About this text

Introductory notes

Hazin Lāhiji (1692-1766) migrated to India in 1734. He came from a family of scholars and landowners in Gilān. His father had come to Isfahan as a student in the reign of Shah Sulaimān I. Hazin grew up in the Safavid court, and travelled widely in Iran, India, and Arabia. In 1722, when the Afghan army defeated Safavid forces and besieged Isfahan, Ḥazin tried to persuade the Shah and his own family and friends to flee the famine-stricken city; finally, selling all except his books, he escaped in peasant attire. For two years he taught in Korramābād, and organized an army to defend the town against Ottoman troops. He made several voyages in the Persian Gulf, resided at Najaf for three years, and then travelled through Russian-occupied Gilān to Mašhad. Returning to Isfahan, he found the city devastated, and after further voyages, he left Iran for good, horrified by the oppression of the Nādir Shah regime. His memoirs (completed in 1742) say little of his travels in India, where he was treated well but disliked the country and its people. He was patronized by the Mughal court of Moḥammad Shah in Delhi, and hid during Nādir Shah’s occupation of Delhi in 1739. He later moved to Agra and Benares where he died. Ḥazin – the takallus means “sorrowful” – compiled four divāns of verse, only one of which survives.


Mazammat-e- garmā:

dar jahannam kadah-e- Hind ke az tāb-e- hawā / sho‘alah war chun par-e- parwānah buwad bāl-e- malakh.
dārad afsurdah turā shu‘abdah-e- charkh Hazin / che tawān kard kanun māhiyat uftādah be fakh.
baske garmast hawā āyad agar dam sardi / mideham gosh zanad behudah chandān ke zanakh.
har kase rā shaṭi az har bun-e- mooye jārist / shāyad az sail-e- ‘araq shoyad azin khāk wasakh.
na hamin jān asir az taf-e- ayyām godākht / tan ham az kāhish-e- ālām naḥif ast chu nakh.
raushanān-e- falak-e- majmarah gardan bakhail / khunak ān dam ke nawisand barāt-e- tu be yakh.


(Condemnation of Hot Weather) :

In the hell that is India, feathers of the locust catch fire like the wings of the moth due to hot wind.
O Hazeen, the jugglery of the sky keeps thee despondant;
What can be done when virtue is smeared losing its rightful place.
The weather is so hot that if a word about winter is uttered;
I listen to it only as a gossip and a lie.
A sea is flowing from every pore of the body;
This flood of sweat may wash away the dirt from this land.
Not only did the imprisoned soul melt due to hot weather;
Even the body withered because of excessive heat and became like a thread.
What an auspicious time it would be if the luminaries of this miserly, fiery-rotating sky;
Write thy covenant of deliverance with ice.

This text is an English-language translation of the original version:

This is a selection from the original text


body, fire, flood, heat, locusts, virtue, weather, winter

Source text

Title: Diwan-e-Hazin Lahiji

Author: Hazin Lahiji

Editor(s): Bižan Taraqqi

Publisher: Bižan Taraqqi

Publication date: 2016

Original compiled c.1734-1766

Place of publication: Tehran

Provenance/location: Original compiled c.1734-1766

Digital edition

Original author(s): HazinLahiji

Original editor(s): Md. Ehteshamuddin Institute of Persian Research, Aligarh Muslim University , Azarmi Dukht Safavi Institute of Persian Research, Aligarh Muslim University

Language: English


Texts collected by: Ayesha Mukherjee, Amlan Das Gupta, Azarmi Dukht Safavi

Texts transcribed by: Muhammad Irshad Alam, Bonisha Bhattacharya, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Muhammad Ehteshamuddin, Kahkashan Khalil, Sarbajit Mitra

Texts encoded by: Bonisha Bhattacharya, Shreya Bose, Lucy Corley, Kinshuk Das, Bedbyas Datta, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Sarbajit Mitra, Josh Monk, Reesoom Pal

Encoding checking by: Hannah Petrie, Gary Stringer, Charlotte Tupman

Genre: India > poetry

For more information about the project, contact Dr Ayesha Mukherjee at the University of Exeter.