Husbandry anatomized

HUSBANDRY Anatomized,
An Enquiry into the Present Manner of Teiling and Manuring the Ground in
For most Part;
Several RULES and MEASURES laid down for the better Improvement thereof, in so much that one third part more INCREASE may be had, and yet more than a third part of the EXPENCE of the present Way of LABOURING thereof Saved.

Printed by JOHN REID. in the Year, M.DC.XC.VII.


To the Right Honourable, PATRICK Earl of MARCHMONT, Viscount of BLASONBERIE Lord POLW ARTH, Lord High Chancellour of SCOTLAND And the whole Remnant Lords of His Majesties Most Honourable Priy COUNCIL.


IT may be looked upon as a Peice of heightened Arrogance, for such a Person as I am, to Presume to Endit any thing that may deserve your Lordships Cognizance; And [Page] truly on any other Subject, but this most Plain, and Genuine Art of Husbandrie: I had scarce adventured to publish my Sentiments, and much less presumed to offer the same, to such August, Venerable, and Judicious Criticks, Who are acquainted with Learned and Eloquent Treatises on all Subjects: But where there is greatest Judgement, there useth to be most Discretion; Which gives me Confidence and Ground to hope, that what I here offer with Respect and Good Will, allanarly with an Eye to the publick Good, shall find Acceptance: Thô from the Stile of Writing or Congruity of Language, no such thing can be pleaded for; [Page] Rhetorick being that which neither the Subject doth require, nor my simple Genius can Aspire to.

Perhaps two Questions may be asked, Concerning my Experience in Husbandry, and Motives in publishing thereof. To give a positive and distinct Answer to both, will require an abridged History of my own Life, which I shall with all Brevity repeat, because it will be a kind Kye to the following Sheets.

I was bred in the Country, Till I was upwards of twenty years of Age: And my Father keeping Servants and Cattle for labouring a part [Page] of these Lands, which heritably belonged to him: I had occasion to acquire as much Knowledge in Husband Affairs, as was practised in that place of the Country. Some few years before the Revolution, I applyed my self to the study of Traffick and Merchandizing: But as soon as it pleased GOD to call his Majestie (then Prince of Orange) to relieve these Kingdoms from the Imminent Danger They then stood in; I judged it my Honour and Duty to concur with such a Laudible and Glorious Undertaking: And according to my Ability, testified my Affection to the Cause, several wayes needless here to repeat; And especially [Page] in Leavying a Company of Men for his Majesties Service, and served in the Earl of Angus his Regiment, till the second day of February, 1690. When that Regiment was reduced from twenty to thirteen Companies.

I was disbanded, But through the scarcity of Money in the Exchequer, and great need of keeping an Army on foot; Hitherto I have received no Reimbursement of Money I Depursed on that Occasion, nor what I can claim of Arriers: But the chief Cause of my being reduced to the present hard Condition I am in, was, The leaving my Business in Confusion, when I engadged in His Majesties [Page] Service, not getting Goods in my Custodie disposed off to Advantage, nor Debts due to me sought in; And on the other hand, my Creditors sued for what was owing them, I was obliged to satisfie, and pay several other Summs I was Caution for, to my great loss: By all which, and several other misfortunat Accidents, my Credit was much broken, and Estate near exhausted. Notwithstanding of all which, I wrasled under all these Disadvantages, still thinking to have recovered, till within this two or three years. At length I was obliged to succumb, my Creditors attacking all my Effects; I was necessitat to leave the [Page] Kingdom for a time, and now returning empty handed, I began to Reason thus with my self: What? Have I learned nothing from all thatI have seen or heard, whereby I can be Useful to my self or the CommonWealth? And at length came to this Resolve, I have had some Experience of the Way and Manner of Labuoring the Ground in this Countrey; And I have seen their Way of mannaging thereof in some other Places, which is generally done to greater Advantage: And when I began to try what might be the Causes, why there is such difference of Increase in one place, more than another, I found it is not altogether from the difference of [Page] the Climate, nor Primitive Constitution of the Earth.

And as soon as I thought of publishing this, I thought it my Duty, (with all Humility) to present it to your Lordships; in respect you are not only Proprietors of a great part of Lands in this Kingdom, but also in Authority and Dignity, to recommend this Project, both by Example and Precept; And if it may seem practicable in your Lordships Eyes, and any Benefit to the Publick come thereby, I shall reckon it a special Mercy of GOD (who by his Overruling Providence oft times worketh [Page] by contrary like Means) that I am reduced to this penurious Condition; For if it had pleased GOD to continue me in prosperity, I beleive this Project had never entred my thoughts. I am not so self conceited, as to apprehend there is any great Mistery in what I have here published, for it is a thing many have not only known, but practised; But never any that I yet saw, hath published it in thir Terms, for (as I noted in page 125) the grand mistake lyeth in Miscalculation; And I foresaw, if I had used the common Method of writing on this Subject, it had been objected, the Profit would not overballance the Expence; For which Cause, I have [Page] chused to go thorow every Particular, and shew how and from whence the profit doth arise.

I know Epistols Dedicatory, are usually stuffed with the Praises of those to whom they are directed; But the like Practise were here supperfluous (tho I were capable of such a Task) as the Poet who was desired to write in praise of Alexander, answered; Who hath dispraised Alexander? So I think my dull Pen attempting to applaud Unquestioned Vertue, were not only Vain, but Injurious. Wherefore, I judge it my best Eloquence, to be altogether silent, and let your Enemies judge whither Real Vertue doth not dwell in the Breasts [Page] of these whom Divine Providence hath exalted to such Dignity; And the most Serene, August, and Judicious Monarch this Day in the World, maketh choise of for His Counsellours. But to avoid Prolixity, and encroaching upon your Lordship'sPatience, I shall conclude. Now that all Honour, Prosperity, and Endless Felicity, may alwayes attend You, is the Earnest Wish, and Unfeigned Prayer, of

Humble and Obedient
Ja: Donaldson.


Page 8 Line 8, for Vigitables read Vegetables, and several other Places: Page 25 Line 12, for only, and read only add. Page 107 Line 1, for 5 read 4, ibid: Line 3 for 200 read 1600. Page 108 Line 10 for 4907 read 7907.

As for any other Literal Errors, incident to creep into all Books, throw mistake, be pleased to correct them your selves; And if it were proper here to make an Appologie for my self, I might plead the more to be excused, in respect I have been so hastened to have this finished before the Session sate down (and other Reasons needless here to repeat) that before I wrote the second Sheet, the first was at the Press, and never after had I one Sheet of Coppy ready at once, the whole time it was a printing.



NEighbours and Country men, this small Treatise may seem to bear a Title which in the following Sheets cannot be made good, I confess before I took a particular look into every Circumstance of this Project, I could scarce beleive such a thing could be: But after peruse , let the Judicious Reader Judge how far I have accomplished my Undertaking. I know it is seldom that any new Project is much encouraged by most of you, and he that proposeth it reputed a Wise Man: However, I have rather chosen to hazard upon the Censure of all, than conceal that which may be profitable to any; And seing the chief mistery of this Project consists in your Prudent and Exact Calculation, (as I remarked in my Answer to the 2d. Objection) wherefore I yet once more Recomend it in this and all other Cases.


I doubt not but some may cast it in my Teeth, since I am so good at Teaching others how to improve their Stocks; How cometh it to pass, that I have been so far mistaken in forecasting of my own Affairs? To which I Answer, Perhaps I may now be a better Game(ter than formerly, while my Carts were a playing. Moreover, it was not altogether my want of Skill in Calculating, that made my Projects to misgive; But grant it to be as ye suppose, it doth not follow, but my Advice may be both Profitable and Reasonable: A Mariner that hath suffered Ship-wrack, may be as good a Pilote in that same Channel where he lost his Ship, as another that has come that same Way, with a Prosperous Gale, and Full-Sea, sailing over the hide Rocks, and dangerous Banks. If you think my Advice Reasonable, take it Gratis, and welcome; If not, buy Experience at th Rate I have done.



1.1. HUSBANDRY Anatomized, OR, An Enquiry into the present manner of Manuring the Ground in Scotland for most part, and several Rules and Measures laid down for the better Improvement thereof, &c.

WHEN Almighty GOD Created the World, by the Word of his Power, He could have made Men to live without Food, as well as Angels: Or yet have made the Earth to bring forth all manner of Food for him without Labour [Page 2] or Industry, as it doth for Ca [...] le and creeping things: But so it was, that He that is Infinit in Wisdom saw it meet to assign Man a dayly exercise in earning his Food and Rayment, whereby he is not only diverted from following some bad Practice; But also that thereby he may see his great frailty, in that he is not able to live without dayly Subsistance and Refreshment, from Creatures inferiour to himself. As also he thereby may learn to know his great need of Spiritual Nourishment to his Soul, in as much as it is more precious than the Body, together with many other profitable Lessons.

No doubt if Man had continued in the Estate of Innocencie, his Labour had been rather a Pleasure than a Toyle, as may be gathered from the Sentence pronounced against Adam, where it's said, From thenceforth by [Page 3] the Sweat of his Brows he should Earn his Bread. untill he should return unto the Dust; 'Tis plain enough it had not fated so with him, were not for his Transgression: And upon Cain's Transgression, the Earth is again Cursed, that thenceforth it should not yeeld its strength. What wonder thô before this time it had become a barren Wilderness, considering the dayly multiplyed Transgressions of the Children of Men? But this being extraneous to my purpose, and that which I am not capable to decipher, I shall remit it to the Contemplation of Divines.

  1. But that I may come to the purpose, I shall first take some general Observations concerning the present Constitution of the Earth.
  2. Lay down certain Rules for bringing every kind of Ground to a right Temperature, so far as may be.
  3. [Page 4]An Enquirie into the present manner of manuring the Ground, through most part of this Kingdom.
  4. Lay down several Rules for manuring it to greater advantadge, tho not inclosed.
  5. How much more by Parking and Inclosures.
  6. Concerning Stock-keeping.
  7. Something concerning Planting.
  8. Some directions how to sow several Garden Seeds, and Roots,
  9. And lastly I shall enervat what ObjectionsI conceive may be framed against any of my propositions.

1.1.1. CHAP. I.
Of the Earth's Constitution in general.

ANd first, I say, notwithstanding that Proverb is of verity, There is never a Tale without a Reason. That is, there is no Effect, but from some certain Cause; yet, 'tis as true there may be many things really true in Effect, [Page 5] that we do not well know from what Cause: And seing I am neither Philosopher nor Alchymist, I hope the moderat Reader will not altogether disprove or misregard my propositions, where the matter of fact is evident, altho I cannot give a Philosophical definition of the Cause; Nevertheless, that I may not desire the Reader to credit my bare Assertion without any ground, I shall in some measure endeavour (according to my weak capacity) to give him satisfaction in this point.

And first, I say, it cannot be denyed but some places of the Earth are Moist and Cold, and other places Hot and dry. The cause of which differences some aleadge to be by the influence of the Planets and other Coelestial Bodys; (by which also they make all Minerals to be Engendered). I shall not say but there maybe much truth in this, for in these [Page 6] Climates lying nearest the Equinoctial, geting a larger share of the Sun's heat, are generally more fertile (providing it be not scorching) than other places more remote, as I shall afterward show.

Neither shall I altogether deny but other Planets may also have some influence; Notwithstanding of all which I cannot be perswaded through influence of the Planets, there can be with in the bounds of a mile of ground (or perhaps less) one field hot and sandy. Another cold clay ground. A third Marish and Boggie. A fourth dry Heath ground, A fifth a tollerable mixture of all these, &c. Now seing these differences cannot be from the forementioned Cause, it must be from its primitive Constitution, or I shall not dive any farther into it.

To enquire any more after the Cause of this, is like a person coming [Page 7] where there is a house on fire, and in stead of endeavouring to quench the Flame, calleth out,How did the Fire break out? How was the House kendled? The thing required in this case (seing the Effect is unqustionable) is rather to remove the Maladie, than enquire any farther after the Cause.

I shall therefore proceed to lay down several Rules, whereby to bring each of these different kinds of Ground to such a temperature, as it may be in a condition to nourish, any Plant or Seed therein sowen or planted; which is done by removing the superfluity of that quality that prevaileth, and strengthening of that which is weak. For as in humane bodys, there are a Composition of the four Elements, and through the superfluity, or deficiency of any one or more of them, Diseases are contracted and fomented, so in the Earth there is the like [Page 8] Composition of qualities, and so far as heat, Moister, cold or dryness, exceedeth the bounds of a moderat temperatur, so far is she Diseased and rendred unfruitful.

I know some assert the Salt or hot quality that is in the Earth, is the only cause of growth of Vigitables; And consequently, barreness to be only for want of this quality: I confess where this quality is wanting altogether, Barrenness cannot but ensue: And also; that this quality is that which is most frequently deficient in our cold Climate. And moreover, thô it be strengthned or assisted ;yet by teiling and Manuring of the Earth its extracted forth into the substance of grain, and other vigitables, and so needeth frequently to be renewed. Notwithstanding of all which with submission to men of greater Judgement, I am of opinion there may be abundance of this Hot or [Page 9] Salt quality where there is as much barrenness, as any where else.

But that I may confirm this assertion, I say, I have seen a field fatned sufficiently with Dung, yet by reason of great drowght, it has yielded small increase, yea, scarce one third of what it has done at other times: The cause surely was not for want of this Hot or Salt Quality, but allanerly for want of Moister. Again, I have seen a field that wanted not nough of this Hot quality, & by excessive Rains (after it has been tiled and sown with Good Grain) has produced little else but weeds, and Thristles, for that season, alsoI have seen strong Clay ground, where the clods remained firm and unbroken did not produce so much by far, for that Season, as at other times, when by reason of the Frost in the Winter, the clods have easily Mouldred to pieces, Notwithstanding it was otherwayes, in [Page 10] no better Condition, which makes me believe the want of Air, (tho there be a moderat temperature of the other qualities) hinders the growth of Vigitables, for tho it want not Air in the stalk, which is above ground, yet in this confirmed Earth, the Air cannot have free access to the Root. Another thing which confirms me in this opinion, is, where Trees grow closs, or near the Bottom of hedges, little or nothing doth grow. Morover, I have seen in the Bottom of a dung hill (Plewed and sown) tho round about the borders thereof the corn has been extraordiner strong and good, yet where most of the strength of dung did remain, little or nothing did grow, which says the excesse of this hot quality, (tho there be a moderat temperature of all the rest) doth hinder fruitfulness.

I observed formerly that within the bounds of a mile of ground in [Page 11] some places, there may be seen fields in equal circumstances, as to the manner of Situation, and yet differing in other circumstances very much, for which I can understand no cause save the primative constitution, but for Valys being generally more fertile then hills, I humbly conceive one or all of these reasons may be given; First, The internal heat of the earth, warming the Air next unto it, and in respect the hills are farder extended from the center than the Valys, and being so much higher, where the Air is more pure and less warmed by this internal heat, they are so much colder, and consequently more unfruitfull. Or secondly, If it be said it is not the internal heat of the Earth that warmeth the Air, but rather the reflex heat of the Sun Beams, it is the same thing upon the Matter, for whither the heat be from the Earth it self, or the Sun's heat recoyling, [Page 12] still, the Valys have the advantage of the Mountains, in respect the Air that is lowest receiveth the greatest share thereof. 3. So much as the hills are higher than the Valys, they ly the more open to the Air, which has a quicker motion, the higher it is, and Air moved is much colder than when it is not moved, whither it be in that it is warmed by things nixt to it when it standeth still; and when it is moved, fresh Air still approaching, which has not been warmed, be the cause why the one is warmer then the other, I shall not determin. But the matter of Fact is beyond contraversy, that the Air moved is much colder than when it is not moved, and Valys being much sheltered from the violence of Storms are keep'd so much the warmer, and consequently are the more Fertile.

Moreover hills being steep the Rain runneth presently off so soon as [Page 13] it falleth, and doth not only carry that salt or hot Quality that is in it self away; But if the Ground be not well Soarded, carryeth part of the Earth also away with it self. And on the contrare, Valys lying near level, Rain cannot run suddenly off, but getting time to soak or sink in the Ground, the salt Quality remaineth still, whereby the Earth is much Inriched.

By the above mentioned Observations, you may see it is Heat principally that makes the Valys more fertile than the Hills: It follows, hat if other Ground can be warmed to the like degree, it may thereby be made as fertile. I shall therefore in the following Chapters, give some Directions, how this may be performed, which may be done two wayes: First, By assisting the Internal Heat; Next, By restraining the External Cold, of each in their places.

[Page 14]

1.1.2. CHAP. II.
How to bring every kind of Ground to a right Temperature, so far as may be.

NOw, to follow the Example of a skilfull Physitian, after finding out the Disease, he prescriveth Medicines sutable to be applyed to each various Distemper, so shall we after this search and enquirie into the Nature and constitution of these different kinds of ground above mentioned. See next what measures are to be taken, to bring the same to a moderat temperature. And as the Apostle says in another case, Paul may Plant, and Apollo may Water; But 'tis GOD that giveth the Increase: So let men be never so industrious or carefull about their worldly Affairs, yet if GOD give not a blessing to the means, their labour is in vain; For how often is it seen, that after a hopeful Spring, an [Page 15] unseasonable Summer maketh a scarce Harvest, and after a seasonable Summer, & good appearence of a plentiful harvest by intemperat weather (a few weeks) much of the fruits of the Earth have been consumed.

I am not so much an Astrologer, as to impute the cause of this to be from the influence of Coelestial Bodys, and by the Regency or Planets of this and the other disposition, together with their Conjunctions, Squares, Angles, & Opositions, and so forth. Such various effects are produced (and that not only in the Elements): But also the like influence have they on humane bodys, both in their Dispositions and Actions, is the Doctrine of most Astrologers. What ever be the Opinion of such Men, yet 'tis beyond contraversie they go about to seek the nearest, that go to the Stars to seek knowledge in futer Events.

[Page 16]

I know so much of Astrologie, that I know Mathematicians may calculat the course of thePlanets, and know in what Schem or Form the Coelestial Bodys shall be for a great many years to come; And also, they may be informed by those of their own profession that have lived many hundered years agoe, what was the Schem of the Heavens when such & such Events fell out, and from this they conjecture when the Coelestial Bodys come again to be in the like Posture or Frame, the like Events they shall befal.

I say, notwithstanding of what Knowledge the bestMathematicians may have in future things, by these Conjectures, there can be nothing certain from these Causes: For, I hope none of them will deny, but he that gave these Creatures a Being, and appointed them their Uses and [Page 17] Offices, can work whatsoever he pleaseth, without their concurrance or assistance: But so it is, he hath forewarned us to be assured, if we persist in sin, we may expect to be punished as other people, who have committed the like sins in times past: And we have frequent instances in the History of the Jewish Church, what was the causes of the Judgements inflicted on them. I know not how the Planets were disposed, in all the Revolutions of that people: But the Penman of that Sacred Storie, attributes all the Mutations of these times, to other Causes. I am of Opinion, that such as are well versed in Sacred Writ, and acquainted with the Life and Conversation of a People, may read their Destiny, better than all the Astrologers in Europe can do by their Mathematical Calculations.

None I confess can be positive as [Page 18] to the Time or Manner, GOD sometimes giving a longer or shorter space of Repentance as he pleaseth; And because He doth not alwayes punish sinners in the very act, therefore many mistake the cause of their punishment, as the Israelites in Jeremiah's time, being by him reproved for their idolatrie, assuring them that the afflictions they were then under, proceeded from that cause: They absolutely defend themselves, alleadging he went about to deceive them, Jer: 44.17. But we will certainly do whatsoever thing goeth forth of our own mouth, to burn Incense to the Queen of Heaven, and to powr out Drink-offerings unto her, as we have done, we and our Fathers, Our King and our Princes, in the Citys of Judah, and Streets of Jerusalem, for then had we plenty of Victuals, and were wel , and saw no evil. But since we left off to burn Incense to the Queen of Heaven, and to pour out Drinkofferings [Page 19] unto her, we have wanted all things, and have been consumed by the Sword, and by the Famine. We want not abundance in our times, that mistake the Language of Providence, not one white less than thir Israelites did; But meddling with them not being to our purpose, I shall let them stand and fall to their own Master. What I designe at present, is to have my Reader perswaded to a dutyful Obedience unto the Law of GOD, and to depend on Providence, for good Success in his Lawful Affairs, and for a Blessing on the Fruits of the Ground, rather than believe Good or bad weather, or any other Events cometh by guess, or by the common course of the Starrs.

Now, To return to our purpose, let us see what kind of Nourishment or Medicine is required to refresh the Ground withal, or to bring it to a [Page 20] temperat Constitution; And that is, First, Dung of all sorts, & Vigitables of all kinds, providing they be first putrified or rotten; Yea, all kind of Animals, and Lime, Ashes, &c. Tho some curious persons recommend Horn and Hove, Blood and Gutts of Cattle, and Shells of Fishes, and SaltPeter, &c. as very strong and dureable Nourishments for the Ground Yet seing these things cannot be had by every one, I shall only speak of these which may be had every where, Viz: Dung of Cattle, Ashes, Lyme, Marle, and Sea-ware, any of which will strengthen any kind of Ground; Yet some of them are stronger than other, and each of them proper to be applyed to different kinds of Ground, as I shall immediatly remark.

  • And first, I shall begin with Marish Ground, if it be ploughable, then let [Page 21] it be made in high Riggs, Sheep or Horse Dung is fittest for this kind of Earth, if it be so moist that it cannot be plewed, draining the Water from it by Trinches or Ditches, and strawing it with Lime, or Ashes of Wood or Coals, will much help the growth of Grass, and prevent the growth of Rushes, or any other hurtful weed.

  • 2ly, Where the Earth is sandy and hot, let it be fatned with Cow-dung, or Marishearth, because the Constitution thereof is too hot already, Dung of a contrary Quality must be applyed: But if it be excessive hot, it can hardly be made Fertile, unless a great quantity of Clay or Marish Ground be laid upon it, which will be more expensive than all the Profit coming thereby can repay. In that case, I know nothing better than take what Grass it produceth of its self, [Page 22] and not spend Seed and Labour in vain; For tho in a wet Season it may bear a pretty good Crop, yet seeing a drowght may as readily happen, it is saffer to bestow Expence on other Ground, where more certain Profit may be expected.

  • 3ly, Strong Clay Ground is that we shall speak of next, the Nourishment most proper for it, is Horse or Sheep dung; This kind of Earth is capable of as much Improvement, as any kind of Ground whatsomever: Yet seeing there is two Maladies in it to be removed, which is Cold and Astringedness, or Hardness, especially when a very dry Summer follows a wet Spring; Beside the dung above mentioned, take Sea sand, or other sandy Earth, and spread upon it as you do dung; This both helps to keep the Ground open, and also mitigats the Cold. Another thing that makes [Page 23] this kind of Ground open and tender, is fallowing: And also sowing it with Pease or Beans, which at least ought to be sowen on this kind of Ground, every third or fourth Year.

  • 4ly, The next kind of Earth we shall speak of, is Mountainous, wild, and overgrowen with Heath or Heather. This Shurb only groweth on cold dry Ground, where scarce any thing else can grow: Nevertheless, by removing that cold dead kind of light Ground that is upon the surface of the Earth where this Heather groweth; The soil may be made pretty Fertile. The manner of mannaging this kind of Ground, is as follows, viz: To digg it up in Turffs, which being dryed, gather in small Heaps and burn, and spread the Ashes in September or October, then sow it with Wheat, and plough it down with a light Furr; The first years Crop will [Page 24] do more than reward your Labour, (ten or twelve Bolls per Aiker, being the least Increase you may expect) and always afterwards, it will be fit for Grain or Pasture, as your other Ground: But because most People in this Countrey, are Strangers to this kind of Labour, I shall tell what Method they take in other places, to make this wild Ground Arrable.

Where the Heather is very rank or strong, they take a Ho much in form of an Each, and therewith stricking as when a Carpenter heweth with an Each, going round all the quarters of each Turff they digg it up; Or else they first slit the Ground with a kind of Plough they have for that Use, making each slit about a foot distant from one another, then crossing it again, all the edges of the Turff are out, so that they need but only cut them in the bottom; Eight Men may [Page 25] digg an Aiker in a day, where the bottom of the Turff is only to be cut, but if the Ground be not slit as abovesaid, scarce will they digg one half thereof. You may slit your Ground either with your common Plough, by lengthening your Culter three or four inches lower than your Sock: But that which I judge may be more easie, and hasten your Labour much more, is to make a Slyp after the common manner only, and a Crossbeam, and therein you may place two Culters at least, providing they be thin and of good Mettle, then lay a weight upon the said Slyp, and whereever it is drawen, it will slit the Ground alse deep as the point of your Culters goeth.

1.1.3. CHAP. III.
How to mannage the Ground to better Advantage, tho not Inclosed.

SEeing all that can be said in General, [Page 26] can never point out the Case so clearly, as condescending on Particulars doth; I shall therefore lay down the whole Matter in every Circumstance, which I shall do by comparing the present way of managing the Ground, by that which I shall propose. But because every kind of Ground is not alike, some being Valys, which of themselves are more Fertile than Hills or Mountainous Ground, and some lying near Borroustowns, geting a greater quantity of dung than its own product can make, by which it is in a prettie good Condition already. But seeing I am to give only one Instance, it shall be that which is commonly called Dale-ground, that is, such Lands as are partly Hills, and partly Valys, of which sorts may be comprehended the greatest part of Arrable ground in this Kingdom; And as is aid, tho this one Instance cannot be [Page 27] an infallible Rule for managing every kind of Earth by, yet in some measure, any person may know how to manage every kind of Ground; For, if the Ground be naturally Fertile, or lying near any place where dung can be had: More Land may be taken into dunging, and where the Ground is naturally barren, less must be taken in dunging, than what is here proposed; In a word, I would give this a general Rule, to dung no more than can be dunged sufficiently.

Of this kind of Dale-ground above mentioned, I shall suppose a Farmer to have a Lease or Tack of threescore Aikers, at three hundered Merks of Rent per annum, (perhaps some who are not acquaint with Rural Affairs, may think this Cheap, but these who are the Possessors thereof, think otherwayes, and find difficulty enough to [Page 28] get the same payed, according to their present way of manuring thereof, as anone you shall see.) But that I may proceed to the Comparison, I shall show how commonly this Farme Room is managed; It is commonly divided into two parts, viz: one third Croft, and two thirds Outfield, (as it's termed) The Croft is usually divided into three parts, To wit, One third Barly (which is alwayes dung'd that year Barly is sowen thereon) another third Oats, and the last third Pease. The Out-side field is divided into two parts, To wit, The one half Oats, and the other half Grass, two years successively.

This Ground being improven as above represented, let us see next what the Labouring of it may cost, and what may be the Product thereof: First, The Product that may be supposed to be on each Aiker of [Page 29] Croft four Bolls, and that of the Out field three, the Quota is seven score Bolls: This we may reckon it to produce good and bad Seasons, the Better to mend the worse, which we shall also reckon at five pounds per Boll, Cheap Year and dear year, one with another; This in all, is worth seven hundered pounds.

Then let us see what profit he can make of his Cattle: According to the division of his Lands, there is twenyy Aikers of Grass, which cannot be expected to be very good, because it gets not leave to ly above two years, and therefore cannot be well boarded: However, usually, beside four Horses, (which are keeped for ploughing the said Land,) ten or twelve Nolt are also keeped upon a Ferm Room of the above mentioned bounds: But in respect of the badness of the Grass, as said is, little Profit [Page 30] is had of them, perhaps two or three stone of Butter is the most can be made of the Milk of his Kyne the whole Summer, and not above two Hiffers brought up each year. As to what profit may be made by bringing up young Horses. I shall say nothing, supposing he keeps his Stock good by those of his own upbringing, both in this Case, and in that which I shall instance by and by: The whole Product then of his Cattle cannot be reckoned above fifty Merks; For in respect his Beasts are in a manner half starved, they are generally small, so that scarce may a Hiffer be sold at above twelve pounds; The profit of his Bestial therefore, cannot exceed what is said.

By what is said, you see the whole Product of this Farm Room, exceeds not the Value of seven hundered and thirty three pound, or thereabout; [Page 31] The Grain and Bestial being all he has to make Money of, except what Vertue the Good wife and her Maid can make, which is needless here to enquire into; For let it be what it will, the way of managing the Ground, according to this project, will rather further than hinder them in their Frugality.

Therefore I shall now try what Expence or Out-Cost the managing of this Room may be: And not to mention the first Cost or Stocking of it, which may be about the matter of 8 or nine hundered pounds, the Interest of which in Reason, ought to be allowed out of the first end of his profit. But I shall proceed, you heard this Ferm Room produceth one hundered and fourty Bolls of Grain per annum, fourty of which may be allowed for the Mantainance of his Family, and sixteen for the use of his [Page 32] Horses, fourty to pay his Rent withal, and as much for Seed; This in all makes one hundered and thirty six Bolls, only four Bolls remains for paying of Servants Wages, which cannot be less than seventy or seventy five pounds, for he can labour it with no fewer than two Men, and one Maid, beside a Herd in Summer, and other Servants that are required in Harvest: Yet nothing more hath he to furnish his Family in Cloaths, and other Necessarys, except the Industry made by his Wife and Maid, or if he can spare some of the fourty Bolls allowed to be consumed in the Family, it may help to pay part of his Servants Fees.

Now I shall proceed to show what Method I would have Fermers take in managing their Land. You heard, two Men, a Boy, a Maid, and four Horses, was required to labour the [Page 33] Room above mentioned, I shall seek no more to labour one half more Ground: And if the product of both be equal, according to their proportions, then is the expence of Seed, and labouring of this additional thirty Aikers, wholly saved, which is a considerable profit; But I shall make it evident, not only shall this expence be saved, but also the product of the Ground shall be more than that of the first Instance, even proportionablie to their Bounds.

The Mailen or Ferm Room I am to speak of, I suppose to contain ninety Aikers of the like Ground, with that formerly mentioned, I divide it thus, sixty six Aikers I make Out-field, which I divide into three parts, two thirds I leave Grass, and one third I plough three years, then I plough another third part three years, and then the last third part I plough other [Page 34] three years, and begins again to plough that first third part, and so continues to plough one third, and ave two thirds Grass; Thus every third is ploughed three years, and lyeth six successively.

Of the other twenty four Aikers, I first take two, and I make it in a Yeard, or Orchyeard, half an Aiker thereof I Sow and Plant, with Cabbage or other Kaile, and what Roots I think fit for Use of the Family; the other Aiker and half I leave Grass, and the whole I plant with Fruittrees, but because I assigne this Orchyeard for another Use, than allanerly for Fruit, I plant the Trees at the matter of thirty foot distance: The Trees being planted at this distance, hindereth nothing the growth of Grass or Herbs beside them, and within ten or twelve years, much Benefit maybe also made of themselves.

[Page 35]

The twenty two Aikers that remain, I divide into five parts, which is near four Aikers and a half each part: To make the shares equal, I take half an Aiker off the Outfield. Thus I have eighteen Aikers of Croftland sowen, & four and an half Grass each year, so I dung four Aikers and a half the first year, and thereon I sow Barly, the next year I sow it with Wheat, the third year with Pease or Oats, the fourth year with Oats or Pease, the fifth year I leave it Grass, or if I thing fit I Fallow it the fifth year, by this Method, only four Aikers and a half is to be dunged every year, for which there is dung abundance, because a far greater number of Cattle can be keeped on this Mailen, than that above mentioned, (because I have more than three times as much Grass, for tho there be not three times as many Aikers, yet in respect it is much better Soarded [Page 36] by lying six years, whereas the other lay but two, it will be no worse than what is said.) And as I observed formerly, six or seven Aikers of the other Mailen used to be dunged every year, 'tis certain this four aikers and a half, hath farr greater allowance.

Let us next see what product may be reasonably expected off this Mailen. I suppose it will not be denyed (by any who know Husbandrie) but each Aiker of Croft may produce eight or ten Bolls at a Cropt considering how strongly it is dunged: How ever, I shall reckon but only seven, and the Out-field I suppose may be reckoned to bear four Bolls per Aiker; For seeing in the above writen instance, three Bolls was the product of one Aiker after two years lying; And this lying six years, cannot but be much more Refreshed, for tho the [Page 37] common way of supplying the Defect of the Salt Quality that is in the Earth, be by applying Dung or Lyme: Yet there is also much of this Quality in Dew and Rain, and when the Ground is not tiled or opened up, Grass or other things the Earth produceuh of it self, doth not extract forth so much of this hot Quality by far, as Seeds do when it is Manured; Therefore I think one Boll per Aiker, may be very reasonably expected more off Ground that has had six years rest, than that which has had two. The product then of twenty two Aikers, I shall reckon four score and eight Bolls, and seven times eighteen, the product of the Croft-land is six score and six Bolls, which in all make two hundered & fourteen Bolls; A fourth part of the Croft being sowen with Wheat, we may reckon on 24 Bolls of that Grain (beside its own Seed) which is at least a Crown per [Page 38] Boll better, than other Grain; Add this to five times two hundered and fourteen pounds, the Value of the whole Grain upon the said Mailen, the Quota is eleven hundered and fourty two pounds.

Next let us consider what Stock of Cattle may be maintained upon this Mailen or Ferm Room: You hear'd, four Horses, and ten or twelve Nolt, were keeped upon that above mentioned, and three times as much Grass is upon this: Yet, I shall not so much endeavour to augment the number, as strive to have the Cattle in a good Condition; For, as I formerly remarked, generally throughout this Kingdom, the Cattle are almost half starved, which keeps them both small and lean. Let us therefore keep on this Mailen, but two Horses, four Oxen, and eight or ten Milk Kyne, and a Bull: Six Calves we may reckon [Page 39] to be brought up by them ever year, one half Male, the other Female: Our Stock of young Cattle, according to this Calculation, doth consist of six Calves, six of a year old, and six of two years old, which according to the Vulgar way of reckoning Soumes, may be counted eight Soumes: And when they come to be three years old, they come in the account of Kyne or Oxen; The two Horses, according to the Vulgar account, are reckoned four Soumes, and every Cow or Oxen one, so the whole Soumes above mentioned, are twenty seven. The Aikers of Grass in this Mailen are fourty eight, beside that of the Orchyeard (which I reserve for Hay to give the Cattle when sick, or Sheep in a Storm) besides the above said twenty seven Soumes, I may keep on this Grass, fourty or fifty Sheep.

[Page 40]

Let us now reckon what Benefit may be made of thir Cattle; And first, of the ten Milk Kyne, may be made sixteen or twenty Stone of But er, sixteen Stone at a Dollar per stone, is odds of fourty six pounds in Money, three Oxen and three Kyne, I have to sell or dispose of every year, and in respect they will be better fed than Cattle commonly now are (in regaird their Pasture is not overlaid) I may reckon them at eighteen pound the peece, four of them I sell at Hallowday for seventy two Pounds, and two of the Oxen I keep and feed (having good Fooder enough) all Winter, and in February or March, I sell them at thirty pounds the peece at least, which is sixty pounds: Upon the Horses I reckon neither Profit nor loss. Of the product of our Sheep, we may reckon twenty to be brought up every year, their Wool may be reckoned worth [Page 41] thirty or thirty six pounds; I sell or dispose of seven or eight of the weakest of them at Hallowday, at fourty shilling a peece, which amounts to fourteen or sixteen pounds, twelve of the best of them I put into the Orchyeard, and lets them feed there till after Candlemas, and then I can sell them at four or five pounds a peece at least, which is fifty or sixty pounds.

Beside all this, I can have in my Orchyeard, four or five Bee Hives, which may be keeped at little or no Expence, whereof I may make twenty four pounds per Annum, and the half Aiker of Orchyeard I have in Herbs and Roots, shall save a Dozen or sixteen Bolls of Grain; However, I do only reckon it to save fiftie pounds.

Now, Let us see what the whole [Page 42] product of this Mailen or Farm Roo [...] amounts to, in all.

Imp: 214 Boll grain at 5 lib: per Boll. 1070 00 00
The addition alworth of 24 Boll Wheat 72 00 00
3 Kyne and one Ox, at 18 lib: a peece. 72 00 00
2 Oxen at 30 lib: a peece 60 00 00
8 Sheep at 2 lib: a peece. 16 00 00
12 Sheep at 4 lib: 4 shil: a peece. 50 08 00
The profit of the Orchyeard. 50 00 00
The Wool worth. 36 00 00
16 stones Butter at 2 lib: 18 shil: per stone 46 08 00
Honey worth. 24 00 00
1496 16 00
The product of that Mailen above mentioned, was only 733 06 08
Which being deducted from 1473 lib: 16 β: there remains still. 763 09 0 [...]

You may remember I observed the Expence of Labouring and Seed of both Mailens are alike, for seeing I labour but fourtie Aikers of the later, the just number of that laboured of the former, the like number of Servants, and quantity of Seed, will sow and labour both.

[Page 43]

You see I have seven hundered and sixty three pounds more in this than the product of the first Mailen, and I have only a hundered pounds more Rent to pay, conform to the proportion of Ground I have more in this last; But because the Landlord gives me Encouragement at my first Stocking of this Ground, in trusting me for several years a part of his Rent, because at first, the Ground cannot be brought to a good Condition, and because I get a Tack or Lease some considerable time, that I may be thereby encourag'd to improve this Ground; therefore I shall allow him twenty or thirty Bolls more Rent per Annum. Now, grant that I do pay 30 Bolls more than what is above reckoned on, and proportionable to the Rent of the first Mailen, that is one hundered and 50 pounds in Money, take this and the hundered pounds last mentioned, from seven hundered and [Page 44] sixty three pounds, five hundered and thirteen pounds have I still more profit, than he who possesseth the first Mailen, managed as at prese t it is, through the greatest part of this Kingdom.

But beside all this, I offer yet to make it evident, I shall save ten or twelve Bolls of Grain the other doth not, which I do thus; You may remember sixteen Bolls was allowed to maintain four Horses in labouring the first Mailen; But in the other, I allow only two Horses to be keeped, and four Oxen, they need not to be fed with Corn as Horses are, three or four Bolls per Annum, is all that four Oxen will need, so here is four Bolls saved at least, which is but a part of the profit had by labouring with Oxen, for as I have shewed above, sixty pounds may be made every year of two Oxen, after they have laboured [Page 45] two or three years, which cannot be made of Horses, for tho some may make Benefit by bringing up Horses, yet all cannot: Further, than to get Service of them while they live, for all of them must once die in some Bodys custodie; And therefore, whatever any may gain, others must certainly loss of them. But because Oxen are not so good for every Service as Horses are, I recommend a part of each, as most Convenient and Beneficial.

Again, I save six or seven Bolls of Seed, which the Possessors of the first Mailen doth not; And because I had Occasion several times to mention Bolls and Aikers, which are not alike in all places throughout this Kingdom, I shall here tell what Bolls and Aikers I mean off; the Boll is after Lithgow Standard, which contains near seven or eight Potles English, [Page 46] or a galon Scots measure, this is the Stander for Oats or Barly; But that of Wheat, Pease, and Meal one third less: And the Aiker contains an hundered and sixty Pearches or Falls, to a Fall six Ells, an Ell thirtie seven Inches, and a Quarter of an Inch; Three of our Aikers make near a Rood more than four English Aikers; I have reckoned all along a Boll of Grain for Seed to an Aiker of Ground which doth very near jump in all kinds of Grain, except Barly, which doth not require so much, But seeing I have reckoned both Mailens alike, what it varies in the one, it varies in the other also.

But to make my Assertion good, I say, let any person observe, and they will scarce find one stalk of any kind of Grain, but it will have a dozen of Grains upon it, and some will have no fewer than thirty or fourty, and scarce any under twenty, beside several [Page 47] stalks sometimes out of one Root. By all which it would appear, the product is no less than twenty four Fold: And yet (in the mean time) five or six or seven Fold, is thought no despicable Increase.

This says not above one third of the Seed that is sowen doth come to perfection, which I am very apt to believe: Now let us see what are the Causes why it is so, which (beside the fault of the Seed) I can guess at none save two, the Maladies of both I shall in some measure remeed; The first is by reason of the roughness and knotyness of the Ground whereon the Seed is sowen, some of it falling down to the bottom of the Furrows, and afterward being covered with clods and dust, perhaps more than 5 or 6 inches thick, it is either therein chocked for want of Air, or cannot get sprung up thorrow so much Earth. [Page 48] Moreover, even tho it be not so deep in the Earth, yet when the Seed is sowen dry, and falling into such places of the Ground as are also dry, it cannot suddenly chip or spring, and continuing partly moist and partly dry, a great dale of it consumeth before it doth sprout.

That which confirms me in this Opinion, Is, when I have taken notice to Malt upon the Floor, scarce one Grain of ten, yea in good Grain, scarce one of twenty, but what did fairly chip, or begin to shot forth, from which I conjecture, if that which is sowen on the Earth, were as much moisten `d, it would as universally chip: And I believe, very little Grain that once springeth above Ground, doth afterward ail, except the Season be very intemperat.

The way then to Remeed these [Page 49] Maladies, are to steep the Seed before it be sowen twenty four hours at least (some prescrive steeping in Aquavitae and Lyme Water) but I am for no such Curiosity, fearing the Benefit will not repay the Charges; But let it only be steeped in Water twenty four hours, as is said, and let it ly upon the floor till the watter dry from it, and if ye cannot conveniently have it instantly sowen, it will be nothing the worse to ly three or four days (providing ye let it not heat,) it cometh as fast forward on the Barn Floor as if it were sowen: For the Sape or Moisture that remaineth in it after steeping, is sufficient to make it once sprout, & I suppose after it doth once chip or shut forth, it doth not radily afterward fail. And then to prevent its falling into hols, give the Ground a course of Harrowing before the Seed be thereon sowen, and tha harrow it till it be enough, Taking [Page 50] thir Measures, I dar adventur to sow an Aiker of Land with two or three Pecks less Seed, than in following the common Manner, which is more than seven Bols saved of fourty Aikers, if three Pecks per aiker be rebet: But I shall only reckon six saved this way,

Before I close this Chapter, I shall answer one Objection, which some perhaps may frame against my steeping of Seed-Corn, in that I'm of Opinion, dry Seed sowen upon dry Ground is not sudenly moistened, and lying some considerable time half wet half dry, is consumed before it receive Life: Whereas on the contrare it's the universal Opinion of all that have any Knowledge, or Experience of Husbandrie, that a dry Seed time is the most seasonable of any, in so much that it's a Vulgar Proverb A Boll of March Dust is worth a Boll of Gold, but steeping of Seed seems to inferr the contrair.

[Page 51]

To which I answer, this makes nothing against my assertion for as I shewed above, there is a moderat temperature of diverse Qualitys required in the Earth to fit it for bringing furth Grain, & it is not so much the excess of Moister in Seedtime, that hindereth a plentyful Cropt, as it is the excess of Cold, and tho the Earth of it self be Cold and Dry, yet Water is Colder, and when the ground is wet with Rain in Seedtime, it cooleth it so much, that much of the Seed consumeth before it Chip. Another bad consequence that followeth a wet Seedtime, is the ground being Ploughed and Harrowed wet, is in a manner knedded together like Levan, and drying afterwards hardneth together as if it were a Cake, so that Air hath not free access to the Seed or Root of the stalk, and therefore cannot be so fruitful, as otherwayes it would be: Besides all this a great [Page 52] dale of hurtfull Weeds spring up which are incouraged by a Cold wet Season, and geting once above the Corn before it rise keep what advantage they get.

1.1.4. CHAP. IV.
The great Profit of Hedging and Inclosures.

THE preceeding Chapter having already run beyond the bounds I thought to have contained all I had to say on this Subject in; I shall endeavour all possible Brevity in speaking to these Heads I have nor yet spoken to. You may remember at our entry it was observed, That where the Earth is Fertile, there is a moderat Temperature of Heat, Cold, Moisture, and Dryness, and when any one or more of these Qualitys prevail, or are desicient, it is so farr diseased and rendered unfruitful. And also, That the Hot or [Page 53] Salt Quality, is that which is most frequently defective in our cold Climate, and tho it be strengthened, yet by Tielling and Dressing of the Ground, it is extracted forth into the Substance of Grain, &c.

That which is principally required then to bring the Ground to a Fruitful Condition, is to assist this Hot or Salt Quality, and seeing by GOD's Providence, we Inhabit this place of the Earth, which is naturally more cold than many other places thereof, in respect it lyeth more remore from the Sun's Heat, let us therefore endeavour to help by Art, that wherein Nature is defective.

And before we go any fatther, it may be no unseasonable Meditation, to Contemplate upon the Wisdom, and Goodness of that Infinit Being, who has fixed the Sun (that most glorious [Page 54] Creature) in such a Sphere, that by this one body of Light the whole Universe is Illuminated, warmed, and Quickened: For what Creature, Animate, or Inanimate can subsist without constant Refreshment from his Grateful & Comforting Rayes: Yea, doth not all the other Luminaries borrow their Light & Glory off him? What Finit Capacity could ever have contrived, where to place one single body that might give light and moderat heat to the whole Universe? Had the Sun been fixed in a lower Sphere than now he is, the Earth had been scorched or burned up, Had he been placed in a higher Sphere, than the Earth had not been warmed to such a degtee, that it had been possible for Men thereon to live, or any thing therein to grow? Should the Sun remain but a year or two at that distance he is from us in Winter, no living Creature could subsist.

[Page 55]

But the placeing of this Glorious Body, at such a convenient distance, is but one part of the wonderfulness of the incomprehensible Wisdom of GOD, in relation to that Creature; For had not the Sun moved, let him be fixed in what place soever, one third part of the Earth had not received the Benefit of his warm Beams. Had his Annual motion (that is his Revolution thorow the Signs) been also quick as that of the Moon, then Corn, Herbs, Flowers, &c: that had begun to sprut and grow, during the time of his welcome Visit, should have weathered and decayed upon his sudden abandoning of them before they came to perfection. (And here, if it were not beside our purpose, I might ask such as make the Moon to be another inhabited Terestial Glob. what time Corn takes to grow up and ripen there; For more space than a moneth can they not have, for Summer, [Page 56] Winter, Autumn, and Spring: Or else they must call every moneth but one day. And so I leave them to calculat their year themselves.) Or, had the Sun's motion been also slow as Saturn's, or other of the Superior Planets, then these places receiving his visit had been scorched by his long continuance in one place, and other places continuing long in extream cold during his absence, could not but frize before his return: For it is beyond Contraversie, if the Sun did continue any considerable time in one place, things about him would be much more warmed than they are by his transient Visit. As for Instance, Let a person take a Shovel full of fire, and carry round about all the borders of a Room, every particular place will not be so much warmed thereby, as one place is, when it doth remain any considerable space there; Much on this Subject might [Page 57] be said, which surpasseth the Eloquence of the ablest Oratour, or Pen of best accomplished Clark; Wherefore I shall return to what I was speaking of before.

You see Heat is one principal cause of growth of Grain, and other things the Earth bringeth forth; And seing Providence has aloted us to live in this cold Climate, we must (by Art) endeavour to help that wherein Nature is defective, as is said. Which is done two wayes, viz: First, by restraining external Cold, and next, by strenthening or assisting the internal Heat that is in the Earth.

The way to restrain external Cold, is in a special manner, by Planting and Hedging, of which I shall speak more particularly, when I come to treat of Planting; But in the mean time, that I may confirm my Assertion, [Page 58] that restraining of external cold, is no small Encouragement to growth of Corn and Grass, &c: Besides the Reasons given for it in the first Chapter, I shall tell what (from Experience) I have seen, and what any person to their conviction may readily observe; in any place where the Earth is sheltered from the violence of Storm: As for Instance, what Orchyeard, Gairden, &c: being inclosed, under the shelter of Trees, or any thing else that defends them from Wind and Storm; But it is more Fertile than other Ground equal with it in every Circumstance, this only excepted? Again, I have seen where the Wind had passage but only through the gape of a Hedge or Stonewall, the Ground there in the same very bit, and no where else near it, has been visibly a great dale more barren than the rest of the same Land. And on the other hand, where there has been a Bush, or any other insignificant [Page 59] shelter (tho the rest of the Ground about it has been barren) Grass or any other thing growing under the lie of it, has been tollerable good and rank. Instances to confirm this were infinit, wherefore I must conclude, to restrain external Cold, must be no small Encouragement for growth of Corn and Grass, &c.

Having spoken of manuring, or dunging the Ground in Chapter second, and given a hint of what kind of Dung or Manure was fit for every several kind of Ground; I shall not now resume what was there said, only I would recommend this as an Universal Rule, to apply that kind of Manure to every kind of Earth, that has most of the Quality in it, that the Ground whereon it is aid has least of, viz: hot Manure on cold Ground, and cold Manure on Hot Ground; But least some may be ignorant [Page 60] what kind of Dung or Manure is Hot, or what is Cold, know, Cow or Ox Dung is the coldest of any I know, and Horses Dung is more hot, but Sheep Dung is hoter than either; Lyme, Ashes, and Pigions Dung, are also very hot, either of them may be applyed alone, or mixed, as I shall afterward show. But because I spoke of Marle, and perhaps every one knows not what it is, nor how to find it, take Mr. Markem's Definition of it, in his own Words.

Marle, you shall understand, is (according to the Definition of Mr. Bernard Pullisly) a natural and yet an excellent Sorb, being an enemy to all the Weeds that spring up of themselves, and giving a generative Vertue to all Seeds that are sowen upon the Ground: Or (for the plain Husband Man's Understanding, it is a certain rich Stuff, and rough Clay, [Page 61] of a glewie Substance, and not Fat or Oylie, as some suppose, this Marle is cold in Quality, and not Hot, as some would have it) and it was Earth before it came to be Marle, and being made Marle, yet it is but a Clay Ground, all Chalk whatsoever, was Marle before it was Chalk; And all manner of Stones which are subject unto Calcination or burning, as Lymestone, Flint, and the like, were first Marle before they were stones, & only hardened by accident, and so not possible to be disolved, but by fire: As for Marle it self, when it is a little hardened, is only disolved by Frost, and nothing else: And thence the Cause is, that Marle ever worketh better Effect the second year than the first.

This Marle hath been made so precious by some Writers, that it has been accounted a fifth Element, but [Page 62] of this Curiosity I will not now dispute.

Touching the Complexions and Collours of Marle, there is some difference, for tho all conclude there are four several Collours in Marle; Yet one sayeth there is a White, a Gray or Russet, a Black and Yellow; Another sayeth there is a Red and White mixed like unto Porphery. And all these may well be reconceilled, and Collours may alter according to the Climate and Strength of the Sun, so that by these Characters, the Collour, the Roughness, and the Loosness, when it is dryed, any Man of Judgement may know Marle from any other Earth whatsoever: This Marle is so Rich of it self, and so Excellent for Continuance, that it will Maintain and Inrich barren Ground, the worst, ten or twelve, and some for thirty years.

[Page 63]

This Marle is commonly found in the lowest parts of High Countreys, near Laiks and small Brooks, and in the high part of low Countreys, upon Knowls or small Hills, or within the Clifts of high Mountainous Banks, which bound great Rivers in. To conclude, You will seldom find barren Sandy Grounds, but what are verged about with Marle, sometimes it is found within two or three foot to the Surface of the Ear h, and sometimes ten or twelve: It is worth the searching after, and boring of suspected places for it, may be worth your pains.

Having given you this short hint of Markem's Opinion of Marle, and how to know it; I shall proceed to what I proposed, To wit, To give some Directions how to make some further Improvement of the Ground, than what I have showen in the preceeding [Page 64] Chapter, And as I said, seeing Nature hath casten our Lot in this cold Climate, we must by Art endeavour to supply that want the best way we can, which beside the warding off Storm and Winds, applying all or any of the forementioned kinds of Manure, doth also warm or heat the Earth so, that it doth bring forth Grain, &c. without any Fence at all. But know, where there is no Fence or Shelter from Storm, the Earth doth require a greater Quantity of Dung to keep it warm; And to make this the more plain, I shall illustrate it by this familiar Similitude. You know when a Man is going abroad on a cold day, the common way to defend himself from Cold, is to put a Cloak or other Vestment upon him; Yet, by taking a Draham of Brandy or Strong Waters, and walking sharply, he may also keep himself warm. So I say, where the Earth is not defended from [Page 65] Wind and Storms, it must have the more Manure laid upon it; And consequently, where the Earth is defended from Storms, the less Dung will serve. And seeing Manure cannot be had to every peece of Earth, these Fields that are fenced, will not require so much, and so what can be had will serve the more; Wherefore, if in the Instance forementioned, four Aikers and a half was dunged every year, by the dung of the Cattle that were mantained, upon the Mailen of ninety Aikers, then I suppose one Aiker more, the self same quantity of Dung, may manure every year, where the Ground is hedged or fenced.

Now if one Aiker more can be Manured, or (as it's commonly termed) Mucked every year, and the Manure lesting four years, as is shewed above, than four Aikers more Corn [Page 66] may be had every year in a Mailen of the above mentioned bounds; Which being reckoned at seven Bolls per Aiker, as the rest of the Aikers of the said Mailen were reckoned at, maketh twenty eight Bolls more than was on the said Mailen not inclosed: But seeing four Aikers of that which formerly lay Grass is now made Corn, perhaps it may be said the Profit is inconsiderable, in respect four Aikers of Grass are deduced, for the said twenty eight Bolls of Corn. To which I say, notwithstanding four Aikers of Grass are taken off the Pasture, yet seing the whole or greatest part of the Ground is inclosed, and there was in all fourty eight Aikers of Grass, there remains still 44 Aikers of Grass, which according to the Parity of Reason, seeing the Ground is warmed by hedging, so that one fourth or fifth part of the Dung can be saved off Corn-Land, [Page 67] and the Crop be alse good as when it had the whole alowance; than I may reckon the Grass also one fourth or fifth part better then it was before the Ground was Hedged.

Therefore I have not only as much Grass as I had formerly, when these four Aikers were not taken off the Pasture (and the Ground not inclosed) but even tho ten Aikers were taken off, the remaining thirty eight Aikers inclosed, are better than the whole fourty eight lying open without fence. And beside the twenty eight Bolls had more on the Croftland, I suppose the Out-field being inclosed also, may yield a Boll per Aiker more than it did before: Howeverr, reckoning it only half a Boll, it is eleven Bolls in all, which added to twenty eight, makes thirty nine, which in all makes an hundered and ninety five pounds in Money, at five pounds [Page 68] per Boll, so much more is the Product of this Mailen, than what it was before reckoned at.

The yearly Expence is no more than what we formerly reckoned, except the Seed and Labouring of this additional four Aikers taken off the Out-field; For which I shall deduce 12 pounds per Aiker, being in all fourty eight. Take fourty eight pounds from an hundered and ninety five, there remains an hundered and fourty seven pounds. And in respect the Pasture is as much improven by Hedging, as the Corn-land is; A greater number of Cattle may be thereon maintained; And consequently, more Dung will there be made, which will serve to Manure more Ground, than all that is yet made into Croft.

Besides all this, seing more Cattle can be kept upon this Mailen when [Page 69] inclosed, more Profit on them may be also expected. but I shall pass that, and advance yet to another step of improving this said Mailen, which I do two wayes, First by Fallowing, and next by seeking out all the Manure I can possibly get, beside the dung of Cattle, and all rubbish made of the Product of the Ground itself.

As to the Fallowing, I say it was marked at the entry of our division of this Mailen into Croft and Outfield, that the Out-field was divided into three parts, one third alwayes to be in Corn, and two in Grass; If the Ground ly conveniently, I can sub-divide each third part into three parts, and plough six or seven Aikers of the Outfield Grass every year; But if that cannot be conveniently done, I let it all ly till the third year, and then I fallow six or eight Aikers of it, sometime in the Winter preceeding [Page 70] the year I resolve to sow it, and then about the beginning of May, or latter end of April, I plough it over again, and lets it take the drought for a moneth or more, then I harrow it, and lets it ly a Week or two, and then I plough it again, and lets it ly as before, and when the Mould is again dryed, I harrow it again. The advantage of this kind of Labour, is more than can be well credited, by those who know not something of it in Experience.

But that I may not desire any to credit my bare Assertion, these Reasons I shall offer to confirm it. First, By this frequent Tieling and Harrowing of the Ground, it is made mellow and tender. Next, All Weeds, Grass, and other things that may extract the strength out of the Earth, is quite consumed (and be the by, I know no [Page 71] better way to cleange any Ground that is overgrown with Goole) But the chief benefit it hereby receives, is thorow the warmness of the Sun beams: And Dew and Rain falling upon the Earth, no kind of Herb or Grain being to interupt it, the Salt Quality that is therein remaineth still: As also, the warmness it has received by influence of the Sun, for being throughly dryed in the Summer, it doth continue much warmer than otherwayes it would be.

But if none of these Reasons may be convinceing for my last Proof (like the Catholicks who flee to the Testimony of the Church, when other Proofs faile) I leave it to be determined by these who have tryed the Experiment, and to any who ever saw a Fold-dyke made of the very next adjacent Earth, that after being dryed one Summer, and again thrown [Page 72] down to its own place, whither that Ground has not afterward been more fertile than the rest about it, that was not so diged up, and dryed.

In the next place, as I said, I use all diligence for making what Manure I can, for beside the dung of Cattle, which I preserve with great Care, in bordering my Dung-hill so about with a wall of Earth, that no Sapp can run from it, and not only so, but takes care that none of the Piss of Cattle run away, and if there be not as much offfallings of Straw or Litter about them, as may retain it, I take care that it be keeped in a Trough or deep hole, at the Lower-end of the Cow-house or Stable, and causes it to be carry'd then e to the Dunghill, and pour it out there, for doubtless there is as much strength or pith in Piss, as in Dung.

[Page 73]

Again, if there be any Marle, or Sea-ware in the Ground, or any place near by, I make it my business to get as much of it, as I can conveniently lay upon the Ground every year, till it be all gone over: But if neither of these can be had, I look for Lyme; Of which, with old thack of Houses, and Clay-turff diged in some most convenient place of the said Mailen, being dryed, I mix with the Lyme and old Thack, together with Dung and Straw, or any Rubbish I can get; I make a Dung-hill upon some convenient place of that Land I intend to Fallow, as I shewed above. This I do every Summer, or any other time when Occasion serveth; And at the end of three years, the time when this six or eight Aikers of Out-field is fallowed, I lay this Dung-hill upon it; But if the Ground ly so that I can Fallow two or three Aikers every year, so that it [Page 74] ly not in the middle of my Pasture, I lay this Manure also every year, on so much as I can.

Now, after Fallowing and Manuring, I plough it about Michaelmas, and thereon soweth either Wheat or Winter Barly; And if the Season be good, ten or twelve Bolls per Aiker may be expected, without a Miracle. For Fallowing of it self without any Manure, is able to Enrich any ordinary Ground, so that for three or four years, it will bear as much as if it had been dunged tollerable well; But because this Ground has never before been manured, I give it both Fallowing and Manure, to bring it once to a good Condition, and then with resting six, and being but tielled three years, it will continue in a good Condition for ifty or sixty years. Yea, if it be Hedged and keeped Warm, and not ploughed oftner than [Page 75] what is said, it will in all time coming continue much better than it was before.

Now, as is said, taking this course in providing Manure extraordinar, for two or three Aikers of Out-field Land every year, within twenty or twenty four years, it is all thus brought to a good Condition, so that if I please, I need not from thence forth let it ly more but three or four years at a time, and plough it as long, whereby I may alwayes have eight or ten Aikers more in Corn, than what is shewed above: Moreover, every one of these Aikers may reasonably be supposed to bring forth six Bolls per Annum, which is two Bolls more , on each Aiker of the twenty two Aikers of Out-field , allowed to be ploughed each year, than it was supposed to bear in Chapter third, which is fourty four [Page 76] Bolls: And eight Aikers that formerly lay Grass, being now ploughed, and yeelding six Bolls per Aiker, makes fourty eight Bolls; Which added to fourty four, makes nintie two, which at the price foresaid, is worth 470 pounds, for the Expence of Seed and Labour of the additional eight Aikers now ploughed, more than what was before, I deduce one hundered pounds, and three hundered & seventy still remains.

But because Hedging the Ground, and purchasing of this extraordinar Manure, or Gooding (as it is vulgarly termed) cannot be done without some Expence; In reason therefore, it ought to be deducted out of the Product or Increase that is h d of the Ground; Let us therefore enquire what that may be. And seeing we reckoned already four Aikers Croft, and eight Out-field more laboured [Page 77] each year, than was when we summed up the Account in page fourty two, and allowed twenty Shillings Starling for Seed and Labour of each Aiker, we must therefore now deduce all that was allowed for labouring the said twelve Aikers, and allow it in part of payment of what charge I am at in keeping more Men and Horse, than were proposed for labouring the Mailen before it was Inclosed; For since I reckon all charge of Men and Horses that labour the whole Ground, the expence of labouring this twelve Aikers also, cometh in on that account.

I shall therefore allow one Man, and other two Horses, or two more Oxen, to be keeped when this twelve Aikers are laboured, than before; two Horses (according to our first Calculation) doth require eight Bolls of Corn to maintain them, and for a [Page 78] Man's Meat and Wages, I shall reckon eighty or ninety pounds. There was a Boy allowed for Herding, when the Mailen was not inclosed, which will not be requir'd after it is inclosed; Yet I shall allow him to be keeped in this case, not only in Summer, but even in the Winter also, who may serve to drive the Plough; And two Men are sufficient to thresh the Corn, & dress the Garden, and do any other Labour that is to be done, beside the ploughing. Now, for this Boys Meat and Wages all Winter, (you know he's to be kept in Summer however) I reckon fourty pounds. Thir four Men, or at least three Men and a Boy, are abundance to labour this Mailen to the full; And for cutting down this additional twelve Aikers of Corn, let twenty four pounds be allowed. That I may let you see the whole Particulars at one Glanc , I have set them down here in a ormal Account.

[Page 79]
Imprimis, The remain of the Account in page 42 763 09 04
4 Aiker Cro t 28 Bolls at 5 lib per Boll. 140 00 00
On 22 Aiker Outfield 44 Bolls more than was reckoned at first, is 220 00 00
8 Aiker Outfield 48 Bolls at 5 lib: also 240 00 00
Summa 1363 09 04

The Expence that is more required in Labouring of this twelve Aikers that was Un-laboured before the Ground was Inclosed, amounts to the Summ of 254 Pounds, as the following Particulars doth make appear.

Imprimis, 12 Bolls Seed. 60 00 00
Eight Bolls for Horse Meat. 40 00 00
A Man's Meat and Wages. 90 00 00
A Boy's Meat and Wages. 40 00 00
For additional Shearers. 24 00 00
Summa, 254 00 00

This 254 pounds being deduced from 1363, there remains 1109.

To go through every particular, and shew what might be made of Cattle, now when the Ground is Inriched and Inclosed; And also, what [Page 80] Benefit may be had by Sowing Seeds of Cloaver and other Grass, Ryb Seed, and several other wayes how the Land may be Improven; But what is said already, (having run beyond the intended bounds) it may be sufficient to provoke people to try the Experiment. And if this be kindly accepted off, perhaps I may enlarge a little further on this Subject (unless some better accomplished for this Work, do take it in hand, to whom I shall willingly yeeld) in the mean time,I shall hasten to speak to the next Head proposed.I foregot to reckon upon the Profit of the Orchyeard, which may contain upwards of seventy Trees, reckon each to bear but a Peck of Fruit, which they may easily do, before they come to twelve years, which may be reckoned as many pounds; But because we allowed nothing for Lyme, in case it be to Buy, let it go for that Use.

[Page 81]

1.1.5. CHAP. V.
Concerning Stockeeping.

THat which will hold two, will hunger three; Is a common Proverb in every Bodies Mouth, and yet scarce is there any thing less believed, if we may take Peoples practice to be an interpretation of their Minds, for as I formerly observed through most of this Kingdom all Pastours are overlaid, and Cattle in a manner starved; That which therefore I would recommend to all Stock-keepers, or others, that keep Cattle, to keep no more, than plentifully they can maintain: I offer to make it appear, two Kine well keep'd, (and consequently other Beastial) shall yeeld more profit than six, as commonly they now are keeped.

But I begin with Horses, Those that are for bringing up of Horses, I [Page 82] would advise, (if their Stock can reach it) to provide themselves in what Mares they resolve to keep for brood. Choise them of good shapes, & other good properties, then let the Horse or Stalion be the best that possibly may be had, the Brood can hardly choose but to resemble the Sire and Dame, and a Foal of a good kind requireth no greater Expence in upbringing, than that of the worst: Therefore what ever the best can be sold at, more than the worst, so much is your profit thereby.

Then let your Mare be served only once in two years, for a Mare that is giving Suck, cannot be in good condition to breed one in her Belly at the same time; And seldom will ye see a Foal brought up, upon the Dame that is with Foal: But it is much weaker than that which is brought up on her, when nor with Foal, beside the Mare [Page 83] her self and the Foal in her belly, are both much more weakned, where fore if you would have the Mare, or either of the Foals to thrive, observe as above.

Concerning Kine, I shall not now insist, Because I spoke something of them. Chap. 3. I again recommend this as a principle that can never be enough inculcat, keep what number soever your Ground can mantain sufficiently, and no more: Yea let there be rather three wanting of your number of Cattle, then half a soume keep more upon your Grass, than enough.

What is that which makes Cattle in other places, to be more tall and strong, then commonly they are through this Kingdom? But because [Page 84] they are fed more plentifully, and specially when they are young to feed well, is a great mean of strengthening Cattle.

Therefore if you would have your Stock to thriv , spare not to give your Calves Milk abundance when they are young; Whether you feed them with Milk, or let them suck the Dame, no great matter, they may be well enough either of the wayes, providing you spare not Milk: Or if you please to save some of their Milk, then you must supply their Dyet with Broath mixed with the Milk you give them, for Kine that will not give their Milk but to their own Calves, or at least when they are present; I doubt not but they may easily be brought, to give it as kindly, when their Calves are absent, as when present: Providing you use them not to that base Custome. [Page 85] When any Cow seems to be fond upon her Calf, let it not suck her at all, and tho she kick or make stir at first when you begin to milk her, yet by tying of her feet, or useing other means to restrain her from hindering you to milk her, after a short time, she will give her milk peaceably.

The next thing I shall speak off, is concerning making of Butter and Cheese: And to say no worse of it, Our Women generally throughout this Kingdom, kyth as little dexterity in this, as in any point of Huswife Operations I know; something of the Causes thereof, I shall afterwards note.

Tho I can say nothing to this point absolutely, as having tryed the Experiment, and found the Effect answerable to my Expectations; Yet I [Page 86] have discoursed with such as have proven their Knowledge therein in effect, and the Reasons they gave for taking such measures in ordering o [...] their Milk, (as in the following Lines) to me seem so plausible, that I doubt not, but we may have as good Butter and Cheese in this Kingdom, by following the like measures, as readily is to be had any where.

But take the account as followeth, in making of Butter: Take what Milk you have of your kine at one Mai , and put it in a Churn or other Vessel by itself after it is well strained, let it stand in some cold place twenty four hours, or thereabout; If you have as much of it as filleth your Churn, then may you churn it, but if you have not so much as fill your Churn, you may keep it till you get another Mail, or two more to put with it, but by no means mix any of [Page 87] the other Milk with it, until you be just going to churn it, for when hot Milk is poured into that which has stood some time, maketh it to curdle (or as it is commonly termed) sheer, the Cream with some of the grossost substance of the Milk, gathering to the top, it beginneth to sour, and never afterward can Butter be made thereof, so good as when it is taken in due Season: To wit, When at first it beginneth to thicken or lapper, For then the Milk hath a very delicious Taste: And on the contrar, when Milk is long gathered, beside the sheering, or curdling above mentioned, the Taste altereth much and becomes unpleasant, (to speak nothing of wholesomeness in respect I am no competent Judge therein) and in reason, Good Butter cannot be expected of Milk that is spoiled.

If it be here answered by any, [Page 88] there is a necessity for gathering of their Milk some considerable time, because all the Quantitie they have at a Mail or two, will not fill their Churn. To which I reply, let them proportion their Churn to their Milk for any quantity whatsoever above a Chopin, may be churned, and if it be less, I think it not worth your pains: But I pass this, and I shall next give you account of the best Information, I have concerning making of Cheese.

That which is generally imputed to be the Cause, why Cheese is not universally good in this Kingdom, is because the Cream is gathered off the Milk, before the Cheese be thereof made, & indeed in no place where this custom is followed, can the Cheese be good: For as the Proverb is, You cannot sell the Cow, and supp the Milk. Butter and Cheese of the same Milk cannot be reasonably expected, [Page 89] without as much loss on the one, as there is Benefit by the other. That which I suppose may be one chief Cause, why Women take this Method, is because they think little less Butter have they off the Cream, than if they did churn all the Milk together. I cannot positively say which way is most beneficial, but well I wot, Cheese made when the Milk is new and not skum'd, is farr better than that which is made of Milk that is skum'd, and I suppose it is also more Beneficial. And I am also sure (let them take what Method they please in ordering of their Milk) that a greater quantity of it can be had of two Kyne well fed, than of three; Yea, I may say six that are not well fed, which is the chief thing I insist on.

What the particular quantity of Butter or Cheese that commonly is [Page 90] made of each Milk-cow, I cannot positively declare (but as I remember) when I was in Ireland, I have heard some say, that these who kept Derries, commonly make a Firkin of Butter of each Cow (which is about fourty pounds of our weight) beside a Calf brought up on every two Kyne each year: And these that make Cheese, double the quantity.

I need not here trouble my Reader, in telling the necessity of kepping clean Vessel, and careful straining of the Milk, it being a thing known to any body of Common Sense. The special thing required in making of Cheese, is to take the Milk when it is fresh and new, and thicken it without taking off any of the Cream; And be sure the Thickening or Yearning (as it is termed) be also fresh and good, there is little other difficulty in making of good Cheese.

[Page 91]

Now we come to speak of Sheep, the universal Usefulness of this Animal, is so well known, that it is altogether needless to speak to its Commendation, for as it is (I think, I may say without exception) the most useful Animal in the whole Universe; So are Sheep the most beneficial kind of Stock, bringing most Profit to the Owner, for not only do they multiply faster than other Cattle, in coming near to their full Stature in a years time, but also the flesh of them are as wholesome and delicious Food, as perhaps any other whatsoever. But especially, beside all that is yet said, every year they yeeld their Fleeces, which is in some respect the most considerable of all, for without them we might be supplyed in Food, but in Cloathing, I know no how Men can be other wayes provided.

But that you may the more particularly [Page 92] see what Profit can be made of them, I shall suppose a Farmer to possess a Room or Mailen of a certain Bounds, and as we did that Mailen of Dale Ground, first enquire into the present Profit commonly made that way; And next, what Profit may be made by taking another course, so shall I now do in this Case. We need not be inquisitive into the Exact Bounds, nor Rent of the said Mailen, that being supposed to be alike in both Cases. All that we make more by following this new Method, than what was made formerly, is free profit, providing the charge of Servants and other Expence, be alike.

Now, I suppose a Mailen to contain a mile of Ground Square, which is about 800 Aikers, where the Ground lyeth level; But because the most of Sheep Pasture is Hilly and Mountainous, (the same Circumference [Page 93] can contain more) I may suppose it therefore to contain a thousand Aikers at least, on which we shall reckon 4000 or 4500 Sheep may be keeped.

Now I shall suppose on this Mailen above men ioned, there is keeped 4000 Sheep, and 40 or 50 Kyne; the Profit of the Kyne I shall not now speak of, having spoken concerning that kind of Cattle already. Of this 4000 Sheep, I suppose 2000 Ewes, Reckoning these of a year old into the number; Of these 2000 Ewes, I suppose sixteen or seventeen hunderd Lambs to be produced every year, one half Male, and the other Female; Two hundered of which I suppose he may sell in Lambs, at 12 Shilling a peece, which is 120 pounds; An 100 or a 150 I suppose may die in Gelding, and otherwayes while they are young; One thousand four hundered [Page 94] I suppose to remain till Hallowday, but because in many places, not only are the Lambs (as well as old Sheep) fed on bare Pasture, but also in many places, the Lambs are wained perhaps before they be a moneth or six Weeks old, whereby they are keeped in a lean Condition; And Winter approaching, the natural growth of Grass failing, and no other Pasture ordinarly is provided or them in Winter, but that whereon they fed in Summer. Any person may judge how they can subsist, especially in great Storms of Frost and Snow, when for a moneth together perhaps, the whole Fields and Hills whereon they were wont to feed, are totaly covered; It is rare to see a Stock of Sheep keeped after this manner, but one sixth part of them dieth every Winter; But I shall suppose only of this Stock, four hundered to be lost that way, which is scarce one tenth part. But [Page 95] before Winter, I shall allow a 1000 of the said Sheep to be sold at half a Crown, or three Shillings Starling a peece. Now, suppose a 1000 Sheep to be sold at one pound 16 shilling a peece, is 1800 pounds, the Woole of all the 4000 Sheep, and 1400 Lambs, I suppose may be reckoned at one pound a peece, which cannot be valued above six pounds the Stone, good and bad over head, this in all maketh 345 Stones, which in Money extends to the Summ of 2070 pounds; This with the 1800 he got for his thousand Sheep, and the 120 received for his Lambs, makes in all 3990 pounds. For any other Increase had on this Room, viz: What profit is made of his other Cattle, and the Milk of his Sheep, for Brevitys sake, I shall pass without enquiring into, and for these shall allow a greater Summ than reasonably they can be re koned to. The Expence of Servants [Page 96] keeping, and Butter and Tar for his Sheep, I shall not reckon upon: But foregainst that Account, I shall lay the Expence of keeping Servants for attending on the Cattle only, to be kept upon this Mailen, as I would have it Stocked (which certainly must be less, because the Cattle, according to my way of Stocking are fewer) what Servants are keeped for lab uring the Ground, shall have Wages allowed them, off the product of their own handy labour.

I shall now proceed to show how I would have this Room stocked, and improven, For the four thousand Sheep keeped thereon, I demand no more but only two thousand five hundred to be keeped, their increase I shall reckon proportionable to these formerly mentioned: Seventeen hundred was reckoned to be the Product of four thousand, and seeing [Page 97] thir last has a third more pasture it cannot be doubted but they may be in a better condition, & consequently may be more fruitful: However, as is said, I shall reckon their Increase only proportionable to these above mentioned, viz: 1062, for according to the Rule of Proportian, if 4000 yeeld 1700, 2500 yeeldeth 1062, the 62 I discount for Lambs that die while young; For all of the said 2500 Sheep, and 1000 Lambs, I would have Hutts builded, and make them so large, that they may have sufficient Room to ly at ease, and have room to breath, for too much heat may do them hurt; Wherefore little holes or windows in the Walls, will be very convenient, if it were not to preserve them from Rain: And for the benefite of their dung, they needed not to be put in any house at all, but their dung (as I shall instantly take notice of) is almost as material [Page 98] a peece of benefite as any one profite had by them.

Next I would have about two hundred Aikers of the said Pasture inclosed, and not suffer a beast thereon to set its foot, till after Hallowday; Then I make about some thirty Aikers in Meadow: And because some may object that this will be the most difficult Task of all, because of the natural barrenness of the Ground; I shall answer to this by and by: But first I would have an hundred and twenty Aikers more laid by for Cro t, and this may seem another Mystery: But I say again if it be not so mountainous, that it cannot be plewed, it may be made very fertile.

Six or seven score Aikers I appoint for Croft, but if it cannot be plewed at all, I gather the dung nevertheless, and therewith manure the Grass: But [Page 99] I suppose an hundred Aikers or two of the bounds foresaid to be arable, which may be ordered after this sort.

The Sheep you heard, are to be put in Coats every Night in Winter, and even in Summer also, if they be no put in folds, thir Sheep being well bedded or litter'd (for that must by no means be neglected) every one of them including Lambs, will make a Cart load of dung each year, which I value at fourteen shilling each Cart load, as you shall afterward hear. This three thousand ive hundred Carts of dung; will sufficiently dung thirty five Aikers, at five score Cart load per Aiker. But because this Ground is naturally cold, I shall allow six score to each Aiker, which is no worse than nine score common dung, the whole dung according to this Reckoning, serveth thirty Aikers, the strength of which will remain [Page 100] good four years: So by this Sheep dung, six score Aikers is keeped in Manure, each Aiker of which I doubt nothing off, but it may bear ten Bolls per annum: But that I may remove all ground of Objections aagainst the fertility of this six score Aikers of Croft or Corn Land, let the dung of the rest of the Cattle, To wit. A dozen Horses, or Oxen that perform the Labour, and forty or fifty Nolt, be added to the said Sheep dung abovementioned, I am sure no better dunged ground can be required, neither for all this shall I reckon the Product of each Aiker above 7 Bolls, seven times six score is eight hundred and fourty Bolls, less than an hundred Bolls will serve for seed, observing the Rules given Chap: 3. And fourty eight Bolls for Horse Meat, according to that Calculation. Six men are keeped to labour this Ground, beside what are [Page 101] needed for other Uses) whose Mantainance I shall not reckon) laying that aside, foregainst the Servants that were required to wait upon the Cattle, when this Mailen was mannaged as above, an hundred Bolls will therefore be sufficient for both Meat and Wages to these six Men, An hundred Bolls for seed, fourty eight for Horses; and this hundred makes in all two hundred and fourty eight, which being deduced from 840 Bolls, five hundred and ninty two still remain, which being reckoned at five pound per Boll, is two thousand nine hundred 60 pounds, But because nothing is yet allowed for sheering and reaping this Corn, let two hundred pound go to defray that Charge.

Thirty Aikers, as I formerly said, I would have made in Meadow or Hay, for preserving the Sheep in a [Page 102] Storm, and not to go through every particular, and show how much Hay may be made on each Aiker, and how many Sheep may eat a Stone or Load of Hay at a Meal; I say, not to trouble my Reader in surveying every particular, I suppose it will not be questioned, but this quantity of Hay may serve this Stock of Sheep, in cases of extream necessity, when their Pasture are covered with Snow, or if they be in a great strait, they may be supplyed with Corn-sheaves. The way I make this Meadow, or Park (if there be none natural upon the Ground) is by sowing several Aikers of the Corn-ground with Cloaver, or Grass-seed, when it has born several Crops after its dunging, & ready to be dunged again, sow it with Cloaver, as is said, after the Corn is thereon sowen, and the Land made as smoth as possible. I say, about eight days after the Corn is sowen, [Page 103] sow this Seed upon the Ground, and fill your Harrow with Thorns, so that the Teeth thereof go not into the Ground, least thereby the Mould be raised too high above the Grassseed; The Thorns being well tyed into the Harrow, it smootheth a thin Mould over the Seed: So that year you have your Crop of Corn, as if nothing else were upon the Ground. And next year, the Cloaver and Grass grow up plentifully, so that two or three times it may be cut down or moven; Thus are your Hay Parks made.

But if your Ground be so Mountainous, that it cannot be ploughed, nevertheless it may be made Hay, either by laying Dung upon the Grass, or by folding your Sheep or other Cattle, on the place you intend to make in Hay: And after it is pudled and dunged by the feet and dung of [Page 104] your Beastial, sow it with the said Seeds, and Harrow it as above.

Let this Hay be given to your Sheep in time of Storme, as is said; But first provide Racks to lay it in, for if you throw it down among their feet, they will loss a great part of it, by trampling it amongst their Dung; Some place their Racks in the middle of their Sheep Coats. But this I do not commend, for if the Rack be placed so low, that the Sheep can conveniently eat out thereof, then the Woole is torn off their backs, by going through beneath it; To have them placed upon the Wall, I judge more convenient.

The 200 Aikers that was appointed to be hained all Summer, let your Sheep be put on it in November, or as soon as your other pasture grows bare. By this prudent providing for [Page 105] Food to your Sheep in Winter, I doubt not but it may granted, that Sheep keeped after this manner, will be much stronger and more healthie, than those keeped as was formerly supposed; And consequently, their Lambs cannot but be fatter and larger, for how can it be supposed, that a Ewe lying among Frost and Snow all Winter at the point of starving can in the Spring bring forth a Lamb in a good Condition? Therefore we may reckon Lambs of Sheep, keeped after this latter manner, one third better than those keeped as above.

I question nothing but their Wool may be as much improven as themselves; My reason for it is this, when other Beasts are fat and in a good Condition, their Hair is visibly much softer and smoother; Look but to any Horse that is well fed and keeped, and to a labouring Horse that is sore [Page 106] wrought and ill fed, and you will see what difference is betwixt them, and so of all other Beasts. And seeing Wool is the Hair that groweth on this Animal, Why should it not Improve as much as that of others? I doubt nothing, if Sheep were fed as plentifully in this Countrey (as easily they may be, as is shewed above) but their Wool may be made as good, as readily is had any where else.

Now let us see what may be yearly made of those 2500 Sheep, you know 1000 Lambs was supposed to be had of them every year, beside those dying young; A 100 let be sold in April or May, at 18 Shilling a peece, which is 90 pound; Four hunder of the oldest and weakest, let be sold at Hallowday, for two pounds, is 80 pounds; Four hunder let be keepe upon your best hained Grass, which [Page 107] may be sold I suppose at 5 pound a peece, betwixt Candlemas and May, is 200 pound, proportionable to their Number.

Their Wool may also be reckoned more in quantity, than these that are badly fed, for not only is the Wool best on fat Sheep, but it is much thicker and longer also. I suppose therefore this three hundered and fiftie Sheep and Lamb; may not only have as many pounds of Woole, but even one Quarter of a pound a peece more, which maketh in all, four thousand three hundered and seventy five pounds of Wool, which is two hundered and seventy five Stone, seven pounds, reckon this at nine pounds per Stone, is two thousand four hundered and fiftie seven pounds in Money.

The Product of this Mailen, Stocked [Page 108] and Ordered as above represented, after the Expence of Seed and Labouring the manured Land, is deduced, as follows,

Imprimis, Corn worth 2960 00 00
Lambs worth 0090 00 00
Sheep sold in Autumn 0800 00 00
Sheep sold in the Spring 1600 00 00
Wool to the Value of 2457 00 00
Summa, 4907 00 00

The Product of the Mailen, as in the first Description is,

Imprimis, Lambs 0120 00 00
Wool 2070 00 00
Sheep 1800 00 00
Summa, 4890 00 00

This 4890 pounds deduced from 7907, there remains 3037, so much more Increase is there by managing this Mailen, as I have above demonstrated [Page 109] (except 200 pound, to be deduced for Shearers Wages, and what profit is alleadged to be made of Ewes Milk) than was made of it according to the first way of Managing thereof: And call that what y please, the Profit is considerable still.

1.1.6. CHAP. VI.
Something Concerning Planting.

I Shall be as brief as possible in in speaking to this Head; Both because I have insisted beyond my Expectation in the foregoing Chapter; And also, because abundance have been already written on this Subject, better than I can pretend to do.

What I intend here, is only to give Husband-men (who have not occsiion to see such books as treat on this subject) a short hint of what may concern them, in this kind of Labour.

[Page 110]

You may rememberI recommended planting as a great mean to help to enrich your Ground, and Fruittrees, as very beneficial, in respect of their Fruit. The expence of purchassing or upbringing of them, is in a manner nothing at all, a dayes labour or two of one Man once in the year, may bring up a greater Nursary than you will need; Take Seed of any kind of Trees you desire to have brought up, and dress a little bit of your Garden, and sow or plant them there. Be sure not to suffer any Weeds to grow amongst them, when you sow Seed of Trees, and they rise closser than they can well grow together, transplant them to another place of your Garden, a foot or eight inches distance is enough, while they remain in the Plant Bed; Plant but one hundered, yea, half that number every year, will soon plant all your hedges. When they are about six [Page 111] or eight years old, replant them about the borders of your Fields.

Fruit-ttees may as easily be brought up as those which are barren, only they need to be ingraffed, which is done thus; When they are full inch thick, or tho they be bigger, they may be ingraffed also, either by cutting of the Branches, and puting a Graff in the stump of each Branch, or yet in the principal Stock, which (if it be thick) must have four or five Graffs, the manner of performing is thus, either with a Saw, or sharp Knife, cut your Stock about a foot and a half from the Ground, and after you have made it very smooth, take and slit it down a pretty bit, that it may receive the Graff; Your Graff must be Twigs of the handsomest Fruit-trees you can get, of one years growth, only let an inch and a half, or thereby, of that which is under [Page 112] the upermost Knot remain with the Twig, and that peece which is under the Knot, make in form a wedge, but let the bark or reind remain upon the edges of it, then put it into the Stock, joyning the reind of the Graff, exactly with the reind of the Stock, then put a peece of Clay upon the top of your Stock, to defend it from Rain, till the wound close, and foreget not to cut the top off your Graff, i it be long, the length thereof ought not to exceed six inches.

As to the manner of planting your Fruit-trees, observe to plant them at thirty foot distance at least, and if the Ground be cold on which they are planted, you must digg a hole two or three foot deep, and six or eight b oad, where you intend to plant every Tree, and if you put not dung in the bottom thereof, you must at least fill it with good Earth; Some [Page 113] put Coals under their Trees) and then plant your Tree when it is filled up so far, that your Tree hath little enough deepth to root in, then set your Trees upon the fine Earth that you have laid in the bottom of this pit or holl; so must ye do with all your Barren Trees and Hedges, where the ground is very cold, for when the roots of a Tree, is placed upon cold tile or Clay, it cannot thrive: Wherefore in the planting of your Hedges, let the ground be dunged where it is first planted; And if the Ground be not naturally good, you must gather as much of the Crust of other Ground thereabout, as serve to plant your Hedge in. So much concerning Planting.

[Page 114]

1.1.7. CHAP. VII.
Concerning Sowing and Planting of several Garden Seeds, and Roots.

IN this Art I profess not much Knowledge, Yet (perhaps) I have something more than every Husband-Man, and all I intend here, is only to give some few Directions, to such as are altogether ignorant in this matter, how to provide themselves in some common Roots and Herbs, for the use of their Kitchens: Because I have been recommending the Use of Roots and Herbs, as more profitable for House keepers, than to make alwayes Use of Grain for Maintainance of their Families. Wherefore least they object against my Advice, in pretending difficulties from their want of skill in this Art, and the natural Barrenness of the Ground. [Page 115]

To solve these difficultys, I say according to the Measures already laid down, for bringing every kind of Ground to a temperat Constitution, I have shown already that any kind of arable Ground may be made fertile by industrie: And I say again by Hedging and Planting, fence your Garden from Storm and dung it well, you may have Roots and Herbs abundance therein.

To bring your Gardens therefore to a good Condition. First, Digg up or delve your ground, at first about a foot deep: The soard of your ground throw the bottom of the Furrow or Trench, and if there be any Weeds or stones in it, gather them out, this being done about Hallowday, or some time in the Winter; Then in the Spring, so soon as you find it seasonable for sowing of Seeds, dung your Garden and delve it over again, casting [Page 116] it in Plots or Beds. And then you may sow Carrot, Parsneep, Turneep, or Onion Seeds, or any other common Seeds you please, and as soon as any Weeds begin to spring, be sure to pluck them up; In the Furrows you may plant Cabbage, I need not tell you how to set or plant common Kale, few or none but what has abundance of them already.

But when your Ground begins to fail, which perhaps it may do within twelve or sixteen years, even thô y dung it every year, by the frequent labouring and breaking up, it begins to fail, and turn somewhat dead or lifeless, which cannot be helped, but by letting it rest two or three years, or else by Trenching, which is done thus, First cross your Br [...]k or Plot of Ground, make a Ditch about two or three foot broad, four inches deeper than the Crust of the Earth, or [Page 117] deepth you have digg [...]d before, throw the Earth quite out, and seatter it upon the laighest part of your Plot, then dig as much of your Ground next to this Trench, and throw the upermost of the Earth into the bottom thereof; and the new Earth you find below lay uppermost; and when you have occasion to Trench this Ground again, you must dig three or four inches deeper then before, and as often as ye Trench, raise three or four inches new ground, and dung it and sow as before.

I also recommended Potatoes; as a very profitable Root for Husbandmen or others that have numerous Families; And because there is a peculiar way of Planting this Root, nor commonly known in this Countrey: I shall here shew what way it is ordinarly planted or set. But first, know there be two sorts of them, the one [Page 118] knotty and some thing redish coloured, the other long, some thing after an Oval Form and white, this last is set whole, and when the Stalk is grown up, a dozen or perhaps more Potatoes groweth round about the Root thereof, but the cornered sort must be cut in small peeces, before they be set.

Now the manner of Setting or Planting them, is thus, The ground whereon they are set must be dry, and so much the better it is, if it have a good Soard of Grass. The Beds or Rigs are made about eight foot broad, good store of dung being laid upon your Ground, (Horse or Sheep Dung is the most proper Manure for them.) Throw each Potatoe into a knot of dung, and afterwards digg Earth out of the Furrows, and cover them all over, about some three or our inches deep; the Furrows left [Page 119] between your Riggs, must be about two foot broad, and little less will they be in deepth before your Potatoe be covered.

You need not plant this Root in your Garden, they are commonly set in the Fields and wildest of Ground, for enriching of it. The common way Potatoes are made us of, are boyled and broken and stirred with Butter or new Milk, also roasted and eaten with Butter, Yea some make Bread of them by mixing them with Oat or Barley Meal, after they are broken & stirred with Milk, other parboyl them, and bake them with Aples, after the manner of Tarts: Several other wayes are they made use of, as eating among Broath, & broken with Kale. To be brief,Potatoes are as usefull and profitable about a Husbandmans Houses, as any kind of food, I know.

[Page 120]

I might insist in shewing farther, How any Farmer possessing a Mailen as in Chap: 3. May by Roots and Herbs, not onely save ten Bolls of his Grain, but even ne're twice so much. From the middle of August till January he may have Potatoes, in March and April Parsneeps, from May to October, abundance of Milk, Kail and Carrots, and Turnneeps, &c. after Lambmass. But having insisted beyond my Expectation, let what is said suffice at the time, and if this pass the Press again (there being but a few Coppies of this Impression) perhaps the World may have it with some Addition and Amendments; In the preceeding Chapter as a special means to enrich your Ground, I thought to have informed you, that where you can have the Conveniencie to set Water upon your Land, it will much encrease the growth of Grass.

[Page 121]

The way to perform this, where you can draw a Ditch alongst the head of your Field, and foregainst the head of every Rigg, make a little Gape, that you may close or leave open at your pleasure, and then draw Furrows with your Plough and Spade squint wayes, in the declining of the Hill, from the Furrow between your Riggs, to the top or middle thereof, where it is left without any Conduit; Then it spreadeth, and wa ereth the Ground. But that it may not run away as soon as it falleth down to the Furrow again, you may raise it to the middle of the Riggs as before: Thus renew your Conduits till i come to the lowest part of the field.

1.1.8. CHAP. VIII.
Several Objections Solved.

  • NOt to consume time, I shall as briefly as possible, answer to [Page 122] some of the most material Objections I judge may occure; And in the first place, me thinks I hear some thick scul'd Peasant, that sees as ar in States Affairs, as a Mear doth in a Millstone; Saying, What? And, From whence came you Sir? That offers to teach us how to labour our Ground, We and our Fathers, have been bred in Husbandrieth [...]se many Generations, and if there had been any Mistery in it to find, would not they have found it out before this time? Are you Wiser than all that ever have been bred and exercised inHusbandryhitherto? Away with your fool Notions, there are too many Bees in your Bonet-case, we will satisfie our selves with such Measures as our Fathers have followed hitherto.

    Solve, Soft Friend, one Question at once, you run on with a full Carrier; However, to your first two Questions, I say, I am neither Italian, Jerman, [Page 123] nor of any other Forraign Nation and therefore likely to be the less noticed, what farther concerns these Questions, satisfie your self with the acount given in the Epistle Dedicatory. What you or your Fathers have been bred to, or what Misterys they might have found, I question not, neither pretend I to any great Measure of Wit. But grant that what I advise to were new, as it is not, for many in this same Kingdom, and the greatest part of all others I either have seen or heard of, have found the Truth of what I say to their Experience, and if you will make Wit and Reason yeeld to Will and Custom, I have no more to say, brook your Opinion.

  • Object: 2. Some more grave person I fancy, asketh me what may be the Reasons; For (ye know there is never a Tale without a Reason) why this [Page 124] Method I advise to, is so universally contemned in this Kingdom, if such Benefit as I pretend may be had by following of it.

    Solve, So farr as I can understand, the Causes are all or either of these three, the Maladies of two of them your Landlords may remove, and if you take my advise, the third you may remove your selves.

    First, When a Tenent makes any Improvement of his Ground, the Landlord obligeth him either to augment his Rent, or remove, in so much that its become a Proverb (and I think none more true) Bouch and Sit, Improve and Flit. I doubt not but if Fermers had good Security for continuing in possession of their Lands, but they might thereby be much Encouraged to improve them. Another Cause why Fermers make so little [Page 125] Improvement of Lands in their Possession, is Poverty, that great enemy to vertue, for people that are empty handed, are glad to accept any thing that first offers, rather than wait for future great things. Landlords might also give their Tenents Encouragement in this Case, by spairing the Rent for a time. But the principal or chief Cause, is peoples want of Skill to calculat or forecast the Ordering of their Matters, most people thinking it better to take a scant Crop of Corn, than leave their Land Grass, not considering, that by leaving a part of their Land in Grass, the rest that is manured, geteth the greater allowance of Dung, whereby it is Enriched: And that part left in Grass, is also thereby brought to a more fertile Condition. It is needless here to insist on this point, having spent whole three Chapters already, in shewing how I would have Fermers [Page 126] divide their Lands, and take only so much into manure, as they are able sufficiently to keep in a good Condition.

    The two Parables our Saviour adduceth, concerning a King's making War; And other Men's going about to build: That they ought to forecast the Charge, and how they may be able to accomplish their Undertakings; I say, tho that Text is chiefly to be taken in a Spiritual Sense, yet may it be taken in a Literal Sense also; For when a Man undertaketh any Business whatsoever, that is above his power to accomplish, ten to one but his project doth miscarrie.

    And I think Aristotle spoke Truth, when he said, He that is ignorant of Arithmetick, is fit for no Science, which was also the Opinion of Plato, when [Page 127] he affixed this Inscription over his School-door, Let none enter in hither, that is ignorant of Geomitry; When there is so much of it needed in the right Management of Husband Labour, as you may see in Chapter 3, 4, and 5. which is of all Employments; the most plain and natural; How much more is it requisite in other Sciences and Employments.

  • Object: 3. But tho the Method you propose, should be followed, yet no such profit will come thereby, as you would make us believe; For in your Calculation Chapter third, you reckon all things at a disadvantage, in your first Example, and all things to the Advantage in the second.

    Solve, The contrare is true, for according to the division of Croft and Out-field, in the third Chapter, I make the Land taken into Croft, got [Page 128] more than double allowance of Dung, which the other had, and the differrence of product is only three Bolls, which I doubt nothing of, but it may be more: Nevertheless, admit there be but two Bolls of difference, that is to say, allow the Croft according to the first way of manuring, to produce five Bolls per Aiker, the odds will be greater than I reckoned it at when you defaulk the 150 pounds, I pay more Rent for the last Mailen, and beside, there was six Bolls of Seed, and four of Horse Corn saved, which was not reckoned in that Account and why the Outfield in the latter Case, may bear one Boll more per Aike than the first, I suppose satisfying Reasons were given already. As for the profit on the Cattle, I think none can doubt of it.

  • Ob: 4. Your Hedging and way of Manuring recommended Chap: 4th. [Page 129] is so difficult, that the Charge will exceed the profit, Moreover the Hedges will not grow on any Barren Ground.

    Solve, The Expence and Profit are both there reckoned, and the contain doth appear; As for Hedges growing, I have shewed already, that any kind of Ground, by Industry may be made fertile: However, or your more particular Information, concerning planting of Hedges, I say, digg a ditch on every side of your Hedge, or at least one on the outside thereof. Take the crust of the Earth you digg out of your ditches, and lay next to the root of your Hedge, and if the Ground be very Barren or cold, mix dung therewith, for as I observed when I spoke concerning planting, when the roots of Trees are fixed in cold Tile or Clay (tho the Tree it self may be nourished by Dew and Rain, [Page 130] without extracting any Strength forth of the Earth, as I have seen a Tree growing out of a Wall, which had no other kind of Nourishment, but what it received from Dew and Rain) doth in a manner frize, or as it is vulgarly termed, Dozz'ns the Root, so that it cannot thrive: But when a Tree is planted in Ground that is any thing warm, as the Surface or Crust of the Earth in all places is, for it is warmed by the Sun's Beams, and Salt it receiveth in Dew and Rain; And your Hedge being therein planted as is shewed above. And then to preserve your Hedge while it is young, let your Fields about them be Corn, so Beasts will have no access to them in Summer; And in Winter, Cattle seeing nothing to tempt hem to break into your inclosed Fields, the Hedge and the ditch it self, will be sufficient to restrain them.

  • [Page 131]

    Object: 5. But you speak of Hedges keeping the Ground warm; Pray, What shelter hath the Ground by your Hedge, except a Rigg or wo lying next to it?

    Solve, You may remember, I also recommended planting of Trees in your Hedges, which will also ward off the Storm; But even the Hedges themselves (if any thing tall) will shelter more than the breadth of a dozen of Riggs of Ground: And if your Inclosures be not too large, scarce any bit thereof will be altogether void of shelter from Storm, as is said.

    Another great Benefit had by Inclosing, Is, the Fields are thereby preserved from being trampled on by Cattle, which doth not only break the Soard of Grass, but also with their feet, make holes wherein Water doth stand, and thereby the Ground is keeped cold

  • [Page 132]

    Object: 6. You lately recommended seting Water upon our Grass , as a peece of great Improvement, and now ye tell us, that Water standing in the footsteps of Cattle, doth the Ground much injury.

    Solve, Both these may very well be; For Water set upon the Ground, as was shew'd above, leaveth the Salt that is in it behind, and runneth away it self, but that which standeth in footsteps of Cattle, cooleth the Ground, as is said, and also moisteneth it too much.

  • Object: 7. In your fifth Chapter, you recommend housing of Sheep, and taking part of that Ground into Manure, neither of which is practicable, for the Land is so Mountainous that it cannot be ploughed; And it were hardly possible for us to get Hutts built fo so great a Number of Sheep.

    [Page 133]

    Solve, Where the Land is Mountainous and cannot be ploughed, lay the dung of your Cattle upon the Grass, and not to plough it at all; But this needs not hinder People to plough their Ground, where it is ploughable. And for the trouble of building Hutts for your Sheep, the profit of their dung will much more than ten times recompence that trouble: Yea, that which will buy Tare and Butter for Smiring yourSheep one year, will build them Hutts that will lest ten years: And beside, the Sheep are both hereby keeped in a better Condition of body, and their Wool is also improven, as was showed in Chapter fifth.

  • Object: 8. The Benefit of Sheep' dung, by keeping them in Hutts is nought; For whatever the Ground whereon it is laid may be thereby bertered, the pasture whereon they [Page 134] used to be fed, must certainly be so much the worse, for when the Sheeply in the fields, their dung is left upon the Pasture, by which it is Inriched.

    Solve, There is some seeming Reason in this Objection, yet upon tryal it will be found to evaporate, for when the dung getteth leave to ly above ground, not only much of the Strength thereof is defused into the Air, and exhaled by the Sun's heat, but especially the Heat or Salt thereof is not able to overcome the natural Coldness of the Earth, in respect it is scattered here and there in small Quantitys. To illustrat this a little, take a peece of hot Iron, that is able to heat one pynt of Water, and put it into twenty or thirty pynts, it will soon be coolled, and the Water be little or nothing the warmer: So this Quantity of Dung that is sufficient to Warm or Enrich thitty Aikers of [Page 135] Land every year, being scattered up and down a thousand Aikers, the Effect thereof is not known, as is found by Experience.

  • Object: 9. You advise us to dung our Pasture where the Ground is not arrable, which if we do, that Grass, would root our Sheep.

    Solve, I did so, and also there told you make Hay of it the first year, but least ye object against this, I say, there is no Ground whatsoever, that beareth Grass, but it may be made so Fertile, that it shall grow to the length of Hay, or tho it did not, then might you feed on it the first year, other Cattle or Sheep you intend to fatten and sell.

  • Object: 10. As for your Orchyeards, and keeping of Bee's Hyves, these are for Gentlemen to look after, [Page 136] we must be aken up about some other Bussiness, we have not time to spend in looking after such Conceits.

    Solve, I shewed you already, there is Profit no less than pleasure to be had that way; Your Orchyeard, in effect, is nothing, but a Haypark, and beside the profit of Trees, which may be considerable you have as much of it as any so much Ground you possess. And the Bees require little pains or Expence, neither is there any fear of wanting Food to them. In the beginning of the year, the Blosomes of Trees, and Flowers growing amongst the Grass of your Orchyeard, and other places, will serve them; And in the latter end of Summer, the Blosomes of Potatoes, and Pease and Beans.

This is the full version of the original text


climate, corn, dry, food, land, salt

Source text

Title: HUSBANDRY Anatomized, OR, An Enquiry into the Present Manner of Teiling and Manuring the Ground in SCOTLAND For most Part; AND Several RULES and MEASURES laid down for the better Improvement thereof, in so much that one third part more INCREASE may be had, and yet more than a third part of the EXPENCE of the present Way of LABOURING thereof Saved. By JA: DONALDSON.

Author: James Donaldson

Publisher: John Reid

Publication date: 1697

Place of publication: Edinburgh

Provenance/location: This text was transcribed from images available at Early English Books Online: Bibliographic name / number: Wing / D1853 Physical description: [16], 136 p. Copy from: Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery Reel position: Wing / 937:04

Digital edition

Original author(s): James Donaldson

Language: English

Selection used:

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Texts collected by: Ayesha Mukherjee, Amlan Das Gupta, Azarmi Dukht Safavi

Texts transcribed by: Muhammad Irshad Alam, Bonisha Bhattacharya, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Muhammad Ehteshamuddin, Kahkashan Khalil, Sarbajit Mitra

Texts encoded by: Bonisha Bhattacharya, Shreya Bose, Lucy Corley, Kinshuk Das, Bedbyas Datta, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Sarbajit Mitra, Josh Monk, Reesoom Pal

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Genre: Britain > manuals and guides

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