. Nor are they appearingly concerned for their swinging by their backs, but do it merrily on their owne accord. I see one woman swing so.

They generally make a vow before That if they have children recover of a fit of sickness or the like, then they will do this pennance, which afterwards they performe. I beleeve I see about 40 do this pennance at Hugly then.

4.

[Page 111]

4.1. IV
DIARY-HUGLI TO PATNA
1671

ACCOUNT OF A JOURNEY FROM HUGLIE TO PATTANA PER JOHN MARSHALL, BEGUN UPON WEDNESDAY MAY IE[?] 3D, A[T] 6 3/4, MORNING AND FINISHED 23TH DITTO AT 8H MORNING 1671


Note: Harl. MS. 4254. folio. 19-27 (reverse).

3 May 1671. Wednesday morning at 6 3/4 clock morning set forward from Huglie. Mr. Vincent and Mr. Bagnold accompanying mee 1 1/2 Course, I being fitted with a Pallankeene and 8 Caharrs [kahār, palanquin bearer] to carry it, 3 Cahars to carry my provisions and 1 to carry my Gunn, 1 Mussallman [Musalmān] and Cook and 6 Peons allowed mee by Mr. Vincent, who delivered to mee 150 Rupees on the Company's account for my way charges, and agreed with the Peons and Caharrs for 5 rupees per peece for the jorney and 6 rupees to the Mussallman and Cook.

So forward to Satagan [Sātgāon], 2 Course. To Bigsee, 2 Course. To Hautgaggechapore, 4 Course, where stayed under a great tree this night, a little before Sunset a very great storme happening. This day passed over Satagam River and another near Bigsee. This day travelled in all - - - 8 Course.

[Page 112]

4 May. At break of day set forward and went to Amboa, 2 Course, leaving the greatest part of the towne on the right hand. This is a very large towne lying upon the river. To Mergapore, 4 1/2 Course, beyond which about 1/4[?] Course ferried over a River which is distant from the River which runs into Ganges about 1 Course. To Suminudgur, 1 1/2 Course. To Cubbadgepore [[? Kubjapur]], 2 1/2 Course. Here dined under a tree, and about 5 clock afternoon, when ready to set out, a great storme happened and a violent wind which overset my empty Pallenkeene upon 4 mens shoulders, as they were carrying it to the Surray [sardi, inn].[?] Went further by Moonlight, 4 Course, and lay in the field.
Travelled this day - - - - 14 1/2 Course.

5 May. At break of day set forward to Godgepore [Gazypour, R. 74], which lies by the side of the River which goes to Cossumbuzar; 2 Course further, 1/2 Course, ferried over ditto River. To Agdea [Agradwip], 1/2 Course. To Cossalpore [Cosalpour Gaut, R. 74], 1/4 Course. To Atchittea [Ashchhia], 2 Course. To Bissercole [Basarkhole], 1/2 Course. To Pollossee [Plassey, Paläsi], 1 Course.[?]

A little before came here, came to Cossumbuzar river againe. This [Plassey] is a great towne of[?] thatcht houses and scituate on the River: To Sheakfrideaudu [...], 2 Course. To Doudpore [Dādpur], 1 Course. Here lay this night by a Surray [sarāi], having since left Pollassee travelled not far from the River.
This day - - - - - - 10 Course.

[Page 113]

6 May. At break of day set forward. To Buddooa, 1 Course. Here passed by a great Surray and under a stone gatehouse. To Sicco, 2 1/2 Course. ⟨(⟩To Banditchee, 1 1/3[?] Course, where left the Rojamaul [Rājmahal] road on right hand and went over the fields towards Cossumbuzar [Kāsimbāzār], being 1 Course where arrived at 10 1/2 clock morning. This day travelled thorow abundance of fields of Mulberry trees, scarce any of which above one yard high.⟨)⟩ This day in all travelled 6 Course.

Arrived 10h. morning, So that, according to this account, the distance betwixt Huglie and Cossumbuzar should bee but 38 1/2 Course, but tis always esteemed 40 Course, the difference arising from not reckoning the length of the towne passed thorow.

Memorandum. The way betwixt Huglie and Cassumbuzar is most thorow fields, not much wood.

8 May. At 6 clock night Mr. March and I went to the Dutch Factory, where Senior Vanburdg [Verburg] was chiefe [and] Senior Fensall 2d. Supped there about 8 clock on the Dutch Factory Tarras, where Mr. March and I did did partly resolve after 3 years to go to England together overland, and thereupon shaked hands. At 11 clock night returned back againe to the English Factory. The Dutch Factory is made of brick, very large, and hath handsome gardens belong[ing] to it. It is about a mile from the English Factory.

Tuesday 9 May. At 8 clock morning came from Cossumbuzar. Went a little to the Westward and passed over Cossumbuzar river. To Dera, 1/2 Course. To Poee, 1/4 Course. To Ditto River againe, 1/4 Course. Went by the river side 1 Course, when passed over [Page 114] ⟨(⟩To Muxidavad[?] [Makh [...]bād], 1/2 Course. This is a very great towne of thatcht houses. Here to be bought silks [in] great quantities, being the chiefe place in Bengall for them. Here Oftoas [aftāba] and Chellamchees [chilamchī] etc. brass ware, Girdles and Sashes [shash, turban] which come from Bonnares [Benares]; here handsome shops. Here bought a Nellegree stone cups.⟨)⟩ Here dined in a Garden.

To Nehilla, 1 Course from first entrance into Muxidavad. Here many little townes round about. To Buhbunuda Surray, 1 1/2 Course. To Bowdee Surray, 2 1/2 Course, where lay in the highway neare the Surray. This day - - - - 8 Course.

10 May. At break of day set out. To Pipla Surray, 2 Course. To Cottickpore, 2 Course. To Cemray [Kamra Sarāi], 2 Course. Here many topes [top,[?] grove] of trees and severall little townes. Here passed under a stone gatehouse. here a little stone house.

To Cossumbuzar river, 1/2 Course, where passed over, being almost quite dry. Here the river meets with the river Ganges, now distant from Sutee [Sūti] towne, 3 Course. This is very pleasant way.

To Colloopore,[?] 1/2 Course. To Cutwallpore Surray, 1/2 Course. Here dined in a garden or under a row of Mango trees, where many poor people stayed till the heat of the day was over. They came from Pattana. ⟨(⟩Here I gave many Cowries away⟨)⟩. Here one old woman came to mee laughing and yet beging. I told her shee that was so merry could not want any thing, but shee replyed that shee rejoyced to see mee because shee knew I would give her somthing, which I did.

[Page 115]

To Coondapurra, 1 Course. Here a neate tope of trees on the left hand. ⟨(⟩To Norungabad [Aurangābād], 1 Course. This is the first towne in which pice generally goe [are current]. Tis a very great towne of thatcht houses, which are very stragling.⟨)⟩ I see not above 2 or 3 Stone houses in it. A little before came hither passed over a dry ditch in which Ganges flowes in the floods. Passed thorow the towne which is at least 1 Course thorow, and lodged in the field neare the Surray. This day travelled 10 1/2 Course.

11 May. About break of day set out. To Ganges river, 1 Course. To Cotwolpore, 1 Course. To Gualgane, 2 Course, To Jalmorree, 1/4 Course. This is a great towne of thatcht houses; the 3 last Course the way most amongst sedge and reeds.

To Dunnapore, 3 Course. To Cojakissore, 2 Course. This two Course left the River; here dined. Here first see Rojamaul [Rājmahal] hills, being hazy. The middle of them bore West.

To Gobundas Surray, 1 Course; this town no trees; here 1 Tank. To a great steep stone bridge, 2 Course, upon which may see Ganges on Right hand about 1/2 Course of. This is over a dry ditch, which suppose is filled in the raine times by the water which comes from the Hills.

To Dogutchee, 1 Course, where passed tho[row] the towne and lay in the field near the Surray [sarāi]. This l[ast] 3 or 4 Course the way most thorow reeds and sedge; here a broad branch of Ganges but almost dry. This day - - - - - 11 Course.

12 May. To Seregur, 1 1/2 Course, Emillea, 1 1/2 Course. To Woodowa and Puttowra, 1 Course. ⟨(⟩Here a great Cowkedar [chaukīddār] who watcheth [Page 116] that no goods go from Rojamaul [Rājmahal] to Cassumbuzar without a Dustick [dastak, pass]. Hee would have had somthing of mee; but by reason hee told mee it was a custome for Englishmen that travelled that way to give him somthing, and that if I would not hee would stop what goods came that way, Therefore I would give him nothing, because I would breake that custome and extortion.⟨)⟩

This day came most of the way by a small river, which wee here passed over, beeing very shallow. Hard by this place are 3 or 4 small hills. To Beallgotchee, 1 Course. To Serdarricars garden, 1 Course; here staid a little while. To Rojamaul [Rājmahal] where arrived in English house at 9 clock. This day 7 Course, and in all from Cassumbuzar
36 1/2 Course.

4.2. ROJAMAUL

13 May. This day, beeing I could not get out a Dustick [dastak, permit] before night, having not taken out one yesterday because 'twas Fryday when the Durbar [Darbār, court] sitteth not, I went in the Morning to Sasujas [Shāh Shūjā'][?] garden, in which are 5 Quadrangles, each (except the 4th) inclosed with brick and stone wall and houses, in which are some very pleasant and coole roomes, the bigest Quadrangle about 200 yards long and 80 yards broad; the 2d 130 long and 80 broad, which is the Maul [mahal] for women; the 4th 100 long and 80 broad. This not walled at the furthest end, but theres a great poole of water; the other for women stands also by ditto poole. The 5th is at the entrance in, and is about 50 yards long and 50 broad.

[Page 117]

4.3. COYNEING RUPEES

Here stayed till about 3 clock, when went to the Tanksall [tankasālā, tahsāl, taksāl,[?] mint] where Rupees are coyned. In the way thither happened a blast of wind which had like to have overset my Pallenkeene. I see them make, but not stamp, Rupees; but the stamp is broad, beeing cut in steele, and haveing the characters on a rupee in 5 places cut upon the Rupee (vizt.) upon the middle, and round about 4; so they ly the Rupee upon the middle and another stamp upon the rupee, and so stamps both sides at once.

This towne of Rojamaul is at least 2 or 3 Course long. The streets are many of them paved with cobble stone, but now much broken as is the towne demolished.

Sunday 14 May. At 6 clock morning left Rojamaul and went to Mogullonneechuck, 3/4 Course. To Nowady [Nawadih], 3/4[?] Course. To Leorpahart,[?] 1/2 Course; here came to Ganges. To Sobittapore, 1 Course; here left ditto river and turned up towards the hills. To Bonarraspore, 2 Course. To Moharradipore, 1/2 Course. To Mussahaur [Mussaw], 1 Course; now at the end of the westermost hills which were first in sight, and others appeare; the last Course came near the Hills, about 1/ [...] Course from the bottome of them. To Harrechurnpore, 1/2[?] Course. To Burrajungull, 1 Course.

This towne stands upon the side of a Hill on the top of which is a Musseet [masjid, mosque]. Tis close by the River Ganges and almost all Surray [sarāi, inn]. I beleeve there are 200 sevrall roomes in it, every roome esteemed enough for 4 persons, who pay for [Page 118] one nights lodging in it 1 pice or 1/28 Rupee amongst them. The Surray is all thatched and the roomes like hogsties. The ground on which the Surray [stands] is let to the Natives who build upon it. My Landlady paid for the roome in which I lodged, and for 4 more, 5 pice per month. The 5 roomes were in all about 100 square yards.

This towne is a very strong place, having Ganges on the East and the hills on the west, and woods almost round about. Here are the ruins of old Forts and bulwarks. None can pass from Rojamaul [Rājmahal] by land towards Pattana but thorow this towne, where every person receives a chaup upon a cloth before can pass, but may without a Chaup pass from Pattana to Rojamaul. This day much raine. Here many Deer and wild cocks and henns.
This day travelled - - - - - 8 Course.

15May. Before Sunrise set out from the Surray, but were stopped at the Gate by the Nabobs peons in whose Jaggeer this is, and was forced to returne to the Chowkee [chauki] and (it raining) I went againe into the Surray, having sent my Dustick taken out at Rojamaul to the Governor, who kept it about an houres time, when put upon one of the Peons handkerchers 21 chops, which were for my selfe, 6 peons, 8 Caharrs [kahār], 4 Coolies, with two Doolies [doli, covered litter] and 1 man with my Gun, and 1 Cook and 3 other Chaups for my Pallankeene and 2 Doolies. The chaup is only the impression of a seal ruped [sic, rubbed] over with red stuff. I gave to the Jemmedar who brought the Chaup and to the Governor, 1 rupee, and to their servants, 1 rupee.

I stayed in the Surray by reason of the raine about [Page 119] 2 houres, and went againe to the gate, where was againe stopped by ditto Peons, who said I should not pass except I would give them somthing; so I sent my chopped [stamped] clout to the Governor, who desired mee not to be angry. I told him I was not, but was resolved, if I stayed there a month, I would not give the Peons who stopped mee one cowry, because they told mee except I would, I should not pass. So the Moore gave me the chopped clout and desired mee not to take notice of any abuse, for it was the Peons fault; so because hee was so civill, being a person of quality, I told him, if hee would send his servant with mee to the Doolies gon before, in which was my knives, I would send him one. Hee sent his servant, who went about 3 Course before [and] overtook the Doolies, when sent him a horn-hafted knife, and gave the servant 1 pice for his pains.

To Salamanag, 1/2 Course. To Dowlutka Surray, 1 1/2 Course. To Bobbunear Surray, 2 Course. To ? Away, when left one hill, on the Right hand, 1 Course. Neare this place, seeing Deer under the hills, I went to shoot, but COuld not find them here under the hills.

To Sasujas [Shāh Shūjā'] Castle or house under the side of a high hill, 1 5/8[?] Course. I went into it, in which are 3 little Courts and many little roomes, and a good Delaun [dālān, apartment] in the middle, and at each end a round Turret with 3 windowes in each for Cannon. Above is roome enough for 70 or 80 Cannon, and twice so many small Gunns or Musquets. This Castle stands upon the side of the Hills very pleasantly.

To Gurree Surray, 1/8 Course. At this place [Page 120] expected to be asked for my chopt clout, but was not, now having come this day 7 Course, scarce any time above 1 mile from the hills. This very pleasant way. Here passed under a gate; here a branch of the great River. Further, 1 Course, when left 2 or 3 hills on Right hand and rest on left, runing South. Here exceeding pleasant way for Topes of trees and great trees. A little further passed over a dry ditch, over which a new bridge was building. To Fuckeerkabaug, 2 7/8 Course.

To Peallapore [Pialapur], 1/8 Course, where lay this night in a Surray, where one of Shasticawns [Shāistah Khān's] horsemen presented mee with a peece of excellent fat goat raw, and a water mellon, and I sent him almost a quart of Ballasore double distilled Arrach [arak, spirit], and 1/2 of his water mellon with some Sugar to it. This day travelled in all - 11 Course.

Tuesday 16 May. To Sultanka Surray, 2 Course. To little hill on left hand, 1 Course. A little before came to it, a way runs up on the right hand. Opposit to this hill, about one Mile, are 3 or 4 little, or rather one great, but not very high, hill, to which westwards is another hill 1/2 Course distant from them. Here the hills seeme farr of and the furthest West By South, and all in severall pieces or hills. To another hill on left hand, 1 1/2 Course, on which is scituate on the top a Mussett [masjid] and severall tombs. The hill is full of severall Stones, but before [and] betwixt Rojamaul and this place I did not see any rock or great stones on the hills, which seeme to bee all wood, grass and sandy soyle. Now about 1/2 Course from Ganges.

To Colgaut [Colgong, Kahalgāon, ghāt], 1/2 Course. This is scituated in a very pleasant place for trees, and [Page 121] by a branch of the great River, in the middle of which branch, by the towne, are two hills of rocks, at the tops of which are carved tops artificially done. There is also another hill of rock on the other side of ditto branch of river neare the other two. On the middle of the 3 is a house built. These hill rocks are now about 20 yards above the water, and in the freshes [freshers, flood] times the water runs betwixt them with violent force, they being not distant each from other above 20 yards.

Further, 1/4[?] Course, where passed over a dry ditch. Here the hills appeare high but farr of. To another, or part of the same, dry ditch, which passed over, 1 3/4[?] Course. Further, 1 Course, when came to the great river. To Sellerpore, 1 Course; all these 4 last Course, fields of reeds etc. To Allerpore, 1 Course; here a Garden. To Borrarree [Barāri], 1 1/2 Course; here very pleasant for topes of trees and a good garden of Mango trees set all in rowes in Squares very handsomly. Here the hills appeare at East By North and South Westerly to West. To Mohuddechuck [[? Mohiuddinchak]], 1 Course. To Baugulpore, 1/2 Course. These 3 or 4 last Course exceeding pleasant.

About this towne aboundance of Toddy [tār] trees, and gardens of Mango trees. This is a very great towne of thatcht houses and tis neare the river. Here lay in the Surray yard, but could not within the roomes by reason of smoake. Bought here a young Holwan, which cost 8 pice, 26 of which pice go for one Rupee. This a place for bowes and arrows to be bought at, and also neat hubble bubbles. This day travelled 13 Course.

[Page 122]

17 May. Before, break of day set out. To Champ, 1/2 Course. A little further passed over a dry ditch. Here the hills in sight, the furthest bearing West. To Chitcheroul, 2 1/2 Course. Here came against the hills which yesterday morning bore West, which hills are now on left hand, about 1/2 Course. To Massee [Maheshi], 1 7/8[?] Course. To Nowadah [Nawada], 1 Course. Here stayed in a garden of Mango trees. Here happened a very sudden and great storme of wind and much raine for about 2 Gurries [ghari]; after was cleare againe. A great many hills appeared which I see not before, some exceeding and appearing very farr of South, the furthest. To Mushee [Masdi], 1/2 Course; this towne great, and on both sides the road, which are high, and haveing a bank on each side, which seemes to be formerly artificiall, beeing full of bricks. To Sujapore [Sūrjapur], 1/2 Course; here by Ganges. To Jangere [Jahāngira], 1/2 Course. This towne lies upon Ganges, a very great towne of thatcht houses. Here the hills appeare from North West By North to South East, most part Hills, but some South very farr of. These 3 last townes seeme as one continued towne. Passed thorow the towne and went further 1/4 Course, neare the ruins of an old stone house upon the River side, where under a Tree lay this night. This day travelled 8 Course.

18 May. To Gurguttee [Ghoraghāt], 1/ [...] Course. To Catchagola, 1 7/8 Course. Here many Lattees [lathī] or bee Bamboes to be bought, great ones 4 for a pice, or 28th part of Rupee, but they are not of so good a cast as are at Pattana, for these will never bee red though never so much rubbed with oyle.[?]

[Page 123]

To Colleanepore [Kaliānpur], 1 1/2 Course. Here passed over a stone bridge of 3 Arches, and at every corner of the bridge is a little watch house. This bridge is over a small ditch neare a piller, under which was buried a man. To Codulcuttah [Coordracutta], 1 Course. To the bottome of the hills, beeing all Rocky, 1 1/4 Course. Here left 4 or 5 hills on Right hand.

To Nowagurree [Navagarhi], 1/4 Course. Here left the high way and turned up the right hand towards the King house in Mungere. To a tomb in the high way, 1/2 Course. To Mungere [Monghyr, Mungȇr], 1 Course, where arrived at 10 1/2 clock morning.

I went to the Kings house, over the bridge and within the first gate with my pallenkeene, and w[a]lked to the other gate, but was there stopped and not suffered to go within. At each side of the gate sat severall Moors [Muhammadans] as in a Durbar [darbār]. Within this gate I see 2 Elephants carved in stone very large and handsomely. Upon the back of one was carved a boy handsomly.

The Moores told mee that the reason why I must not go within the house to see it was because 2 of the Dutchmen had beene there and were admitted in to see the house, and they took out pens and paper and writ downe every place how long and how broad they were, and how high the house was and every turning in it, and how many Cannon and other guns might be placed in it. The Moores asked them what they writ and why, who answered that their Directore at Hugly, ordered them to take in writeing an Account of it so as they had done. The Governor of the towne understanding this, clapped the two Dutchmen up in [Page 124] prison for 2 months till they sent to the Nabob of Pattana, and hee to the King about it. So the Nabob sent for the 2 Dutchmen in irons, who were sent to him by water in a boat. The Nabob would not let them go (saying they were spies or thieves and intended to undermine the Kings house or Fort) untill they gave him 1000 Rupees, which did, and were released, and afterwards went to Bengall, when againe passed thorow Mungeer being about 2 months since.

So being denied sight of the Fort, I went hence, and passing thorow the towne, a great Moor [Muhammedan] siting in his house asked who I was and my name, and the Peons told him I was an Englishman and my name Mr Marshall, which he repeated after them very plane, and I think writ it downe. I passed thorow the towne and went about 1/4 Course into a Garden, and towards night the sky much threatened raine, so I putt my Pallankeene under a little thatcht hovell in the Garden, which was not so long as my Pallenkeene, and there lay this night.
This day travelled - - - - 8 Course. From Rojamaul hither 48 Course, but its esteemed 50 Course.

Fryday 19 May. Before break of day set out hence to Dackera, 1 1/2 Course. To Singee [Singhiyā], 1 1/2 Course. To Sibcoon [Sibkund], 8 Course. To Loggowah [Lagma], 1/8[?] Course. To Bohay Surray [Bāhā Chauki], 1/4 Course. To Obgee [Abgīl], 2 Course. Here left Ganges. To Lodowra [Nadaura], 1 Course. To Soorggurra [Sūrajgarha] Surray, 1 Course; this very pleasant way for topes of trees. Here lay in the Surray.
This day travelled - - - - 8 Course.

[Page 125]

20 May. At 3 clock morning set out, and within 1/2 Course passed over a branch of Ganges, and a little after passed over it againe, and passed over severall sands. To Ney Surray, 2 Course. To Jentea [Jaitpur], a little on left hand road, 4 Course. Here see hills appeare South West 1/2 West, and the other end East South East, but twas very hazy.

To Dunira [Dumrā], 1 Course; these 6 Course no trees, passing most by River side, where see very great number of dead corps. To Merassee [Marānchi], 1 Course. To Hatchedo [Hathidah], 1 Course. To Durriapore [Dariapur], 1 Course. Here staid in a great garden of Mango trees, where lay this night. These 3 last Course very pleasant for trees, etc. About 10h. morning passed by a Cossid (gȃsid, messenger][?] from Mr. [Job] Charnock etc. towards Huglie, of which I had no advise till gone.
This day travelled - - - - 10 Course.

21 May. To Muckeya [Mokameh], 2 Course. To More [Mor], 1 Course. To Mucksa [Mekra], 1 Course. To Cundaureck [Punārakh], 1 1/2 Course. To Bohr [Bārh], 2 1/2 Course; this a great towne having in it severall stone houses. All this day neare Ganges. Passed by 4 or 5 dead corps in the road; a very pleasant road. Here I was profered a Slave of 12 years old to be sold by his fathers and owne consent for 1/2 Rupee, but beeing so old and a Sheak Mussulman [Shekh Musālman], I would not buy him, but give him 4 pice and sent him away. Here fine rice 3 pice per seer and 33 1/2 pice per Rupee. Here had a great storme but no raine. Here lay in a Surray [sarāi], where a sad noise of poor starved people, who I thought would have pulled all my [Page 126] things out of my pallenkee by force, having given them somthing this day - - - 8 Course.

22 May. At break of day set out. To Asumlika Surray, 3 Course. To Raning [Rāni Sarāi], 2 Course. To Sumbarka Gola, 1 1/2 Course. This day already see ⟨Illegible handwritten note, approximately 18 words.⟩ in the road 5 or 6 dead corps. Rice here 3 pice per seer and 33 pice per rupee. Here at Gunsurpore Surray bought Brinchee [[? Baranasi]], a Slave, of Banisee [Bansī] his eldest brother. I agreed for 8 annas, but gave 1 rupee for him, also gave in sweetmeats, as customary when buy slaves, 4 pice; 2 pice to the Landlord of the Surray and 1 pice to the Barber for shaveing his head.

To Jaraspore [Gaiāspur, Ghiyāspur], 3/4 Course. To Ruckerpore [Rakunpura], 3/4 Course. To Mosingpore, 1/2 Course. To Biccerpore [Baikatpur], 1/2[?] Course. In last 2 1/2 Course see 27 or 28 dead corps and pieces of corps in the road. Near Rani[ng] [Rāni Sarāi] I see Ducks eat the dead corps of men in the branch of the river. Here at Biccerpore rice 4 1/2 pice per seer and 60 pice, being new sort, per Rupee. This night lay under a great tree near a Musseet [masjid] at the farthest end of the towne. This day travelled 10 1/2 Course.

Tuesday 23 May. At break of day set out. To Bunderbunder [Bandarbanā], 1 Course. To Syriapore [[? Shekhpur]], 1/4 Course. To Ryepore [Raipura], 1/4 Course. To Dyriapore, 1/2 Course. To Futtooa [Fatuhā{]}, 1/4 Course. To Pundpund [Pūnpūn], 3/4 Course. To Joffer Cawns [Ja'far Khān's] Garden in Pattana [Patna], 1 Course, where arrived at 6 3/4 clock morning. Here stayed about 3/4 houre to put on my [Page 127] Sash [shash, turban] and some cleane cloths. To English Factory, 2 1/2 Course where arrived about 8 1/2 clock.

In passing thorow Pattana see severall dead corps lie in the highway and many in the Bazar, and I see 9 dead corps lie in one gate house which I passed thorow, here in Pattana dying about 100 per day and hath for 4 or 5 months. The Coatwall [kotwāl, town magistrate] causeth all the dead corps to be cast into Ganges every morning.

Here wheat is 2 1/2 Rupees per Maund; Barly 2 rupees; Rice fine, 4 rupees; Ditto coarse, 2 1/2 rupees. Butter, 7 1/2 rupees; oyle, 7 rupees. Beefe, 35 seer per Rupee. Goats flesh, 14 seer per Rupee, the maund being 80 English pound.
From Mungere hither - - - 43 Course.

24 May. Stayed at Pattana in expectation of Mr. Charnock sending the Company's Budgera [bajrā] for mee, having writ for it.

Thursday 25 May. About Sunrise set out and rid upon horsback over the sand to the river side, being about 1/4 Course, and went into a boat hired for mee, which when came to the greatest and broadest streame in the river Ganges, beeing about the middle of it, a violent storme arose, the wind and raine and thunder as violent as I ever see any. I had much to do to make the Boatmen turne to the Leeward bank, but that threatned to kill them. No sooner had wee touched the Bank, but the violency of the storme came, which had like to beat the boat in peeces, so were forced to take out my Pallenkeene and rest of things and set them in the raine on a pont of sand, where for about 1 houre I was forced to stand by a little Sedge, [Page 128] where stood in water to the ancles and in all the raine, and after went into my Pallenkeene againe, in which (by reason of my wax cloth) was not altogether so wett. Here stayed about 2 houres and then set forward againe, and went to Hodgipore [Hājipur], where sent my things to Surray [a sarāi, inn] and rid to Singee [Singhiyā], where arrived about 3 clock afternoon.
This day - - - - - - 8 Course.

The usuall Account of the way betwixt Hugly and Pattana is (vizt.)
To Amboa 10 Course, Nimda 10 Course, Cussaldea 10 Course, Cossumbuzar 10 Course 40
To Piplea 10 Norungabad 9. Dogutchee 9. Rojamaul 9 37
To Burrajungall 9 Course, Gurree 7 Course, Colgan 10, Bagalpore 8, Jangere 8, Mungere 8 50
To Sugegerra 9, Durreapore 12, Bahr 8, Gunsoorpore[?] 8, Pattana 9 Course 46
Thence to Singee 8
181
[Page 149]

4.4. VI
FAMINE IN PATNA
1671

Note: Harl. MS. 4254. fol. 17.

In latter end of May 1671 there dyed of Famine in Pattana about 100 persons dayly, and had so for 3 or 4 months. Corne was then (vizt.) Wheate, 2 1/2 Rupees per Maund; Barley, 2 rupees; Rice fine, 4 rupees; Ditto Course, 2 1/2 rupees; Beefe, 1 [...]8r., Goat flesh, 2r.; Butter or Gue [ghi], 7 1/2r.; Oyle, 7r. per Maund, which consists of 80 lb. English Averdepoix.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254. fol. 17a[?].

June the 19th when came from [[? to]] Pattana from Singee, I see upon one peece of sand, about the middle way betwixt that city and the River, about 32 or 33 persons ly dead within about 10 yards compas from the middle of them, and so many by the River side that could not come on shore but [except] by very many dead corps; also aboundance upon the sand besides. Now Rice fine, 41. per Maund, beeing a little while since 4r. 7an., being somthing cheaper. Wood for firing, 4 1/2 Md. per Rupee; Henns 5, and chickins 8 per Rupee.

Tis reported that since the begining of October there have died of Famine in Pattana and the Suburbs [Page 150] about 20,000 persons, and there cannot in that time have gone fewer from the City than 150,000 persons. The corps in the river generally ly with their backs {upwords}. Great number of Slaves to be bought for 4an. and 8an. per peece, and good ones for 1r. per peece; but they are exceeding leane when bought, and if they eat but very little more than ordinary of rice, or eat any flesh, butter or any strong meat, their faces, hands and feet and codds swell immediately exceedingly; so that tis esteemed enough to give them at first 1/2 seer of rice, and those very leane 1/4 seer per day, to be eaten at twice.

The Famine reacheth from 3 or 4 dayes jorney beyond Bonarres [Benares] to Rojamaul [Rājmahal]. The most of the poore that go hence go to Dacca for victualls, though there is thought to be great quantities of Rice in these parts; yet through the Nabobs roguery here is a Famine, and also somthing from the dryness of the last yeare.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254. fol. 19.

In Pattana about 23th July there dyed about 250 or 300 persons dayly of Famine in and about the City of Pattana, Rice being 5r. 5an. per Md., best sort. I have examined some dying of Famine, who told mee That within their bodies they were hot, but without cold, esp[ec]ially on their Belly and privy parts. They are very thirsty and hungry, and so feeble that can neither go nor stand, nor scarce stirr any joynt. They have no pain in their head, but a great one in their Navill. Their urin is very red and thick like blood, and excrement like water, which runs often from them, but but little at a time. I examined one woman immediately before she died.

[Page 151]

Note: Harl. MS. 4254. fol. 20.

In Pattana in 1671, August 8th, Now dy dayly here of Famine 2 or 300 persons in City and Suburbs. Rice now 7 seer per Rupee or 5r. 11an. per Md., of best sort, and sometimes none to be bought, nor bread in the Bazar. In the Gaut [ghāt, landing place, quay] by our Factory, which as not 4 yards round about (as I conceive) lay 50 dead corps which I could tell [count], which were driven thether in about 2 dayes time, and Mr. [Valentine] Nurse saith that the day after hee counted 122 dead corps in ditto place. Aboundance are every day drove to the side of the River, though the most persons of quallity hire Hollolcores [halālkhar, sweeper] to carry them into the middle of the river with a string, and carries them in to the middle of the river, and then cuts the string and so lets them drive down with the streame.

Notwithstanding there were 50 dead corps in the Gaut by our Factory, yet the Gaut was seldome without a great many women who take up water by the dead corps and drink it, and dress their victualls with it.

Upon the 7th ditto [August 1671] 2 Merchants in Pottana threw them selves into a Common well and drowned themselves. Now a terrible sad cry of poor in the Bazar.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254. fol. 22a.

August 12th. Rice fine, 6 seer per rupee or 6r. 10 2/3an. per Md. No course rice to be bought; wheat now 20 seer per Rupee or 4r. per Md. Some dayes neither rice nor bread to be bought in the Bazar.

[Page 152]

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, 22a.

August 20th 1671. Now Rice in Pattana 5 seer per Rupee or 8 Rupees per Md. and very scarce to be bought for that price.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 22.

September le 15th 1671. In Pattana Rice was 8 seer per Rupee, but Course; 12 seer Goats flesh and 24 of Beefe per Rupee.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 26.

In Pattana and the Suburbs died in 14 months last past, ending 6th November 1671, of the Famine, 135,400 persons, an Account hereof being taken out of the Coatwalls Chabootry.

Note: Harl. MS. 4255, 31a.

I received (upon 11th December 1671) an Account in writeing out of the Coatwalls Chabootree, wherein was writ, that in the 12 months last past there had died in Pattana and the Suburbs of the Famine 103,000 persons (vizt.), 50,000 Mussulmen and 53,000 Hindoos, which were taken notice of in their books of Records.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, 33a.

December 26th, I received an exact account from the Coatwall Chabootry, to which give credit, that in 12 months ending 22th November last, being 354 dayes there dyed in Pattana and the Suburbs of the Famine, 15,644 Mussulmen, to whome the Nabob gave cloth to cover them when was buried, having no friends to bury them, dying in the Streets, and tis thought 2,500 dyed in the skirts of the towne, in their houses, or where might be buried by some of their relations, which were not reckoned- in all, 18,144. And tis supposed 4 times as many Hindoos [Page 153] died as Mussulmen, which were 72,576, which, with the 18,144, make in all 90,720. And the townes near Pattana, some are quite depopulated, having not any persons in them. In one towne about 3 Course west from Pattana, where were 1,000 houses inhabited, are now but 300, and in them not above 4 or 500 persons, the rest being dead. This account I received from Mamood-herreef [Mahmūd 'Arif].

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 23a.

Such was the laziness [languidness] of workmen in the time of Famine, That in the time of making one Casmeer [Kashmir] boat for the Company, Six of the Carpenters died of Famine.

[Page 154]

4.5. NOTE ON THE FAMINE IN PATNA AND THE NEIGHBOURHOOD IN 1671
CHAPTER VI

The scattered references in Marshall's Notes to the dearth prevailing at Patna at the time of his arrival afford, when collected, a moving account of the sufferings of the inhabitants at that period. There are, in addition, the remarks in Chapters IV and V embodied in the Diary of 21st, 22nd, 23rd and 31st May and 23rd August, 1671, when his attention was forcibly drawn to the effects of the scarcity by the prevalence of "dead corps," the sale of children to obtain food, and the "sad noise of poor starved people."

The continual rise in the price of rice and other provisions from May to September 1671, so carefully chronicled by our author, is sufficient evidence of the suffering entailed on all but the wealthy inhabitants.

As in the case of Peter Mundy's description of the Satiāsio Kāl, or the Famine in Gujarāt in 1630-1632 (Travels of Peter Mundy, ed. Temple, ii. 338-353), Marshall's account of a dearth in a much more restricted area forty years later throws a vivid light on the treatment of such a visitation by the provincial authorities in the Mughal days. There was no order in the disposal of the dead nor any administrative measures to cope with distress. Those who could do so fled, and those without strength or means to do so died in their thousands.

Strangely enough, no widespread pestilence appears to have followed in the wake of the dearth nor, as in the case of the famine of 1630-1632[?], do the Europeans appear to have fallen victims to its effects. Indeed, the contemporary references to this local famine are very sparse, and only three allusions to it have been found in the Records of the East India Company. They all occur in letters from Job Charnock and Robert Elwes at the Company's factory at Singhyā to Walter Clavell, head of affairs in "the Bay." The first is dated 31st March, 1672 (Factory Records, Hugli, vol. 7) and contains the remark: "We understand many of the weavers are dead of the Famine. . . . We have [Page 155] already given out money for about 16000 [mds] petre.[?] These 4 months of February, March, Aprill and May being the only time of the yeare for the makeing and getting in this Comodity, and as yet we have gotten but 7000 mds. Such great raines fell last yeare that it was late ere any could be made, and the greatest part of the Petre Men as made Petre for us, and the Dutch Petremen are dead on the last famine, which is another reason it is both scarce and deare. . . . Now Pattana is so miserably decayd we cannot get what we please att Intrest as wee could formerly."

Again, on 25th April, 1672. Charnock and Elwes wrote (op. cit): "We advised you in our last that we thought we could not be able to get 17 or 18000 (maunds of saltpetre) this yeare, which we now again confirm, and we feare not so much, it being so scarce and sheare by reason of the great raines and the famine the last yeare."

The last reference (op. cit) is dated seven weeks later, 14th June, 1672: "There is no reason to fear but our success may be equivalent with the Dutch as to our Petre Investment. But they, as well as wee, shall come short of their intended quantities this year. The last yeares faine and great raines do sufficiently manifest it."

De Graaf, who journeyed to Patna after his release from Monghyr in November 1670, as narrated in Chapter V, thus describes the condition of the place on his arrival (Voyages, p. 67, translation): "We saw nothing but poverty and misery among the country folk. Scarcity and famine were greater than had ever been known within the memory of man. The cause was the failure of the rice crop and the inundations of the Ganges: Rice cost half a rix dollar for 6 sers or 9 lb. Dutch weight, while in ordinary yeares, 60, 70, or more lb. could be bought for the same amount.

"The people died in heaps and their corpses remained extended on the roads, streets and marketplace, since there was no one to bury them or even throw them into the river. These corpses were torn and devoured by wild horses, tigers, wolves and dogs. We even saw some poor wretches who had still in their mouth grass, leather and suchlike filth. They died in flocks. A woman ate her own child. Slaves could be bought for next to nothing."

But by far the most valuable corroboration of Marshall's account and of his story of the "Nabobs roguery" is that given by Thomas Bowrey, who had also recently arrived in India at the time of the scarcity. He writes (Countries Round the Bay of Bengal, ed. Temple, p. 226): "Notwithstandinge Pattana be soe fertile to afford graine to Such a plentifull countrey as Bengala, yett in the yeare of our Lord 1670 they had as great a Scarcitie, in soe much that one Pattana Seere weight of rice (the plentifullest graine in the country) was Sold for one rupee, the Seere containing [Page 156] onely 27 Ounces, and, in a few months, there was none at all to be had at that rate, in soe much that many thousands of the Natives perished in the Streetsand open f{ei}lds for want of food, and many glad to Sell theire own children for a handful of rice."

It will be seen that Marshall ascribes the sufferings of the people, in some measure, to the Nawāb and that Thomas Bowrey blames his "Chiefe Wife." There must been some foundation for these charges, but no evidence to support them has so far been discovered.

Marshall and Valentine Nurse, also a factor in the Company's service serving at Patna, appear to have endeavoured to arrive at the approximate numbers of victims of the dearth, but the figures obtained from the "exact account" recorded in the "Coatwalls Chabootry" (chabutarā, office, of the kotwāl, police-officer, superintendent of a market), were probably very far from the truth.

[Page 157]

4.6. VII
GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES

4.6.1. I. BALLASORE

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 2a.

Ballasore was formerly called Bangur.

4.6.2. 2. GANGES

(a) Memorandum. Ganges River is in some places about a mile broad, and in many not halfe a mile, and in some not a quarter of a mile, and in 1 or 2 places about 1/8 of mile broad. When the water is low, as in Aprill, when [sic ? then] the River is almost dry in many places from one side of it to the other, and very Shallow in many places, not 3 foot deep, soe that boats have much to doe to pass, however, without great trouble, not knowing where is deepe where shallow. But when the water is at its hight, which is about middle September, then it is very broad and deep. In this River, untill come about Rojimall [Rājmahal], are many Alligators, and as far as Pattana very many Porpoises, also towards Pattana very many Pellicans and other great birds.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 9.

(b) At this place [Hājipur], when Hindoos come to wash, which is about November, they all carry away some water in potts out of the River Ganges to their [Page 158] fri{e}nds, though 4 or 500 Course [kos] or 1000 miles, and with that water wash their parents who are old, or fri{e}nds that cannot come, and think thereby that all their sins are forgiven them for that yeare. At this meeting of such a great concourse of people and all washing on one morning and endeavouring to wash as neare as they can in the place where these two Rivers meete, severall are yearly crowded to death.

Into this River Ganges the Hindoos throw most of their dead Corps after a little burnt, esteeming it a holy river.

4.6.3. 3. GUNGA OR GANGES AND GUNDUCK

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, 9a.

The River Gunga [Gangā] or Ganges comes to Puttana from West and runs to the East, and Gunduck [Gandak] comes from North. Betwixt Gunga and Gunduck, vizt. betwixt West and North where these Rivers meete, at the corner, is a Greene peece of low ground, which at the hight of the Rivers is overflowne, after which the Hindoos come thither from the remotest parts in India to wash themselves in that place where the Rivers meet, which they esteeme holy, so that there are many thousands come thither at one time. There is also there a garden, celled Sasugas [Shāh Shujā'] Garden, which is very high, and by reason of its situation and having such prospects, I esteeme it the pleasantest place I have seene in India.

4.6.4. 4. HOGIPORE-NANAGUR

(a) Opposit to this Garden on the other side of the river is Hogipore [Hājipur] which is an ancient and ruined towne, but hath bin a famous place and the [Page 159] seate of the King. At Hogipore the Company have a house for which pay 3 1/2 rupees per month.

(b) From thence South Easterly, about 4 Course, is Nanagur, where the Company have a house of their owne, which stands pleasantly by a Rivers side which comes out of the River Ganges, when Ganges is high, but at other times is dry. This Nanagur is a very pleasant place, being scituated amongst Topes [top, grove] of trees, and the way from thence to Hogipore is very pleasant. Nanagur is also esteemed a very healthful place, being scituated upon a hard clay ground. From Nanagur to Jonabad [Jahānābād] is 9 Course, vizt. 4 to Hogipore, and thence to Jonabad 5 Courses more.

(c) Betwixt Hogipore and Nanagurr in the Kings Highway (neare a Great Garden in which is a Tome[tomb]) is a Great [banyan] Tree whose branches spread 33 yards, it being round.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 14.

4.6.5. 5. AN ACCOUNT OF THE WAY BETWIXT DILLY [DELHI] AND PATTANA BY LAND, BEEING 326 COURSE, EACH COURSE BEEING ABOUT 2 1/ [...] MILES, MAKE 732 1/2 ENGLISH MILES.

FROM DILLY
Course
To Fryabad [Faridābād] 12
To Sheinschecalls[?] Surray 10
To Had[?]ull [Hodal] 3, Bramsurray 7 [[? Bursana]]
Here, not farr from this place, neare Hadull Pallull, lies the Lord Bellamount interred, not answerable to his quality.
10
To Coleway Surray 13
To Jetsurray 13
To Farra 14
To Agra 8
Carry forward, - 80
Brought forward - 80
FROM AGRA
To Begum Surray [Begam Sarāī] 4
To Forabad [Firozābād] 10
To Chikerabad [Shikhohābād[?]] 6
To Mullederkeyt Surray [Maholee (Rennell)[?]] 6
To Cursenne Surray 7
To Ittay [Etawah] 7
To Jeetmall [Ajit[?] Mal] 12
To Rojapul Surray [Rājāpal Sarāī] 10
To Buglepore Surray [Boogalee (R.)] 10
To Gaycumpore Surray [Gautampur] 12
To Rogeray Surray [[? Rājā Rāi Sarāī]] 12
To Fetipore [Fathpur] 11
To Hattigaum [Hathgāon, Attigong, (R.)] 9
To Sajatore [Shābaādpur][?] 10
To Allum Chand Surrey [Alam Chand Sarāī] 6
To Begum Surrey [Begam Sarāī] 6
To Allebassoe[?] [Allahābād] 3
To Hander [Handiā] 8
To Howmull Surrey 10
To Mirza[?] Merad Surrey [Mirzā Murād Sarāī] 7
To Bonarres [Benares] 7
- 173
FROM BONARRES
To Mogul Surrey [Mughal Sarāī] 4
To Sydraca Surrey [Saiyadrājā Sarāī] 5
To Mowakay Surray [Mowhanca Sarāī] 8
To Jonabad Surray [Jahānābād Sarāī][?] 7
To Susseraum Sarray [Sāsāram[?] Sarāī] 7
To Muckeranny Surray [Makrain[?] Sarāī] 5
To Vukeley Surrey 7
To Aganour Surrey [Aganūr Sarāī] 10
To Nowbutpore Surrey [Naobatpur Sarāī] 8
To Pottana [Patna] 8
- 73
- [326]

From Agra to Pattana is esteemed 300 Course but are little ones, so suppose in this account the length of townes not reckoned.

4.6.6.

[Page 161]
6. FROM PATTANA BY LAND TO BALLASORE.
To Mungere [Monghyr] 46
To Rojamaul [Rājmahal] 50
To Cassumbuzar [Kāsimbāzār] 40
To Huglie [Hūgli] 40
To Ballasore 64
240

These Courses towards Ballasore beeing at least 3 Miles per Course.

4.6.7. 7. NEOPAL OR NECKBALL, BONARRAS AND POTTANA

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 17.

Neopoll [Nepāl] is distant from Pottana about 80 Course Northerly. Bonorros [Benares] is distant from Pottana Westerly 80 Course, and Neopoll is distant from Bonnares 80 Course, so that these 3 lie in a 3 angle [triangle].

4.6.8.

8. F[R]OM POTTANA TO NEOPOLL AND BOTTON [BHŪTĀN, TIBET]
Jenti Das [[? Jindā Dās]] his Account from Pattana to Neopall is as followeth (vizt.)
From Pattana to Hogipore [Hājipūr] 3 Course, to Singee 5 Course 8 Course
To Mogullannee Surray [Mughalāni Sarāī] 8 Course
To Butsulla[?], in which is a Surray called Sunderkea Surray [Sundar kī Sarāī] 7 Course
To Mossee [Mehsī], a great City, where resides a Nabob 4 Course
To Soorgpoore [[? Sūragpūr]] 8 Course
To Motteharree [Motihāri] 7 Course
To Heatounda [Hataura] at the bottom of the hills 8 Course
Thence all the way uphill to Cautmondoo [Khatmandu], Pautund [Pātan] or Bautgowrie [Bhatgāon], which lie neare each other and almost all at some distance, which are called Neopoll or Neckball 40 Course
Thence to Bauton [Bhūtān, Thibet, whence the Musk is taken 250 Course
340 Course
Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 25.
[Page 162]

4.6.9. 9. HILLS-MORUNG, NEOPOLL-BOTTON OR CUTTEE

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 19a.

(a) About Morung, which is a great place, are very high hills. They ly directly North fron hence and seeme a vaster distance of[f] than any object my eyes ever beheld. I see them before Sunrise about 2 minutes of an houre, when I could see the sun shine upon the tops of them, which hills seemed about 1/2 degree above the horizon. These people, when they go thither, they go first to Neopoll and some days jorney beyond pass over vast valleys before come to these hills. They go to Botton for Musk, that being the chiefest place where the Musk-deer are. Travelling over the Neopoll hills requires 24 or 25 days time, which being up most vast hills and down vast valleys, the way in a straight line may not be much, and considering the crookedness of the way passing through vast woods etc., and going by Neopoll to Botton, which is out of the way, lying about 1 point of the Compas East of it, and then considering that they come to these hills 4 or 5 days before come to Botton, and then possibly the Course may be less towards the Northward as are to other places Northward. These considerations allowed, I reckon that the reall distance of these hills from hence may bee in a straight line about 140 Course which, at 2 [...] mile per Course, make 315 English miles.

(b) Severall Arminians and Jesuits which have come from them parts, which come from China, and have travelled the most Countries in the World, say that these Botton hills are the highest hills they ever see or heard of.

[Page 163]

(c) The Morung, Neopoll and Botton hills are in Tartary [Central Asia] and the last of which are called Nettee Cuttee, which are Caucasus hills. All are out of the great Mogulls Dominions.

(d) They say that the people at Botton [Tibet] have broad flat noses, are very just in dealing, and if any theefe be amongst them, though for never such a trifle, they kill him. That a man may have a bag of gold in their streets and no man will meddle with it to diminish it, or carry itt away.

4.6.10. 10. NEOPOLL

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 8a.

(a) In going to Neopoll (Nepal), when come to the Hills which is 40 Course from Neopoll, all passengers of quality are carried from thence upon mens Shoulders, the Hills being so steepe that neither Horse nor Pallenkeene can goe, or be carried; but 6 men carry them in a kind of Hammack upon their shoulders, for which they have 4 Anas or 1/4 Rupee per peece.

(b) From Neopoll comes Muskee which at Pattana is sold for 49 rupees per Seere being 16 Pice to the Seere, 40 of which pice make a grat seere of about 31 oz.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 23.

(c) The Hills bearing North North 1/2 Easterly and N b E 1/2 Easterly [rough elevation omitted], are said to be Botton hills which are such a vast distance of[f], those NE b N [are] Neopoll hills, and the other Morung hills.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 25.

(d) The Hills before come to Neopoll, those that are nearest to Pattana and ly most Eastward of the way thither, are called Bimpoher [Bhim Pahār] or Bims[?] [Page 164] [Bhims] hills or Daupshaw, and those that are North and nearest are called Mauhabor, and those further of and lie Westward of the way are called Chondragir [Chandragiri] and Dowks, and them beyond Neopoll are called Nestee Cutee, and are the Cathy mountains or Caucasus etc.

(e) The women at Neopoll are said usually to piss in the streets in the day time before people, which I am apt to beleeve, being at the time of the washing at Hogipore [Hājipur], whether came many women from Neopoll, I see one woman (that passed me as I was walking) who almost so soone as was past mee, sat downe in the middle of the path before mee and pissed.

(f) Some that have been at Neopoll say That all men and women go bare headed except the King or Roja [Rājā], who weares a Sash [shash, turban] and in winter a hat. The ordinary and poore sort weare nothing upon their feet, so that they are so hard that nothing will hurt them to tread upon it, for they are at the soles like hoofes. Their houses all Brick and high built.

4.6.11. 11. BUTTON

Note: Harl. MS. 4255, fol. 8.

(a) At Button [Tibet] there is a great Bramin [[? Lāmā]] whome all the common sort worship, and they think themselves happy if they can but obtaine any thing from him (which came from him), so that those that he shewes a favour too, hee gives them a peece of his excrement which they sew in a clout and weare about their necks as a great favour.

(b) There the women buy and sell all and do all the business belonging to man, and the men carry their [...]

4.7.

[Page 169]

4.7.1.

sealed in each clout is 5 rupees value, and if any break the seale hee must pay some small loss: tis never sophisticated [adulterated].

4.7.2. 16. GOODS TO LOSSA [LHĀSĀ]

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 22a.

Amber and Corrall beads, red, best. The Arminians also carry silks and chints, and silver striped silks, also beads of pure red hand wax. Before the women marry, they will ly with any man, but after tis d[e]ath. The Lamma [Dalai Lāmā] is as Pope, but meddles not with state affairs but refers then to his Duan [Diwān, minister]. Many Sunosses [Sannyāsis] go to Salem [pay respects] to the Chief Lama, who gives them much Gold, to som 200 or 300 rupees worth. The Lamma hath but a small guards and them all foot, but through his Kingdome is one in almost every house scattered. From Casmeer [Kashmir] to Botton Country [Tibet] is not far, but way dangerous for thieves and wild beasts; also for 8 or 10 days meet with no water, so that Cosmeer people go by Pattana.

4.7.3. 17. CASMEERE

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fols. 12-12a.

(a) Casmere [Kashmir] is a Country neare to Indostand; it is in the Mogulls teritories; the chiefe City called Casmeere. It is distant from Neopoll not above 6 or 8 dayes jorney, which Neopoll is distant from Pattana North about 6 or 8 dayes jorney, being but 80 Course; but betwixt Neopoll and Casmere the way is daingerous, by reason of the vast high mountains and great woods; also wild beasts etc., so that the people which go from Pattana to Casmere [Page 170] go by Agra and Dilly [Delhi], from the last of which it is 40 days jorney.

(b) Casmere in winter time is a cold place, and in it is much frost and thick ice, which will beare severall Elephants together. In it are great quantity of Grapes, apples, peares and other fruit as in England; many deare and also many beares, Tygers, etc., but no snakes. Their houses are built of brick, some 8 or 9 stories high. They have great store of wheate, barley, rice, etc., the latter of which is sometimes sold for 5 Maund 1 rupee; Grapes 1/2 maund for rupee; also aboundance of roses. They have excellent good wood, firr, etc. box. as [in] England.

(c) They are excellently skilled in musick, and som of their instruments are plaid upon with a Stick of horse hare, as our base violds; only the instrument is made round in the middle, at one end of which, next to the strings, is covered with a Skin like a drum; but the skin being not biger than than the ball of a mans hand. Their musick hath tunes much like ours in England.

(d) In it [Kashmir] are Hindoo and people of severall Countries, but of the natives their Prophet is Solomon who they say came thither and built their great Cities and brought a man and a woman from all Countries to inhabit theire.

(e) Their boats are built very long, some for 50 or 60 men to roww in them, being exceeding long, and as broad at each end as in the middle, having the house to sit in placed at the fore end of the boate. They have excellent Carpets [rugs] of 100 rupees a peece. Their coynes are rupees and Cowries as in Indostand. They have great quantities of salt, which they dig out of Rock in vast great peeces, which is white and good. [Page 171] Their drink is water and wine, the last of which is prohibited by the Moores to all but themselves, who drink great store of it.

Note: Harl. MS. 4255, fol. 22a.

(f) The people are very jocund and pleasant, and [the] place excellent pleasant, that none bring from thence any estate, but spend what get there, I mean straingers.

4.7.4. 18. FIRR TREES

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 21a.

There is great quantity of Fir trees [Himalayan Coniferae] which grow neare Neopoll and in Casmeer, many of which are by the Freshes broaken downe and drove downe the river Gunduck (Gandak). I have seene some of it, which hath beene taken up at Singee near Pattana. The Fir was greene and very oyly and clam [moist, sticky], and of an exceeding strong and good smell, and the same with ours in England, only greener and smells stronger.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 25.

In the Raine times I see severall great peeces of Firr, which with the streame was driven downe the river Gunduck; tis supposed it came from towards Casmeer.

4.7.5. 19. JAGGERNAUT

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 25a.

The name Jaggernaut [Jagannāth] is Sins[?]creet [Sanskrit] and signifies the Master of the world, for "Jagger" [Jagat] signifies the World, and 'naut" [nāith] signifies Master. The place is high, built of Stone, and is a Land mark for travellers by Sea, being by the Sea side. Tis about 4 dayes jorney from Ballasore Southerly. Tis Chiefe place in India [Page 172] whether the Hindoos resort to Visit, being the place [Pūrī, temple] in which is placed their chiefe stone God.

4.8.

[Page 188]

4.8.1. 16. BEADE SCIENCE

Note: Harl. MS. 4255, fol. 19.

The Hindoos have a Book they call Beade [Bed-Veda], which is the foundation of all their Pollicy in Religion, whereby they make the people beleeve that whosoever knowes can have the whatever hee desires. In it is the foundation of all their Diuras [deurā, temple] or churches, by which they tell the people, if they want such a thing then must repaire to Jaggerinaut [Jagannāth] or such a Diura; if want such a thing, then to such a place, and the like, which the people beleeve there is great vertue in them places, whereas they were contrived by the Bramins only to get money of those that resort to them. Also here is writ all their rules of morality and other Arts and sciences.

4.9.

[Page 196]

4.9.1. 36.JAGGARANAUT

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 15a.

[Jagannāth] was a log of wood, and ordered by Inderdoomun [Indradyumna] to have a place built and hee put into it, and was commanded by Burma [Brahma] not to look at the Log of wood in 7 dayes, but let it be there {a lone} and it would become a man. But Inderdoomun, beeing desireous to looke, after 3 dayes time were expired, went in and found the Log of wood to have a face, but neither hands nor Legs, so that hee was imperfect because was seene before the 7 dayes were expired; and so now remains.

4.9.2. 37. JOUGEES AND FUCKEERS

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 14a.

(a) Tis said the Jougees [jogī] have a notable way of resolving of Questions, which they do this way: They will repeat to themselves such a number of prayers by their beads, and just when have done, will speak what comes into their mind first concerning the question, which they strongly think upon during all the time they are saiing their prayers, and thus they will resolve questions not [[? most]] ably. They will pray sometimes 2 or 3 houres to resolve the question, and if at that time (they have ended their prayers) they have any stop within themselves, they will not answer any thing to your question. And all this is done by the force of imagination, thinking strongly upon the question all the time they are praying.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 16a.

(b) Some Jougees go stark naked, severall of which I have seen in India, and tis reported that the Hindoo [Page 197] women will go to them and kiss the Jougees yard. Others ly [lay] somthing upon it when it stands, which the Jougees take to buy victualls with; and severall come to stroke it, thinking that there is a good deale of vertue in it, none having gone out of it as they say, for they ly not with women nor use any other way to vest their seed.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 21.

(c) There was a Fuckeer [faqī[?]r] by Pattana who never beged or said any thing but To tu isa[?] [aisā], i.e., "Tis like you [so you are such]." So if any gave him any thing or abused him, this was his saying.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 8a.

(d) Tis very credibly reported that yearly some Fuckeers come from said [Kashmir] hills to Pattana, where they wash in the Ganges, [who] by their eating only herbs and roots, have such {reamidies} in Physick as hath not been heard of. They have at some times given powders to people when they have come, that have recovered them when almost dead, and hath in few howers made then as well as ever; but so soone as they have given it, go away, with all speede, least they should be laid hold of and made to stay with the Moores, and so be deprived of their Hermiticall life. They have often given things which never failed to cause women to bring forth, and also to make old men quite dried up to be able to ly with young women everie night for some years together, without any injury done to their old bodies. But amongst the Fuckeers which yearly come in Thousands, there are but few exellent, and they never discovering themselves, except by great accident, as when they have received [Page 198] Almes of some person almost languished. Then they give him a powder, etc. and tell him to use it and go away.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 8a.

(e) It is reported by these Moores and Hindoos that upon the Hills by Casmeere [Kashmir] and also by Neopoll [Nepāl] that there are people live to 4 and 500 yeares of age. They can hold in their breath and ly as it were dead for some yeares, all which time their bodies are kept warme with oyles, etc. They can fly, and change souls each with other or into any beast. They can transforme their bodies into what shapes they please and make them so plyable that then can draw them thorow a little hole, and wind and turne them like soft wax. They are mighty temperate in diet, eating nothing but milke, and a sort of graine they have. At first they use themselves to hold in their breaths for a very long time when young, and so more by little and little. There are schools of them, wherein they learne all the dayes of their lives, but not one in a Thousand attaine to the perfection of it. Tis reported that those people often fly to Jaggory Nut [Jagannāth] and there about to the seaside.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 9.

(f) In the corner betwixt Gunga [Ganga] and Gunduck [Gandak] lives a Fuckeer woman, a Hindoo, who all the yeare long begs, but stirs not from her house. The most boats that go by give her a pice, and think if they do not, they shall have bad fortune. Shee keepe[s] most of her money together untill that time that the Hindoos come thither from most parts to wash, and then buys victualls with it and gives it away to them. She is looked upon by the Hindoos [Page 199] as an Oracle. Shee saith shee can hold her breath for 1/2 Gurry [gharī] or 12 [really 24] minutes of an houre.

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 18a.

(g) Many Fuckeers when travell and are exceeding hungry, and can get no victualls, bind their bellies hard, and that a little assuages it.

(h) By report there are Fuckeers neare Neopoll [Nepāl] which always live upon the high Hills. Some live 2 or 300 years of age, and when their bodies are therewith decayed, they acquaint their friends that they desire to leave that body and assume another. So without any violence offered to their body, after their prayers said, they sit downe and die voluntarily and at what time they please, but before do acquaint their relations at what place they desire to assume a Body, at Agra or Dilly [Delhi], or the like. And then they leave their old body and go into the belly of a woman, and so is borne againe. After which, when comes to be somthing manly, hee writes unto former bodies relations that he is in such a body, and that hee was formerly in the old body which hee so formally left, and that such and such tokens, reciteing such and such actions which hee had then done, not forgeting all the remarkable actions hee did in his former body. This I had from a Sober, Serious Fuckeer, a Hindoo, who saith hee hath conversed with many of the Fuckeers near Nepoll who had so changed their bodies, and also with severall persons who had received advises from some of their relations who had left their old bodies and assumed new ones. Many other strainge things they will do with their bodies, which they acquire from their childhood by great pains and use.

[Page 200]

Note: Harl. MS. 4254, fol. 7a, 24-25.

(i) Hither [Hajīpur Bathing Festival] come aboundance of Fuckeers, some with their hands and armes held upright, which they have accustomed themselves so much too, that they cannot take them downe, and their fingers so folderd in each other that cannot loose them, and their nailes some 4 or 5 inches long. Their hands and armes thereby are as it were dead, being withered so that a man can scarce feele any pulse that they have. Some with their hands in other postures, and some with haire which reacheth downe behind them below the calfes of their leggs. Severall of these I have seene who go naked, not having any thing to cover their privy members. At Metchlepatam I have seen them.

(j) Hither tis reported come some Fuckeers that cure diseases to admiration [astonishment] by little pills, etc., which they somtimes give to people they see in the way daingerously sick. But tis very rare, for they will not discover themselves least the Moores should lay hold of them and detaine them. But somtimes when see a man alone [they] go to him and give him one single pill, sometimes more (which they bid him eate, but not untill tis esteemd his disease is incurable): and away they run. I laid wait for to meet with one of these, but could not. Some of the Jorgees [jogī] or Hindoo Fuckeeres are said to be excellent good chymists and know exceedingly well how to kill Mineralls.

(k) The Fuckeers here are 40 or 50 in a Company. Some of them are very fat, and some exceeding leane; some that come from Tartary [Central Asia] which feed upon nothing but herbs and rootes, the nature of which they well know.

[Page 201]

Note: Harl. MS. 4255, fol. 21; 4254, fols. 25-25a.

(l) Sunasses [sannyāsi] are right Phylosophers, which signifieth one that is not subject to passion, and that take[s] no care in the world, which thing brings all the evell upon a man. These Jougees or Sunossees are Fuckeers or beggars, which are Hindoos, which most of their lives travell through India, Tartary [Central Asia], China, etc. They eat no flesh nor anything that is salt or hath salt in it. They ly with no women; wear no {coloths}, but a cloth or skin over their middle; powder themselves with a kind of dust which they make up into a hard cake. There are severall Casts [orders] of them. They cut not the hair on their heads or beards. Their generall meat is rice, herbs and roots, also milk which they will boyle untill 4/5 be boyled away, and the 1/5 they drink, which makes them very fat, as most of them are. Some of them understand the nature of herbs and roots very well, with which they are said to have cured strainge diseases at sometimes. About 2 or 3 months before Shawjahan [Shāh Jahān] dyed, hee commanded the great Dewra [deurā] at Bonnarras [Benares] to be pulled downe, who meeting with some opposition, cut in peeces all the Sunosses [sannyāsī] siting in it, who never flinched or removed from the posture they were in.

(m) Upon the 11th of November 1671 I sent for one of the Chiefe of them, which then was at Singee [Singhiyā]. His name was Bowannagere Gussaine [i.e. he was a gosain from Bhaunagar], with whome I had a great deale of discourse. Hee gave mee a little powder which he brake of[f] of the Cake which hee rubs himself over with, and bid mee weare it upon the [Page 202] top of my head in my sash, or sow it in my hat crowne; and what ever I did (when had it about mee), should prosper. Hee bid mee put it into a copper box, not into a Gold or silver one, for then twould not be effectuall. Hee had many ceremonies before hee gave mee it, holding it in his hand, and puting his finger round about it severall times, puting it to his forhead, then bowing his head to the ground: then put it behind his eare in a paper, repeating something to himselfe; then puting it to his head againe, bid another of his companions to give mee it, which hee did standing and puting it to his head; and bid mee stand up to receive it, which I did, and after put it to my head, as hee ordered mee. Afterwards hee went away puting his hand all powdry on my head.

This is a selection from the original text

Keywords

drink, dry, fruit, gold, rain, science, suffering, travel

Source text

Title: John Marshall in India: Notes and Observations in Bengal, 1668-1672

Editor(s): Shafaat Ahmed Khan

Publisher: Oxford University Press

Publication date: 1927

Original compiled 1668-1672

Edition: 1st Edition

Place of publication: London

Provenance/location: This text was transcribed from images available at Internet Archive: http://archive.org. Original compiled 1668-1672

Digital edition

Original editor(s): Shafaat Ahmad Khan

Language: English

Selection used:

  • 1 ) pages 39-43
  • 2 ) pages 61-83
  • 3 ) pages 95-105
  • 4 ) pages 111-128
  • 5 ) pages 149-164
  • 6 ) pages 169-172
  • 7 ) page 188
  • 8 ) pages 196-202

Responsibility:

Texts collected by: Ayesha Mukherjee, Amlan Das Gupta, Azarmi Dukht Safavi

Texts transcribed by: Muhammad Irshad Alam, Bonisha Bhattacharya, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Muhammad Ehteshamuddin, Kahkashan Khalil, Sarbajit Mitra

Texts encoded by: Bonisha Bhattacharya, Shreya Bose, Lucy Corley, Kinshuk Das, Bedbyas Datta, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Sarbajit Mitra, Josh Monk, Reesoom Pal

Encoding checking by: Hannah Petrie, Gary Stringer, Charlotte Tupman

Genre: India > non-fiction prose > travel narratives and reports

For more information about the project, contact Dr Ayesha Mukherjee at the University of Exeter.

Acknowledgements