About this text
Muhammad Azam covers the history of Kashmir from ancient times to the date of composition, c.1747. He drew on previous histories such as Ahsan Beg’s Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, and Mirza Haidar’s Tarikh-i Rashidi. The Wāqiāt-i- Kashmir, also known as Tarikh-i Azami, was published in Persian in 1747, and subsequently in Urdu translations by Ashraf Ali (1846) and Hamid Yazdani (1988). The work is divided into a Muqaddimah (description of Kashmir), three Qisms (history of origins and Hindu kings, history of Muslim kings, and Kashmir under the Timurid kings), and a Khatimah (description of Kashmiri subahs). Its geographical position and topography made Kashmir especially vulnerable to famine and dearth. There were acute scarcities in the late 1590s owing to drought, and in the 1640s from inundations that destroyed the kharif crop in Kashmir. The latter crisis led to the migration of an estimated 30,000 people to Lahore. As a local history, Wāqiāt-i- Kashmir is rich in detail, and the extracts selected focus on the frequent shortages faced from c.1597-1747. The selections draw attention not only to events and facts relating to the shortages, but also to the rhetoric and poetry of dearth which is a striking feature of this chronicle.
Chun aks̱ar sāl be muḥāribeh wa tafreqeh guzasht wa ābādi-e- zirā‘at nashud ghalleh roo be girāni nihād wa qaḥṭ-o- ‘usrat be martabai roo dād ke pidar az dahan-e- pisar wa mādar az dahan-e- dokhtar loqmeh mi giraft wa mardum be gurusnagi halāk shudand,
(The Kashmiri army confronted the Turks in 939 A.H.): As most of the year passed in battle and fighting, cultivation of land was not possible and the price of grain increased. Food was so scarce and the drought was such that father stole bread from his son’s mouth and mother from her daughter’s. People died due to starvation.
Digar sānḥa-e- ‘aẓeem ke dar ān waqt (Ali Shāh) roo dādeh ast az qaz̤āye rabbul mota‘āl waqt-e-pokhtah shudan-e- shāli chunān barf be waqt bārid ke kasi az qudamā nishān-e-ān nadād wa qaḥṭ-e- ‘aẓeem dar vilāyat-e Kashmir uftād be martabai ke gosht-e- ādmi rā ḥalāl dānistand wa murdahā-e- qaḥṭ zadah be taḥāshi mi khurdand.
Pādshāh ( Ali shah) khazāen-e- ma‘amurah-e- khud bae moḥtajān dād wa gham-o- ghoṣṣa-e-tamām-e-mardum-e-shahr bar pādshāh afzood. Du sāl badeen minwāl guẕasht, sāl-e- suwwum dar as̱nāye rāh zeetu Chak majẕoob ma‘aroof beh zeeti Shch ke az qabeelah-e- Chakān bood wa beh ṣuḥbat-o- naẓar-e- haz̤rat makhdoom Sheikh Ḥamzah qaddasa sirrahu beh jaẕbah uftādah wa ẕikrash mi āyed beh shāh malāqi shud.Pursid ke ein amr tā chand mi bāshad? Guft tā tu zindah yee. Bād azān maḥsool-e- rabee‘ah āmad wa sāl-e- chahārum mardam az ‘usrat bar āmdand, agar cheh shāh rā faraḥ wa shādi rooy dād lekin az ḥarf-e- majẕ̱oob harāsān bood dar masjid beh huz̤oor-e-‘ualmā wa ṣulahā tāyeb shud.
3.Another great calamity that fell during Ali Shah’s time is that by the will of God, there was such a heavy and unseasonal snowfall at the time of the ripening of rice leaf (dhān), that no one from the elders has ever spoken of it. There occurred such a great drought in the Kashmir region that to eat human flesh was considered permissible and people voraciously consumed the bodies of those who died due to starvation.
King Ali Shah distributed his rich treasures among the destitutes, (but) the grief and anger of the entire population of the city increased against the king. Two years passed like that. In the third year, the king met on his way to Zeetoochak, the devout Dervish known as Zeeti Shah who was from the Chak tribe and was blessed by the favour and the company of Sheikh Hamzah, may his grave be sanctified and who will be mentioned later. The king asked him, ‘How long would this continue?’ ‘Till you are alive,’ he (Zeeti Shah) replied. After that the vernal produce was sufficient and in the fourth year people were rid of their misery. Although this made the king happy, but he was still scared of the Dervish’s words and repented in the mosque in front of the learned and the pious.
(Yāqoob Shāh) bā wajood-e- ayyām-e- sarmā wa gerāni-e- ghallah nau‘aey pāye jelādat mustaḥkam kardanad ke lashkar-e- Mughlia wa Rājputiyā bāwajood-e- ān kas̱rat’ ibarat girfatand wa sar-e-ḥesāb māndand wa girān-e-i ghallah dar lashkar-e- Mughal wa Kashmir bajāye raseed ke mis̱le ān dar Kashmir kam yād bāshad. Mi goyand yak ās̱ār birinj beh dah rupiya raseed wa shikam-e- aspān wa shutrān pārah kardah mi khurdand. Maulāna Ahmad dar ān wāq‘ah hasb-e- ḥāl guftah ast, naẓm :
Inspite of the cold weather and the increased cost of grain, Yaqub Shah stood his ground so firmly that despite their (large) number, the armies of the Mughals and the Rajputs became nervous and were rendered helpless. The price of grain in the Mughal and Kashmiri armies became so exorbitant that people found it unprecedented. It is said that one ounce of rice was priced at ten rupees. People cut open the stomachs of horses and camels to eat. Maulana Ahmad has so aptly said about this:
…qaḥṭ-e- ‘azeem dar zamān-e- (yusuf Shāh) roo dād ke ālam-e- khilqat roo beh weerāni nehād …………do sāl ḥukmrāni kard dar neẓāmat-e- ou dar sanaey hazār–o-chārdeh hijri Akbar Shāh reḥlat guzeen shud.
Great famine occurred during Yousuf Shah’s reign(under the governorship of Mirza Ali Akbar Wasti). The population of the world began to perish. He ruled for two years and during his reign, Akbar the Great passed away in 1114 Hijri.
…….. dar yak hazār –o- bist-o- chihār ṣubah ta‘alluq beh Nawāb Ahmad Beg khān begirfat tā muddat-e-seh sāl tā tawānist sa‘aye rafāhiyat-e- khalqullāh wa ‘adl –o- eḥsān be ‘amal āwurdah dar ān ayyām beḥsb-e-taqdeer khāliq ul anām dar hamān rooz dar sanaye hazār-o- bist –o- chahār ātish-e- qahr-e- ilāhi wa tund bād sakhat nāmutnāhi wazeedan girfat yā‘ani ās̱ār-e- balāye bād wa ṭā‘un zuhoor namood wa kār beh ḥālate raseed ke kāffah-e- barāyā maz̤moon-e- āyah-e- kareema yauma yafirrulmaro min akhih wa ummehi wa abih bar ṣafaḥāt-e-rozgār mo‘āyenah namoodand takfeen-o- tajheez-e- yaki badigari moḥāl shud. Ḥasan sāl nām mard-e- motamawwil bood tamām moat‘alliqānash beh darjah-e- shahādat raseedand, maweshi-e- be‘adad dāsht bajehat-e- ‘adm-e- pardākht rooye beh jungle nehadand. Ein ḥādes̱ā tā chehal roz dar tazāyud bood qareeb do sāl ḥokumat-e- khān maẕkoor boodah dar sāl-e- hazār-o- bist –o- haft ḥokumat beh Dilāwar khān mofawwaz̤ shudah hanooz mardum tāyeb nagashtah balkeh ahle tashi‘e az ta‘aṣṣub bāz namānadah aqrabā wa yārān-e- khāṣ-e- ḥaz̤̤rat resālat rā ṣallallāhu ‘alaihe waṣaallam beh be adabi yād mi kardand………. Bāz bād-e- samoom-e- qahr-e- ilahi dar raseed dah dawāzdah khānah beh sabab-e-wāqe‘ah-e-ātish barbād rafat, masjid-e- jāme‘a kalān benā kardah-e- sultān sikandar but shiken dareen ḥāds̱ā neez besokht.
In 1024 A. H. the province came under Nawāb Ahmad Beg Khan for three years. He tried his best to be kind and just to the people. According to the will of the Creater of man, at that time, on the same day in the year 1924, the fire of the Divine wrath gripped the world and a strong and unstoppable wind started to blow. That is: signs of the calamity of stormy winds and the spread of the epidemic of plague appeared and people witnessed the meaning of the Ayah“ on the Doomsday people will run away from each other: brother from brother, mother from daughter and father from son” reflected on the pages of time. To bury one became difficult for the other. All the relatives of a rich man named Hasan Sal attained martyrdom and all his livestock fled to the forest due to lack of care. This situation continued unabated for forty days. The rule of the mentioned Khan continued for nearly two years. In 1027 the governorship was entrusted to Dilawar Khan but still people did not repent, and the Shias did not eschew their prejudice and spoke about the relatives and close friends of the Prophet (PBUH) with disrespect. Once again the poisonous winds of Allah’s wrath overtook the world and ten, twelve houses were destroyed because of fire. The big Jame Masjid built by Sultan Sikandar, the idol breaker, was also burnt down in this fire.
Tarbiyat khān pidar-e- Saif khān muqarrar beh subedāri gardeed wa dar tārikh-e- yak hazār-o- panjāh-o- haft bar masnad-e- ḥokumat nashist, wa muddat-e- du sāl naẓm-o- nasq wa band-o- bast har chand ke khair khwāh-e- ra‘iyat wa nek andish bood lekin dar qaz̤a nuqṣān-e- kulli beh ghallah rooye āwurdeh qaḥt paida shud mardum az tangi-e- ma‘ishat wa az z̤eeq-o- ‘usrat shikanjah-e-alam bisyāar yāfteh wa az nā yāft-e- qut-e- lāyamu be wādi-e- fanā mi shatāftand. Alqiṣṣa saknah-e-ein vilāt z̤arar-e- māli wa nuqṣani bisyār wa be shumār kashidand wa muddati lab-e- nāni wa rooye ta‘āmi nadidand wa pādshāh az kamāl-e- ra‘iyat parwari ghamkwāri-e- mardum-e- Kashmir bisyār namoodeh wa az atrāf-e- kohistān mis̱l-e- Gujrāt wa Siyālkot balki Lahore rasad-e- ghallah barāye ābādi-e-Kashmir muqarrar farmoodeh wa barāye ein kār moḥaṣṣilān wa sazāwalān ta‘ayyun sākhteh dar ḥuz̤ur ham ḥukm jāri kard ke shāhzādah wa begamān wa umarā aks̱ar khairāt beh mardum-e-ghuraba-e- Kashmir keh qaḥṭ zadah be ḥuz̤ur raseedah bood re‘āyat kardah bāshand .Bahar kaif mardum bajehat-e-qaḥṭ-e-shadeed meḥnat-e- bisyāri kashidand azin sabab ṣubedār rā ābrurezi shud wa tagyeer yāft.
Tarbiat Khan father of Saif Khan was appointed as the governor of the province and was stationed at the ruling seat in 1057 and looked after its administration for two years. Although he was well-disposed and kind towards the people, but unfortunately, the grain got totally destroyed and a drought occurred. Due to scarcity of livelihood and aggrieved by poverty and hardship, people were put to great trouble and were leaving for the valley of death owing to dearth of food. To sum up, the inhabitants of this region suffered a great deal of financial loss and did not see the edge of a bread and the face of victuals for a long time. And the king having great sympathy for his people took care of the Kashmiris and ordered grain from the surrounding hills, such as Gujrat, Sialkot and even Lahore for the inhabitants of Kashmir. And for this work he appointed procurers and stewards. Also, for the immediate need, he ordered that the royal princes, Begums and the nobles should proffer utmost charity to the destitutes of Kashmir who come to them driven by hunger. On the whole, people suffered greatly due to the hardship of famine. This shamed the Governor and he was changed.
Saif khān pisar-e- Tarbiyat khān dar sanah-e- hazār –o- haftād –o- panj beh neẓāmat-e- Kashmir muqarrar gardeed, seh sāl ḥokumatrāni namoodah,……Saif khān beh neẓāmat karrat-e-sāniyah muqarrar gardeed dar sāl-e- hazār-o- haftād –o- noh dar bāgh-e- deetah nār ke ehtemām-e- tamām ārāstah bood nozul namood. Dar ‘ahd-e- Saif khān hazār-o- hashtād hjri suwwum ṣafar ḥādes̱ah-e- zalzala roo dādah az shām tā subḥ tamām ‘imārat-e- Kashmir bedastoor dar tazlzul wa ḥarkat bood lekin chandān āsebe naraseedah. Saif khān ein martabah seh sāl ḥokumat kardah taghyeer yāfat. Iftikhar khān dar sāl-e-hazār-o-hashtād-o- seh khal‘at-e- subedari posheedah ḥokumat kard. Ẓāheran wāqe‘ah-e-ātish-e-‘āmmah ke aks̱ar-e- shahr rā bā jame‘a masjid sokht dar ‘ahd-e- iftikhār khān bood. Ibtedāye ātish az kawah dāreh shud, ‘ālamey barbād-e- fanā raft wa masjid-e- jāme‘a ham dar ān waqt s̱āles̱an besokht. Qewāmuddin khān az taghayyur-e- Iftikhār khān be neẓamat ta‘alluq girfat…….Dar ākhir zamān-e- Qiwāmuddin khān be rawāyat-e- mashhoor wāqe‘a-e-ātish-e- kalān ke mashhoor be ātish-e-kāwah dārah ast baẓuhoor ẓmad ak sar shahr ba b sd-e- fa sa raft.
Saif Khan son of Tabriat Khan was appointed as the Nazim of Kashmir in 1075. He ruled for three years. In 1079 A.H. Saif Khan was appointed governor once again and he arrived at the garden of the Deteh Nar which has been elaborately decorated previously. During Saif Khan’s time, in 1080 Hijri, on the third of Safar there was an earth quake. From evening till morning all buildings in Kashmir shook continuously. But there was not much loss. This time Saif Khan ruled for three years before he was replaced. In 1083 Iftikhar Khan donned the robe of governorship. Apparently the incident of the great fire that burnt down most of the city including the Jame Masjid had occurred during the time of Iftikhar Khan.
The fire started from Kaveh Darah and the entire world was destroyed. This was the third time that the Jama Masjid was burnt down. After Iftikhar Khan, Qiwamuddin Khan was appointed as governor and continued for more than three years. At the end of Qiwamuddin’s rule, as is popularly said, the incident of fire which is known as the fire of Karah Dar occurred and most of the town was destroyed.
Ibrāhim khān az taghayyur-e- Qiwāmuddin khān karrat-e- s̱āni dar awāel-e- hazār-o- hashtād-o-noh ba ṣubedāri-e-Kashmir taqarrur yāfat. Ein martabah dar ‘aḥd-e- Ibrāhim khān dar Kashmir wāqe‘āt-e-‘ajeebah wa hādesāt-e- ghareebah roo dād. Yaki hādesah-e- sailāb ke ba ṭogyān-e- āb khānahāye mardum rā barbād dād wa ‘ālami ba khāk yaksān shud. Mi goyand ke ‘emārāt-e-mardum mis̱l-e- kashtihā darmiyān-e- āb charkh mizad, girdāb sān sargardān mi raft, basāa awqāt khānahdārān ham dareen warṭah mi boodand (ṭoghyān-e- beḥad) tārikh ast. Digar hādes̱ah-e- zalzalah ke bisyār ba shiddat bood wa muddati madeed ba modāwamat-e- zalzalah aḥwāl-e-mardum dar tazalzul mānd…… Ham arbāb-e- wus‘at –o- s̱arwat zalzalah khānahā qarār dādand.
In the beginning of 1089 after the removal of Qiwamuddin Khan, Ibrahim Khan was once again appointed as the governor of Kashmir. This time, during his period, some strange incidents and uncommon happenings took place. One was the flood whose water destroyed people’s houses and the world was raized to the ground. It is said that people’s houses were floating in water like boats, going around as if in a whirlpool. Most of the times, the dwellers of the houses were also amidst this whirlpool. Its chronogram is derived from “Tughiani-e-Behadd” “Limitless Flood”. Another was the calamity of the earthquake which was extremely severe and people were in great turmoil as long as the earth quake lasted. Those who were wealthy and rich appointed “earth quake houses” for the victims of the earth quake.
…… Abul Fatḥ khān ba neyābat-e- Hafeeẓullāh khān sarafrāz gardeed, yak sāl ‘amal kardah neyābat ba nām-e-Sheikh Abul Fath nāmi ke az mansoobān-e- Hafeeẓullah khān bood taqarrur yāfat, yak sāl adāye naubat-e-khud ba kamāl-e-tadayyun wa eḥteyāṭ bood, dar ‘aḥd-e- ou qaḥṭ-e- ghallāt roo dādah mardum ta‘ab-e- bisyār kasheedand.
Abul Fatah Khan was honoured to be appointed as the deputy of Hafeezullah Khan and worked for one year; After that, deputy ship was bestowed upon Shiakh Abul Fatah, a relative of Hafeezullah Khan who did his work with utmost honesty and care for one year. During his time the scarcity of grain occurred and people were put to great grief.
…….Nawāzish khān bār-e- duwwum kha‘at-e- ṣubedāri posheedah Arif khān Diwān-e- ṣubah az darbār-e- mo‘allā nāeb-e-khān-e-maẕkoor shudah bood ba naẓm-o- nasq pardākht……… awāyel-e- sāl-e-bist-o-suwwum hijri niẓāmat-e-ṣubah az Nawāzish khān taghyeer shud. Az jumlah waqāy‘ae ke dareen yak du sāl ba ẓuhoor raseed yaki ḥādes̱ah-e- sailāb ast ke ba sabab-e- kasrat-e-bārish toghyāni shiddat kardah aks̱ar khānahā wa mazroo‘āt barham khurdah wa awākhir-e- sāl dar tābistān hādes̱ah-e- ātish dar maḥallat-o-bāzār-e-ṣarrāfān roo dād tā maḥallah-e- Melcher wa aṭrāf-e- ān qareeb bist maḥallah zeyādah bar sey-o- chehl hazār khānah sokht. Algharaz̤ ba ḥādes̱ah-e- āb –o- ātish ‘ālami bā khāk yaksān shudah bar bād-e- fanā raft.
Nawazish Khan donned the robe of governorship for the second time. Arif Khan, the Diwan of the province was appointed as his deputy by the royal court and looked after the administration.
In the beginning of the 1023 Hijri, the governorship of the province was transferred from Nawazish Khan. Among the events that took place during these one or two years, one is the occurrence of the flood. Excessive rain caused the flooding which destroyed a number of houses and agricultural fields. And at the end of the year, in Summers, a fire broke out in many quarters of the town and in the market of the jewellery makers. Upto the locality of Melcher and its vicinity nearly twenty localities, more than thirty or forty houses were burnt down. To sum up, due to the calamities caused by the water and the fire, the world became like dust and went up in the wind of destruction.
…….Aẓam khān awāel-e- sāl-e- hazār-o- yak ṣad-o-sey-o- shish ba Kashmir raseed. Az wāqe‘āte ke dar aḥd-e-ou dar Kashmir roo dād woqoo‘e qaḥṭ-e- azeem ast. Har chand āgāz-e- ān dar neyabat-e- Abul Barkāt khān shudah bood lekin dar aḥd-e- Azam khān qismey ba kamāl raseed ke az qoroon-e- sābiqah ham kamtar mis̱āl ba woqoo‘a āmdah, kase rā ba hasht rupiya kharwār-e- shāli bedast nayāmad wa berinj ḥukm-e- ṭalā girfat, mardum ba sabab-e-gursunagi fauj fauj halāk shudnad. Rāqim-e- ein nuskha mas̱nawi-e- ṯulāni moḥtawa bar ḥālāt-e- ān ayyām nawishtah bood chand bait azān munāsib-e- hāl marqoom mi shawad:
Ba‘ad chand māh ātish-e- qahr-e- qaḥṭ ba ābyari-e- faz̤al-o- eḥsān ilāhi faru nashist wa azān ṣurat-o- shiddat bāz mānd ammā muddathā as̱ar-e- ān bāqi mānd.
In the beginning of 1136 Hijri, Azam Khan reached Kashmir. Among the events of his time in Kashmir one is the occurrence of the great famine. Although it had begun during the time of the deputyship of Abul Barkat Khan, yet it attained such proportion during Azam Khan’s reign that in the past centuries such a famine has never been seen. No one was able to acquire an ass load of rice leaf even for eight rupees and rice became like gold. People died in hoards due to starvation. The present writer had composed a long masnawi describing the condition of those days; some couplets are quoted here:
After a few months, the fire of the famine’s wrath was extinguished by Allah’s favour and kindness and the severity and hardship was lessened. But its impact continued for quite some time.
.… Eḥterām khān az taghayyur-e- Abul Barkāt khān ba neyābat-e- Ameer khān taqarrur yāfat. Muma elaih ba Kashmir raseedah ittefāqan qillat-e- ghallāt roo dād, mujarrad dokhul-e- ou dar shahr hujoom-e- ‘awām ba sabab-e- kami-e- shāli wa nālish ānhā hangāma ārāye koocha–o-bāzār shud wa Eḥterām khān az rāh-e-nādānistagi-e- khud wa eghwāe mardum-e- injā ke ba‘az nuqoosh barāye pish āmad-e- khud wa khudkhwahi parwāye kharābi-e- shahr wa be ābrooyee-e- ḥākim-e- dahr nakardah ein kār rā har waqt pesh girftand ma‘aqoolash namoodand bajihat-e-ghallāt mo‘atariz har kas shud shahr āshoob-e- ṭurfah bah ‘amal āmad ‘awāmulnās ba taḥreek-e-ahl-e-fasād wa eghwa az ẕāt raftah ke wāqe‘ah shadeedah ‘ilāwah hangāmahā wa fasādāt-e- digar roo dād
After the removal of Abul Barkāt Khan, Ehterām Khan became the Deputy of Amir Khan. Upon his arrival in Kashmir, dearth of grain occurred. As soon as he entered the city, people crowded the streets and the markets because of paucity of food. Ehterām Khan due to ignorance and selfishness, did not pay heed to the turmoil of the city and neither did he care for the disgrace of the rulers. (on the contrary), he, on the behest of mischief-makers, harassed people for the sake of grain thus causing a new disturbance.
Dil-e-Diler khān ke az mardumān-e Pani pat bood tawaṣṣul ba mansoobān-e-jahan sahi dāsht neẓāmat-e-Kashmir az taghyeer-e- Ameer khān rāyat-e- e‘atibār afrāsht, moshārun elaih har chand ba irādhah-e- Kashmir rawānā shudah bood ammā dar Lahore qaẓā namood. Az jumlah ḥawādis-e-kulliyah ke dar ān hangām dar Kashmir roo dād awwal ḥādisah-e-sailāb ast ke awāyel-e- sāl-e- yak hazār –o- yak ṣad-o-chehl-o- hasht hijri ba afrāṭ ṭoghyān namood wa muddati āb-e- bisyār dar shahr wa khānahā wa biroon-e- shahr mānd wa mardum ta‘ab kashidand, dar ākhir-e-hamān sāl shab-e- bist-o- duwwum shahr ẕeeqa‘adah zalzalah-e- aẓeemi ke nishān-e-qiyāmat-e-kubrā bood ba zuhoor āmad, khānahāye bisyār dar shahr wa dehāt uftādand, buniyād-e- hast-e-i ālamey rā barbād dād, qareeb seh māh ein zalzalah ẓāhir bood amma mis̱l-e- awāyel shiddat nadāsht wa shabāna rozi chand bār larzah mi shud bah ḥaddi ke mardum māyoos shudand. Tārikh-e- ein zalzalah rā bāzi aṣḥāb-e-baleegh az āyah-e- karimah ebtoleyal momenoon wa zulzelu zilzālan shadeedā iqtibās kardand. Alḥaq ke mo‘ajizāt –e-kalām-e- khālequl bariyāt ast ba‘ad daf‘a-e- ein hādis̱ah-e- mufsidah ahl-e- Kashmir bā nāyab nāẓim ba miyān āmad.
Dil Deler Khan of Panipat, a recipient of Shahjahan’s favours, got the governorship of Kashmir after the removal of Amir Khan. He set out for Kashmir but died on his way in Lahore. Among all the events that happened in Kashmir at that time first is the calamity of the flood in the beginning of 1148 Hijri, which was torrential. A great deal of water accumulated in the houses, in the desert and outside the city and stayed there for a long time, surprising the people. At the end of the same year, in the 22nd night of the month of Zuq‘ad, a great earth quake resembling the Great Doom’s Day (Qeyamat-e-Kubra) occurred. Many houses in the city and villages were raized to the ground. The very foundation of life on earth was destroyed. This earthquake continued for nearly three months although was not as severe as it was in the beginning. The earth shook at least a few times during twenty four hours with such severity that people lost all hope. Some witty ones sought the chronogramm of this earthquake in this Ayah of the Quran which is amongst the most miraculous words of the Creator of the worlds: “The Faithfuls are tested with severe earth quakes.”
Abul barkāt khān dar duwwum-e- zeeq‘adah (1167) dar guzasht. Afrāsyāb Beg khān az molāzemān-e-qadeem-e-ein khāndān ba neyābat-e- ṣubah dar Kashmir mānd. Dar aḥd-e-khān-e-mazkoor wāqe‘āt-e- kulliyah ke roo dād yaki waqoo‘a shiddat-e- qaḥṭ-e- ghallāt ke munjir ba halāk-e- re‘āyā shud. Chun az muddat-e-du sāl ba sabab-e-shorish-e-arbāb-e- ghewāyat-o- z̤alāl aqsām-e- ikhtelāl ba hāl-e- mazari‘ān –o- re‘āyā rāh yāftah bood asbāb-e- zarā‘at wa dawāb-e- ḥarrās ke az aks̱ari ba tākht raft bilkul mafqood shud wa ‘alāwah ān nuzool-e- bārān-e- maufoor be waqt fuqdān-e- ān dar waqt-e- z̤aroori maujib-e- ābādāni kari shud wa ghallāt roo ba kami āwurd wa ba sabab-e- bad niyyati-e- ghallah faroshān wa be raḥmi-e- ishān agar chizi maujood ham bood hargiz dar naẓar-e- moḥtājān jalwa-e-ẓuhoor nami namood nāyāb-e- muṭlaq shud wa ‘usrat ba ghāyat-e- ṣa‘ubat-o- kurbat anjameed wa bād-e- qahr-e- ilāhi silsila junbān-e-ātish-e-ghaẓab-e-pādshāhi gardeed wa ‘ālami rā az akābir–o-aṣāghir ba khāk-e-be abrooi rasaneed, rupiya ra du asar berinj ba dast-e-kasi nayamad, bawajoodi ke malboosāt –o- zewarāt rā khāk …binā bar fuqdān-e- ghallah ba ātish-e- joo‘a sokhtand, bait:
Murdahāi qaḥṭzadah rā awāil kāh poshi kardah ba khāk mi supurdand choon kār ba ‘ijz raseed marawwat manashi baḥāl-e- mayyat farmoodah ba darya mi burdand āb-e- darya az wafoor-e- mautā motaghayyar balke munaghghaz̤ shud, digar furṣat ba āb andākhtan ham namānad waivā beyandākhtand,sag-o-gurbah wa ṭair bakhurdan-e-ān mayyat minnat-e- ‘uẓmā bar zindagān nihādand. Masmoo‘a shud ke ba‘az̤ejāhā mardum dast ba gosht-e- ādam ham balke aṭfāl-e- khud rā ba zauq-e- tamām khurdand, maghz-e- panbah dānah wa sabza har jins ne‘amati ke bood badast-e-kudām iqbālmand āmad, yak s̱uls̱ ba halāk raseed wa s̱uls̱-e- digar rāh-e- farār giraft wa s̱uls̱ sālim, bāqi ta‘adād-e-aṭfāli ke ba farokht āmdand che maqdoor qismat-e- ādam ba du tinkah wa seh tinkah raseed wa ‘adas-o- jau ḥukm-e- dawā giraft. Az ibtidāi rabi‘ul awwal muqaddama-e- qaḥṭ ba ‘urooj āmdah tā ākhir-e- ramzānul mubārak shiddat wa ḥiddat dāsht, ābwāb-e-fazl filjumlah ba rooye khalāiq maftooḥ gardeed.
Al Barkāt Khan passed away on 2nd Zuqad 1158 A.H. and Afrasiāb Beg who was one of the old servants of this family was appointed as governor in the province of Kashmir. During his time a number of calamities occurred. Among these, one was a great famine which resulted in great loss of life. Due to the turmoil and disturbance caused by miscreants, the farmers and the common people have been facing great trouble for two years. Tools of farming and the livestock were mostly destroyed and were not available at all. Moreover, unseasonal and heavy rainfall and its dearth at the time when it was needed, played havoc with crops and agricultural yields and the grain became scarce. And due to the dishonesty and mercilessness of the grain-merchants, the needy could not even afford a glimpse of the grain even if it was available. So, it vanished totally. Great distress and pain were caused as a result of poverty. The wind of the Divine wrath provoked the fire of royal displeasure. The great and the poor of the world alike were made to lie on the dust of disgrace. People sold their dresses and jewellery at the price of dust but even then two ounces of rice could not be purchased for one rupee. People burnt in the fire of hunger because of scarcity of food.
In the beginning, the corpses of those who died of drought were covered with grass and buried. But when matters worsened even more, they took pity on the dead bodies and drowned them in the river. The river water not only changed colour due to excess of corpses, it began to smell most foul. Later, when there was no time (to take care of the dead bodies), they were scattered hither and thither and the dogs, cats and birds did a great favour by eating the corpses. It has been heard that at some places, people not only ate human flesh with great relish, but also that of their children. The vegetables and the cotton seeds were luxuries that were not available to even the fortunate ones.
One third perished, the other third fled and only one third remained alive. A number of children were sold at the price of less than a few Takas, as was their luck.
Pulse and barley were valued at the price of medicine. In the beginning of Rabi-ul-Awwal the drought reached its height and its severity and ferocity continued till the Ramzan. After that God had mercy on the people.
...Dar sāl-e- 1160 bā waṣf-e- maujood boodan-e- ghallāt qaḥṭ-e- farmāishi ba a’mal āmad wa kharwār-e- shāli ba shish haft rupia raseed, dar hamin hālat yak rozi awāil-e- jamādiul awwal bād-e-qahr-e-ilāhi wazeedan giraft, az do pahar tā qarib-e- ghuroob ba sabab-e- shiddat-e- bād wa gard-o- ghubār wa ghalba ba hālat-e- ẓulmat bāz tāriki āwurd gharāibul aḥwāli bar rooye jahāniān zuhoor kard, hanooz bist roz azin hālat naguẕashtah bood ke bārān-e- ghair mausam ba wafoor nā maḥṣoor haft hasht roz ‘alal ittiṣāl mutrākim shudeh wa toofān-e-āfat-o-balā qismi bar angekht ke az qorun-e- māz̤ia ‘ushre ‘ashir-e- ān kasi rā yād nist, naẓm:
“Toghyān-e- mulk” tārikh ast. Ziyādah bar si hazār khāna-e- khurd –o- kalān az bārān roo ba weerāni nihād, pulhāi nafis-e- shahr barham khurdah wa mahṣulāt wa ghallāt rā tabāhi rasid.
In the year 1160 despite the availability of grain, a great famine occurred and one assload of rice leaf was priced at 6,7 rupees. During this period, one day in the beginning of Jamadi-ul-Awwal, the Wind of Divine wrath started to blow: Due to strong wind and dust, it remained totally dark from noon till sunset and people were faced with a unique predicament. Even twenty days have not elapsed since this, that heavy, unseasonal and persistent rains started which did not stop for seven or eight days. Torrential rain water caused such great havoc and distress to the people, that a tenth of which had not been experienced by anyone before.
Water engulfed everything from the earth to the sky. It swallowed more than thirty thousand houses and beautiful bridges of the city collapsed and the crops and grain were ruined.
dar pargana-e- Oolar chashmah eist musammā Batool sar ke dar sāl-e- khushki wa qaḥṭ-e- āb mutwaṭṭin-e-ān pargana bālāi ān chashmah giryah-o- zāri mi numāyand ba zabān-e- khushu‘a wa khuzu‘a istid‘ā-e- āb mi kunand ba mujarrad woqu‘e’ ein hāl abri padid mi shawad bārān-e- dilkhwāh ba faz̤l-e- izadi mutqāṭir mi gardad.
In the Wooller district, there is a stream called ‘Batool Sarkah’. In the year of drought and famine, the inhabitants of that district weep and wail on the banks of that spring and pray for the rain with great humility and reverence. As soon as this happens, the rains start to fall by the grace of God.