About this text

Introductory notes

The Tabaqat-I-Akbari is a three-volume chronicle compiled by Khwajah Nizamuddin Ahmed(1551(?)-1594) (who was appointed as a Bakshi by Emperor Akbar). The account covers the earliest Muslim invasions (from 986 A.D.) and concludes at the thirty-eighth year of Akbar's reign (1593-94 A.D). In compiling this chronicle, Ahmed cites the use of twenty-nine other works. The work has been translated into English by Dr.Brajendranath De (1852-1932). W.N.Lees and H.Blochmann had laid emphasis upon the need to translate this text in the 1860s but it was only in 1927 that the first volume of the translated text appeared. The second volume of the translation appeared in 1931 and the third and final volume was completed in 1936 by Shams-ul-'Ulama Khan Bahadur Hidayat Hosai and then revised and edited by Baini Prashad. Our selected excerpts contain descriptions of famines, climate, feasts, abundance and charity.

Primary Sources Khwajah Nizamuddin Ahmed, Tabaqat-I-Akbari (Persian),3 vols, ed. B.De and M.Hidayat Hossain (Calcutta:Bib.Ind., 1931-35) Khwajah Nizamuddin Ahmed, Tabaqat-I-Akbari (English),3 vols, trans. B.De and Baini Prashad (Calcutta:Bib.Ind., 1927-35)



[Page 207]


may God sanctify the days of his reign and prolong the shadow of his justice and benevolence.

[Page 208]

Although that asylum of all wisdom and excellence, the man, who knows all physical and spiritual truths, who is near to the thres-hold of sovereignty, the trusted confidant of the imperial State, the most erudite Shaikh Abul Fazl has written a description of the won-derful events of the reign of the Khalifa-i-Ilāhi, from the time of his auspicious birth, to this day, which is in the thirty eighth year of the Ilāhi era, corresponding with the year, one thousand and two Hijri partially and entirely in his highly-entitled book called the Akbar-nāma, with his elegantly-writing pen, yet as this servant of the threshold, Nizām-ud-din Āhmed Mutasaddi, has described the histories of all the Sultāns, who have raised the standard of sovereignty in the realm of Hindustan, it is obligatory on him to write an account of the events(of the reign) of His Majesty the Khalifa-i-Ilāhi ; consequently taking a drop from that immense ocean, he satisfies his thirsty soul. And although it is fit that a description of the events of his (Majesty’s) reign should be the prefatory beginning of all books, not to speak of this one, yet as he has had a chronological arrangement before his eyes, he makes the narration of the auspicious events of His Majesty's reign, the end of the section about the Sultāns of the court of Dehli, which is the centre of Hindustan.

Let it not remain unobserved, that in the history of His Majesty Jinnat Ashiāni, we have reached to this point, that the mighty prince, i.e His Majesty Khalifa-i-Ilāhi was deputed from Dehli to the Siwalik hills, with the pillar of the state, Bairām Khān, in order to crush and put down Sikandar Khān Afghān. When his Majesty reached the neighbourhood of pargana Kalānur, one of the dependencies of Lahore, the dreadful news of the passing away of His Majesty Jinnat Ashiāni arrived from behind. His Majesty felt much pain and tribu-lation, on hearing the terrible news of the strange occurrence.

Bairām Khān, the commander–in-chief, in concurrence with the amirs and the great officers of the army, placed His Majesty on the throne of empire, at midday on Friday the second of the month of [Page 209] Rabi'-ul-ākhir in the year 963 A.H., when Orion was on the ascendant, in front of the town of Kalānur, and proclaimed the glad tidings of justice and beneficence, to the World and all the people; and having carried out the ceremony of felicitation on the occasion, sent farmāns of peace and good-will to all parts of India.


He on the throne appeared, resplendent as the Sun!
The sky its loins did gird in his service high!
He shone on high, like the glorious Sun!
And scattered fortune great, over all the world!
All the great did him felicitation give!
And by that, they themselves did exalt!
Offerings they made, that did the throne befit!
They scattered them over the triumphant prince!


[Page 210]

As the extermination of Sikandar Afghān was under considera-tion, the servants of His Majesty did not attend to measures for his (Shāh Ab-ul-Ma’āli’s) capture. They first of all, sent a body of experienced soldiers against the Sikandar. The imperial troop came up with the Afghāns, in the neighbourhood of the hilly country of Siwalik; and after fighting with them, gained a victory and were honoured with marks of imperial favour. As Sikandar had taken shelter in the defiles of the hills and jungles, the victorious standards passed three months in that neighbourhood in seeing the country and [Page 211] in hunting, and made endeavours to destroy them. Rājā Rām Chand, Rājā of Nagarkot, who was among the renowned Rājās of the Siwalik hills, came to kiss the threshold, and his Majesty left the place, on account of excessive rain; and remained for five months, in the neighbourhood of Jālandhar.

[Page 282]


On the 12th of the sacred month of Zi-qāda in the year 971 A.H., corresponding with the 9th year of the Ilāhi era, the auspicious camp came into motion from the metropolis of Agra, with the object of hunting elephants ; and the banks of the river Chambal became the place of the pitching of the victorious tents. On account of heavy rain and the inundation of the river, and the violence of its waters, there was a halt of ten or twelve days of that place. At the time of crossing the river, the special elephant of the emperor, which had the name of Lakhna, was drowned. When the neighbourhood of the town of Narwar became the august halting place, in those jungles which were the abode and asylum of elephants, the shadow of the royal favour was cast on the hunting of those animals, and the emperor stayed there for some days, in carrying out those pursuits. And in arranging and planning this kind of hunting which is the most arduous, he brought many curious inventions into practice, and captured a large number of elephants.

[Page 283]

When that neighbourhood became denuded of elephants, the bridle of determination was turned in the direction of Mālwa, and the town of Rabud became the halting place of the victorious standards, and owing to the heavy rain, a halt of two days was made opposite to that town. The emperor marched from that place in the direction of Sārangpur. Owing to the very heavy rain, and the many streams and water courses, and the muddy state of the ground, the victorious troops pursued their way with great difficulty and labour. When the emperor arrived in the town of Sārangpur, Muhammad Qāsim Khān Naishāpuri, who was the governor of the place, came out to welcome him, and presented various offerings as tribute. The next day the standards of determination moved forward, and when they arrived in the neighbourhood of Mandu. Abd-ul-lah Khān Uzbek, the governor of the place, having heard of the progress of the sublime standards, became much alarmed, as he had done certain things which might be contrary to the wishes of the emperor, took to flight, and send-ing forward his family started towards Gujrāt.


[Page 287]

At the time, when the emperor returned from Mandu, and was occupied with pleasure and enjoyment at the capital, he used to go often on pleasure trips to Kerani, which among the places in the neighbourhood of the capital city of Agra, was distinguished for the sweetness of its water and the delicacy of its air. As the open place there was fit for the erection of elegant buildings, a farman was issued for the planning and construction of grand palaces; and within a short time, beautiful mansions and elegant structures were completed; and a great city was built, which received the name of Nagar-chain.

[Page 310]


[Page 312]

In the month of Rajab, this year, when the emperor was en-camped in state near the pargana of Nizāmābād, the ceremony of the weighing of the emperor, which was performed every year, was celebrated. The description of this august ceremony is in this wise. His Majesty the emperor was weighed every year, on the day of his auspicious birth, twice every year according to the solar and lunar [Page 313] dates, in the presence of the pillars of the state, and the great men of the empire, against gold and silver and other things; and the whole of these things were distributed to the poor and needy.

[Page 360]


On Thursday, the 3rd of Muharram in the year 978 A.H.(7th June, 1570), corresponding with the fifteenth year of the Ilahi era the rising took place of the star of empire and greatness, Shāhzāda Shāh Murad, in the house of Shaikh Salim. His Majesty the Khalifa-i- Ilāhi, in thanksgiving of this great gift, put the hand of liberality and generosity, out of the sleeve of benevolence and bounty, and arranged a great feast. The various ranks of the people became prosperous from the gift of His Majesty’s universal rewards. The amirs and the attendants of the sublime threshold presented suitable offerings, according to their different grades, and were honoured with valuable robes of honour. All praise be to God for His continuous favours and for His innumerable blessings. Maulāna Qāsim Arslān [Page 361] composed a chronogram, on the birth of Shāhzāda Shāh Murād, from the first hemistich of which, the date of the birth of the illustrious Shāhzāda Sultān Salim, (may God grant him the utmost of his desires!) and from the second hemistich of which the date of the birth of Shāhzāda Shāh Murād could be obtained.


From light of purest ray like Sultan Salim, there came
The standard of Shah Murad, son of Akbar, the just.
[Page 361]


As his Majesty used to go once every year, from whenever he might happen to be, to Ajmir for the purpose of circumambulating the tomb of the Polestar of the seekers of God, Mu'in-ul-Huq Wad-ud-din Hasan Sanjari, (may his tomb be sanctified!) in this auspicious year also, he put his foot of state in the stirrup of happiness, and started for Ajmir, on the 20th Rabi'-ul-Ākhir in the year 978 A.H., in order to offer thanks for the great gift. He waited for twelve days in Futhpur for arranging various necessary matters; and then, by suc-cessive marches, he arrived at Ajmir, and made it the object of the envy of the gardens of paradise. He pleased and gratified the resi-dents of that delectable garden by universal benefactions. He also, for the purpose of ameliorating the condition of the people, (a desire for) which had been ingrained in the composition of the creed of that bādshāh of sublime descent, ordered that strong fortification should be erected around Ajmir. A grand palace was also erected for his own residence. The amirs and Khāns and other attendants of the thres-hold vied with one another in the erection of mansions. His Majesty distributed the village and hamlets in the neighbourhood of Ajmir, among the amirs, that they might spend the income derived from them in the construction of their houses. Then, on Friday, the 4th Jamādi-ul-ākhir of the afore-mentioned year, in good health and safety, he left Ajmir, and on the 16th of the same month of the camp of [Page 362] the grand and noble army was pitched in front of the town of Nagor.

He ordered all the soldiers that they should divide a large reservoir, which was in front of the city, among themselves, and excavate it, and fill it up with water; and he himself, with good fortune as his companion, went around it, and named it the shukr talao, the tank of thanksgiving. And during these days, when the tents, resplendent like the sky, were pitched opposite to Nagor, Chandar Sen, son of Rājā Mal Deo,came and was enrolled among the servants of the threshold, and made suitable offerings. In the same way also, Rājā Kalyān Mal, the Rājā of Bikānir, and his son Rāy Singh, placed their faces of servitude on the threshold, refulgent marks of sincere devotion were clear and patent on the pages of the condition of the father and the son, the daughter of Rāy Kalyān Mal became an inmate of the (imperial) haram. The Sun of justice and equity shone for about fifty days on the condition of the poor of Nagor. From that place the imperial standards were raised with the intention of a pilgrimage to (the tomb) of Shaikh Farid-ud-din Mas’ud Shakarganj, who is buried in the town of Ajodhan, which is celebrated as Pattan. Rāy Kalyān Mal, who on account of his great bulk and fatness, was unable to mount a horse, was permitted to go back to Bikanir, but his son Rāi Singh was ordered to attend on the victorious stirrups; and he for his repeated services was raised to a high rank, and some of the incidents of his career will be mentioned in the proper place.

[Page 363]

As there are many Gurkhars(wild asses) in that desert country, and His Majesty had never hunted them, he became desirous of doing so. On the way, one day, about noon, scouts brought in-formation, that they had seen a herd of wild asses, near the victorious camp. His Majesty immediately mounted on a swift horse, which was faster than the morning breeze, rode four or five karohs, and came up to the herd. He then dismounted, and ordered that all the men should wait there; and he himself in his elegant person accompanied by four or five Balujes, who were well-acquainted with the desert, with his musket in his hand, turned towards the herd. With the first shot, he hit one wild ass; and the rest of the herd became frightened at the report of the gun; and dispersed. His Majesty however, silently got up to the herd again, and hit another animal. In this way, he shot thirteen wild asses with his own auspicious hands. That day he traversed about sixteen karohs on foot, in his ardour for the hunt. From the hunting ground he returned to the camp. He also gave orders that the thirteen wild asses should be loaded on carts and brought to the camp. The flesh of the animals was distributed among the nobles and other attendants, in front of the imperial pavilion.

From that place, His Majesty travelled by successive marches to Ajodhan,and when the auspicious army was encamped opposite to that town, His Majesty with sincere faith and pure intention [Page 364] went to the tomb, the alighting place of light, with the dust of the road on his person (i.e.immediately on his arrival without waiting for a rest) and performed the duties of pilgrimage and circumambula-tion; and removed poverty and want from the servitors and atten-dants of the tomb. It so happened that the royal pavilion had been pitched at a place, which, on account of the beauty of its lawn and its flowers, was the envy of the gardens of the highest paradise. On account of the beauty of that flower-adorned sword, a noble order was issued, that no one with shoes on should put his foot on that green lawn. One day a Rajput of the name of Karamsi, who was distinguished by being allowed great proximity (to the emperor’s person) walked over it with naked feet, and his foot was scratched by a thorn, and he became very weak on account of the pain; and after two days, he died of the hurt. This caused great pain to the noble heart, and he ordered that after that no one should stroll about on that award with naked feet.

After a few days, His Majesty turned the bridle of his deter-mination towards Lahore; and in the course of the journey, when the sublime standards reached Dibālpur, Mirza Aziz Kokaltāsh who bore the title of Āazam Khān, and was known as Mirza Kuka, and who was the jāgirdār of that pargana,intending to entertain His Majesty, represented that the auspicious royal train, should for a few days rest in those parts from the fatigue of the journey. His Majesty the Khalifa-i-Ilahi, graciously accepted the invitation, and ennobled his house(by his presence). He spent a few days in the festivity. On the last day of the entertainment, (Mirza ‘Aziz Kokaltāsh) made with great ceremony suitable presents,consisting of ‘Arab and ‘Irāqi [Page 365] horses, with gold and silver saddles, and elephants of mountain-like hulk with chains of gold and silver, and juls (ornamental cloths covering the backs and hanging over the sides of elephants) of velvet and gold brocade, and goads or hooks of gold and silver, and pearls, and gems, and rubies and emeralds and chairs and bedsteads and stools of gold; and vessels and vases of gold and silver,and fabrics of Firang(Europe), and Rum (Constantinople) and Khita(China) and Yezd, and other fine and delicate things, and vessels of food more than can come into the bounds of one’s imagination, which were passed before the noble eyes; and also valuable presents for the great Shāhzādas, and for the ladies behind the veil of chastity. Afterwards all the pillars of the state, and the attendants at the foot of the throne of the Caliphate, and all persons holding offices, and men of erudition, who attended on the auspicious stirrups, and in fact the whole of the victorious army received and enjoyed a share of that board of his generosity. Shaikh Muhammad Ghaznavi obtained the date of this feast in the following hemistich.


The king and the prince were honoured guests,
In fact, very few have ever arranged such an entertainment.
[Page 398]


[Page 401]

As the outer fortifications of Nagarkot had now come into the possession of the army, the buildings there were pulled down, and levelled with the ground, to make room for the camp. After that the siege was commenced, and covered ways and and batteries were constructed. Some pieces of large cannon were brought to the foot of the hill, which was situated in front of the fort, and every day some shots were fired at the fort and at the palace of the Rājā. It so happened, that one day the superintendent of the artillery, having ascertained the place where Rājā Bidhichand had his meals, fired some large balls at that time, and they struck a wall and about eighty persons were killed. Among them one was Bhoj Deo, son of Rājā Takht Mal, Rājā of Ma'u.

Letters came from Lahore, in the early part of Shawwāl, to the effect that Ibrahim Husain Mirza had crossed the Satlad (Satlej), and was advancing towards Dibalpur. Husain Quli Khān became [Page 402] anxious, and considering it advisable under the circumstances of the time, kept the purport of the letters concealed from the amirs.As at that time a great scarcity had occurred in the army and the garrison had made proposals of peace, Husain Quli considered it necessary to give his consent to a peace. The kāfirs agreed to give much tribute of various kinds; and among these five mans of gold by Akbarshāhi weight, and various kinds of stuff as tribute for his Majesty the Khalifa-i-Ilāhi were accepted.


Gold and treasure heavier than arm can bear,
So that e’en a hill would fall in the scale by their weight;
Were made ready for the threshold of the Shah,
So that each hill to the threshold bore a hill!
[Page 423]


[Page 425]

And it was during this year, that Rājā Todarmal, who had gone to make a correct assessment of the revenue of the country of Gujrat, obtained the honour of kissing the ground, and passed proper offerings before the noble eyes and brought the record of fixing the revenue of the country before the sacred eyes. His head was lifted to the sky in pride and distinction, owing to the honour of the praise conferred on him. After a few days, the emperor bestowed on him his own special sword, and sent him with Lashkar Khān, Mir Bakhshi, to serve under Khān Khānān Munim Khān; so that he might arrange matters, under him, in respect of the conquest of the country of Bengal.

At this time also, Mir Muhsin Rizvi, who was one of the Saiyyads of true descent, and was adorned with excellence and great erudition, and had been sent on an embassy to the rulers of the Deccan , obtained the honour of kissing the (imperial) carpet and placed before the noble eyes, the tributes which those rulers had sent in charge of their servants.

In this auspicious year also, His Majesty the Khalifa-i-Ilāhi, on the 16th Shawwal, determined on a pilgrimage to the illustrious tomb of His Holiness Khwaja Muin-ul-Haq-wad-din may his soul be sanctified! Although he had attended to this good fortune once during this year, at the time of his return from the second expedition [Page 426] to Gujrat , yet as he had placed before his sublime spirit the desire of the conquest of the country of Bang(Bengal), he thinking that, God forbid that it might so happen that the period of this expedition might exceed one year, and thus the circumambulation of this sublime shrine might be delayed, it appeared to the brilliant mind and the heart bright like the Sun that this great blessing might be attained in the early part of the 19th year of the Ilāhi era, so that he might ask for help and aid in facilitating the conquest of Bengal. For the carrying out of this intention, and the completion of this desire, on Wednesday, the 16th Shawwal 981 A.H. corresponding with the 18th year of the Ilāhi era he turned to the country of Ajmir. When the village of Dāir became the encamping ground of the noble and grand army, he stayed there till the 20th of the month. One day, at this place, His Holiness, the giver of religious guidance Khwaja Abd-ush-shahid, grandson of His Holiness, Khwāja Nasir- ud-din ‘Abd-ul-lah Ahrār, came to the gate of the high mansion with the intention of offering his prayers. When he came, he like all men dismounted from his horse, at the gate of the outer apartment. By accident however, His Majesty from the top of the balcony saw the auspicious countenance of His Holiness the Khwāja, who was standing on foot, at the gate. He immediately sent Sādiq Khān [Page 427] who was in attendance in the sacred precincts of the pavilion of honour, to go and welcome the Khwāja, and with the great respect sent the message, that it was proper that whenever he came to the palace, he would come up to it without dismounting. When Sādiq Khān conveyed this message, the Khwāja said with great respect, that no one went mounted to his own garden, and he went on foot as before. His Majesty met the Khwāja with truth and courtesy, and omitted no minutiae in showing him respect, and after a short time, His Holiness the Khwaja went away,after offering the prayer of fare-well.

An order was issued at this halting place of Dāir that Dilāwar Khān with the help of Yesāwals(orderlies) should guard all cultivat-ed lands adjacent to the camp; and in addition to this, trustworthy men were appointed, who should after the army should have passed on,carefully inspect all cultivated lands which should have been trampled upon, and damaged; and should calculate (and deduct) the amount of the injury from the demands of the treasury. This rule was followed in all expeditions. Moreover in certain expeditions, bags of money were placed in charge of amins, so that they might calculate the amounts due to the raiyats ,and pay it in cash to the owner of the land, and deduct it from the amount due to the treasury.

From that stage (the emperor) proceeded by successive mar-ches, hunting along the way; and on the 12th Ziqā’da , the pavilions of honour were encamped at the distance of twelve karohs from Ajmir, and on the following day, from that stage according to his excellent custom, he on account of his devotion started on foot for the tomb, and performed the duties of circumambulation. He then went to his grand palace, and during the space of twelve days that the country of Ajmir became the auspicious encamping ground, he [Page 428] went every day to the tomb, and made the attendants of that noble place and all the inhabitants of the country of Ajmir, partakers of his board of favours and benefactions.

[Page 428]


The beginning of this year was on Thursday, the 17th Ziqā’da 981 A.H. (11th March,1574). As the determination to conquer the country of Bengal and Lakhnauti had been placed in the forefront of the high-soaring spirit of his Majesty, the Khalifa-i-Ilāhi, he asked for help in the conquest of that extensive country from the soul, full of victories of his Holiness, the great Khwāja, that had always given help and victory to this fortunate bādshāh, who had always been helped by God. The time, by the rising of the dawn of spring, felt joy and happiness on hearing this news; and the daughters of herbage raised their heads from the bed of sleep to see the cavalcade of this bādshāh of the world. The morning breezes began to blow on his banners of victory and his standards of con-quest. The sovereign of the seven kingdoms of the sky (the sun) reclined on his masnad in a noble and grand assemblage in the constellation of Aries, to view the fields of battle and slaughter, on the 17th of the sacred month of Ziqa’da, 981. At this time, one day, his Majesty, the world conquering monarch, convened an assembly where in the presence of Saiyyads, and the nobles of the faith, and the masters of taste and devotion, and the learned in the knowledge of God, added to the honour of the holy ones. And sweet voiced singers and musicians of renown caused and excitement among the holy ones. The playing of soul entrancing instruments made the pure hearted Sufis shake their sleeves on the two worlds. His Majesty the bādshāh,the protector of the world, also found the time to be joyful, and opening his hand, which was prodigal like the sea in lavishing dirams and riches, ordered that heaps and heaps of asharfis(gold mohurs) and rupees should be poured out to the right and left of his seat; and he called each one of the men present to the imperial masnad,and he threw into their skirts, with his gem- scattering hands, handfuls of asharfis and rupees. As the noble heart became tired of this sort of giving, he began to scatter asharfis [Page 429] and rupees like the leaves of trees; and such quantities of these were scattered about, that men were tired of gathering them up. It was ascertained from the men in charge of the public treasury, that in that paradise-like assembly, one lākh of rupees was distributed.


His hand is a cloud that showers gems,
Rather it is the sun that showers gold.

And on the 21st of the sacred month of Ziqa’da 981 A.H. corres-ponding with the 19th year of the Ilāhi era, he took the generous-hearted and noble minded prince Sultān Salim, with himself for the circumambulation of the auspicious and heavenly illuminated tomb at Ajmir. When the eye of that fortunate, God-gifted and successful prince fell on the tomb of the great Khwāja, he following the example of his illustrious father, bowed with great humility to the noble tomb and sacred threshold, and performed the ceremony of circumambula-tion, and the duty of pilgrimage.

When his Majesty, the Khalifa-i-Ilāhi returned to the palace, he placed the prince, deserving of the throne and the crown, in the presence of the great and the noble, in the scale of a balance against gold and silver and rich stuffs, and distributed the whole of this to deserving people. On the 23rd of Ziqa’da, in the early morning, he again prayed to the victory giving soul of his Holiness the Khwāja for attention and aid and assistance, and obtained permission to depart. He started on the 23rd of the month of Ziqa’da for the capital, and proceeded by successive marches, hunting along the way; and on the 9th of Zihijja of the year 981 A.H. corresponding with the 19th year of the Ilāhi era, the sun of his greatness shone on the palaces of Fathpur, and the eyes of hope of the people of the world were illuminated by the dust raised by the hoofs of the victorious horses.


[Page 453]

His Majesty the Khalifa-i-Ilāhi performed various ceremonies of thanksgiving on obtaining this victory, which might be an introduction to the chronicles of the great deeds of the Sultāns of the ages. He then turned his face with faith and trust from a place, which was three stages from the metropolis of Agra, towards the holy capital of Delhi. The neigbourhood of Dehli became the encamping ground of the [Page 454] pavilions of sky-like grandeur. He with true piety and purity of heart went to the tombs of the great(holy men), and the Shaikhs who are the protectors of the helpless; and prayed for their help in obtain-ing his wishes. He made the faqirs, and those who sat in the corners in the holy place, happy and cheerful from the exchequer of his bounty. He also went to the tomb of his great father, which was the site of the holiest of tombs, and opening his hands, prodigal like the sea, in lavishing dirams and wealth, removed the custom of mendicancy and the practice of begging from the poor and needy. He remained for a few days opposite to Dehli, to allow some rest to the soldiery, and spent most of his auspicious hours in the pleasures of the chase.

[Page 456]


As much of the land of the extensive country of Hindustan was lying uncultivated but which still was capable of being cultivated in the first year, so that the benefit and advantages of such cultiva-tion would reach both the cultivators and the imperial exchequer, after deep thought, the( emperor’s) noble wisdom, which from the beginning was devoted to the consideration of the amelioration of the condition of the subjects(‘Ibad i.e., true worshippers) and the improvement of the country, directed that after the examining the lands of the parganas included in the empire, an area of land which after being cultivated , should yield produce of the value of one karor of Tangahs , should be separated and should be made over to one of the servants(of the emperor), who could possess the necessary capacity and honesty and loyalty. That man was to be called a Karori, and should be sent to the pargana,with a kārkun (an agent) and a cashier from the royal treasury. He should make his best endeavour with good faith and ability, and should in the space of three years bring the land under cultivation and collect the actual produce. In order to carry out this intention a number of men were selected, and appointed to perform this onerous work. A karori was also obtained from each amir who had retainers, and was sent to the amir’s country on his security and responsibility.

It was also at this time, that Shah Quli Khān Mahram and [Page 457] Jalāl Khān Qurchi and some other amirs were sent to conquer the fort of Siwana which was in the possession of the descendants of Maldeo. The siege lasted for a long time and Jalal Khān Qurchi, who was one of the paradise-like majlis (court) of the emperor, attained to martyrdom there. After that Shahbāz Khān Kambu was sent there. He obtained possession of the fort within a short time.

It was at this time also that a petition came from the vakils (agents) of Sultan Mahmud of Bakar, in which they stated that the Sultan had rendered the deposit of his life, and they did not place any trust on Muhibb ‘Ali Khān and Mujahid Khān. They prayed that if someone was sent from the threshold, they would make the fort over to him. His Majesty the Khalifa-i-Ilāhi sent Mir Gesu Bakāwalbegi,(Superintendent of the Kitchen) who had received the title of Gesu Khān to take charge of the fort.

There was a severe pestilence and a great famine this year in the country of Gujrat, and they lasted for nearly six months. Owing to the distress and confusion , both the great and common people of that country abandoned their homes and became scattered. Inspite of the pestilence, grain became so dear that one maund sold for one hundred and twenty black tangas ; and there was no grass for horses and fodder in cattle, except the bark of trees. Another incident is this, that Khwāja Amin-ud-din Mahmud, who had the title of Khwāja-i-Jahān, and was the permanent vazir (prime minister) of the empire of Hindustan accepted the call of death, in Lucknow in the early part of Sha’bān 982 A.H.


[Page 474]


Do not on grandeur, throne or crown rely,
These are but grass, a storm will blow away,
Think of the tyranny of that wretch , the sky (fate)!
One blast of it makes a hundred kings darwishes all!


[Page 478]

At the time, when the Khān Khānan having freed his mind (of all anxiety connected with Daud) arrived in the metropolis city of Tanda, in complete peace and tranquility, he was guided by the angel of death to remove his residence from Tanda. He accordingly crossed the river Ganges, and took up his abode in the fort of Gaur, which, in former times, had been the capital of Bengal. He ordered that all men, soldiers and raiyats, should be removed from Tanda and brought to Gaur. The people suffered the calamity of banish-ment from their homes in the depth of the rains. The air of Gaur was extremely unhealthy and foetid, and in former times, on account of the various kinds of diseases, which owing to the debilitating [Page 479] effect of its air, had affected its residents, the rulers of those days had abandoned it and had left it desolate and made Tānda the capital. At this time (i.e. after the migration ordered by the Khān Khānan) diseases appeared among the inhabitants generally. Every day, crowds carried the property of their existence and the capital of their lives from Gaur to the gor(tomb); and made bade adieu to their friends and companions. Gradually things came to such a pass,that people were unable to bury the dead and threw the corpses into the water. Every day the news of the death of a number of the amirs and the servants of the threshold was taken to the Khān Khānan. He did not,however, take any warning, and did not give up living there. His pomp and grandeur were such, that no one had the bold-ness to remove the silk cotton of negligence from his ear, and give him information of what was happening. After some time, his health turned from the line of equability, and became bad. When the period of his illness had extended to ten days, in the month of Rājāb-al-murajjab 983 A.H., corresponding with the 20th year of the Ilāhi era, he travelled from his ephemeral to the eternal world. The amirs and servants of the threshold, who used always to assemble in the diwān khāna(audience chamber) of the Khān Khānan, and used to offer him congratulation on the victories which he had achieved, engaged in mourning on that day. In order to guard the boundaries (of the empire) Shāham Khān Jalāir was raised to the [Page 480] head of the government; and a report of the occurrence was sub-mitted to the sublime threshold. As the Khān Khānan had no sons all his property, speaking and dumb, (i.e.,live and dead stock) was made over to the imperial exchequer, and a detailed list of it was also submitted.

When the petition of the amirs was presented to the emperor, Khān Jahan, who before this was the fully-empowered governor of the Punjab had various royal favours and imperial kindnesses con-ferred on him; and the reins of the government, and the bridle of the defence of the territory of Bengal was placed in his powerful hands. He was honoured with the rank of amir-ul-umra, and various favours and kindnesses were shown to him. He was directed to look favourably after the rights of the Raiyyats and dependants. He was honoured with the gift of a gold embroidered Qaba(robe), and a belt and sword ornamented with gold and jewels, and a horse with a golden saddle; and leave was granted to him to go to Bengal. After having obtained correct farmāns and orders in respect of his objects he proceeded to the territory of Bengal, to undertake its government.

[Page 489]


It has been previously mentioned, that after the victory of Garhi, Khān Jahan advanced towards Tanda, and Daud Afghān coming out of Tanda stationed his army at a place called Akmahal, [Page 490] and erected fortifications round his army. Khān Jahān also took up a position in front of the enemy, and waited for Muzaffar Khān and the army of Behār and Hājipur. When this news was reported to His Majesty, he sent a sum of five lakhs of rupees towards the cost of the army by dāk chauki; and also passed an order that many boats filled with grain might be sent from Agra to feed the victorious army. He also sent Saiyyad ‘Abd-ul-lah Khān, who had at that time brought the news of the victory of Rājā Man Singh, to Khān Jahān; and told him that if the great God so willed, he would also bring the news of the defeat of Dāud. Owing to the auspicious-ness of the sacred spirit of His Majesty, he (Saiyyad ‘Abd-ul-lah Khān) brought Daud’s head within a short time, as will be mentioned before long.

It was at this time, that a Zamindār of the name of Gajpati, who was in the neighbourhood of Hājipur and Patna, and who had been included in the band of the well-wishers of the emperor, collect-ed a force, at the time when Muzaffar Khān had gone to reinforce the Khān Jahan, and the country had remained unprotected(khāli), and attacked Farhat Khān and his son Mirak Radai, who were in thana Ara(Arrah); and they, after fighting, attained to martyrdom. There was great disturbance in that country, and the roads were closed. When this news reached the noble attention of His Majesty the Khalifa-i-Ilāhi, he, in his sacred person, moved out of the capital [Page 491] city of Fathpur, and took up a station at a spot five karohs from it, and issued orders for the muster of the troops, and the provision of boats and artillery. It was at this place, that Saiyyid ‘Abd-ul-lah Khān came by forced marches from the Khān Jahan, in the manner in which it had been uttered by the inspired tongue (of the emperor); and threw the head of Dāud Afghān beneath the hoofs of his horse.


He whose mind to submission did’nt come;
He came on’s head, if on’s feet he did not come.

His Majesty the Khalifa-i-Ilāhi performed the rites of offering thanks for this great boon; and returned to, and took up his resi-dence, in the seat of the Khilāfat. Saiyyad ‘Abd-ul-lah Khān des-cribed the facts of the victory in this wise. Muzaffar Khān with the army of Behar and Hajipur and Patna,amounting to about five thousand horsemen joined the Khān Jahān. On the 15th of the afore mentioned month they arrayed the troops and advanced to-wards the enemy. Daud also in conjunction with Junaid Karrāni, who was his uncle, and the other Afghān Sardars, drew out his troops. By accident a cannon ball stuck Junaid’s leg, and shattered his knee. After a while, the two armies closed with one another, and the enemy was defeated. Dāud was stuck fast in a quagmire, and was taken prisoner. Khān Jahān cut off his head, and sent it to [Page 492] the threshold. Much plunder and many elephants came into the possession of the servants of the daily-increasing grandeur. His Majesty the Khalifa-i-Ilāhi took rest in the seat of the Khilāfat, and made deserving people happy, by gifts of red and white gold, which were distributed in skirts on skirts in his sacred presence. Saiyyid ‘Abd-ul-lah Khān was rewarded with gifts of gold and horses and robes.

Sultān Khwāja who was the son of Khwāja Khāwind Mahmud was honoured by being made Mir Hāji of the caravan of pilgrimage, and a sum of six lakhs of rupees in cash and commodities was made over to him for the faqirs and other deserving persons of the two sacred places; and an order was passed, that the travelling expens-es of anybody, who might intend to perform a pilgrimage to the sacred places, should be paid; and an immense number of people attained to this happiness.

As every year, His Majesty the Khalifa-i-Ilāhi used to go on a pilgrimage to the illustrious tomb of Khwāja Mu’in-ud-din he started (this year also) from Fathpur, and on Thusday the 3rd of [Page 493] the month of Rājāb of the above-mentioned year, a grand arrival at Ajmir took place. After making his pilgrimage to the tomb, the emperor made the faqirs and the poor of the place, both young and old, fortunate with gifts of red, white and black gold. During the few days that he remained at Ajmir, he hastened every day to make the pilgrimage and gave alms to the faqirs and the helpless.

It has been mentioned in previous pages that Rājā Mān Singh defeated Rānā Kikā, and seized his territory. The latter fled to the high mountains,and thickly wooded forests, and took shelter there. The victorious troops went in pursuit of him to Kokanda which was the place of his residence and stationed themselves there. At this time it was brought to the notice (of the emperor), that owing to the narrowness (and difficulties)of the roads, very little grain arrived and there was great scarcity among the troops. Kumar Mān Singh had also prohibited his men from plundering and devastating Kikā’s country. Owing to this there was great privation among the troops, His Majesty, on hearing these matters, issued a farman for summon-ing Kunar Man Singh. He came and waited (on the emperor); and for some days was forbidden to appear in the presence. After some days, the pen of forgiveness was drawn across his offences; and it was decided that a second army should be sent to devastate Kika’s country. On the 19th of the aforesaid month the noble standards moved from Ajmir, and marched towards the Rānā's territory.


[Page 498]

At this time, when the grand army was encamped in sarkār Mālwa, as Rājā ‘Ali Khān, the ruler of Asir and Burhānpur, did not carry out the duty of submission, the world-adorning intellect decided upon his punishment; and certain great amirs such as Shahāb-ud-din Ahmad Khān and Qutb-ud-din Muhammad Khān and Shujā’at Khān and Shah Fakhr-ud-din, and Shāh Badāgh Khān and his son ‘Abdul Matlab Khān and Tulak Khān and other jāgirdārs of Malwa were sent to attack his territory. A noble order was issued that Shahāb Khān should be the commander of the force; and Shahbāz Khān, Mir Bakhshi, should check the branding of the horses and the muster-ing of the troops, and attend to the preparations of the amirs, and send the army forward quickly.

At the same station, Rājā Todar Mal was deputed to check the revenue assessment, and to arrange the affairs of the country of [Page 499] Gujrat. At this time news came from the amirs and the army which had been sent to Idar that they had fought a battle with Rājā Narāin Dās and had gained a victory. The particulars of this brief statement are these: that at the time, when Muhammad Quli Khān had, In accordance with orders, come to the sublime threshold, in the company of ‘Ali Murād Uzbek, and Āsaf Khān had remained as the commander of that army, news was suddenly received that the Rājā of Idar had collected a large body of Rajputs, who had lost every-thing and were wandering about, and other zamindārs of the neigh-bourhood, with the object of aiding Rānā Kikā, and were stationed at a place ten karohs from Idar, and intended to make a surprise attack by night. Āsaf Khān and Mirza Muhammad Muqim and Taimur Badakshi and Ma’sum Bakari and Muzaffar Khān, brother of Khān ‘Alam, and Khwāja Nāsir-ud-din and all the victorious troops had a consultation. They left a detachment of about five hundred men to guard the thāna(station); and after arranging the troops, started at midnight, and they traversed a distance of seven karohs, by the morning of the 4th zi-hijjah 984, when the two armies met each other. The fire of battle flamed up. Mirza Muhammad [Page 500] Muqim who was the leader of the van attained to martyrdom; and the enemy was defeated. Rājā Narāin Dās escaped by flight; and the imperial servants were distinguished with victory and triumph. As this news was brought to his Majesty’s notice, it produced great joy in his mind which had seen the angelic world. Farmans to be obeyed were issued for granting rewards and favours to each one of the amirs and sardārs of the army of Idar. When the mind of the world-conquering monarch had rest after attending to the affairs of Malwa, and appointing amirs to the districts of Asir and Burhānpur, the bridle of determination was turned towards the metropolis of Fathpur; and on Sunday, the 23rd Safar, Fathpur became the seat of the standards of honour and splendor. The common people and the nobles and all the inhabitants hastened to welcome him; and raised the shouts of prayers and praise to the residents of the highest heavens.

After two or three months, a certain amount of disturbance occurred in the country of Gujrat, on account of the arrival there of Muzaffar Husain Mirza, son of Ibrahim Husain Mirza, who was the grandson (daughter’s son) of Mirza Kāmrān. The details of this occurrence, narrated briefly, are these. At the time when the world- conquering standards were stationed round the fort of Surat, Gulrukh Begam, daughter of Kamran Mirza, and wife(Mankuha) of Ibrāhim [Page 501] Husain Mirza had left that place, taking with her, her young son Muzaffar Husain Mirza. The details of this matter have been men-tioned in the story of the victory of Ahmadābād. At this time, a strife monger of the name of Mihr 'Ali, one of the servants of Ibrahim Husain Mirza, who had accompanied Gulrukh Begam from the fort of Surat to the Dakhin, brought back Muzaffar Husain, who had now attained to the age of fifteen or sixteen years, and whom he made the centre of disturbance and rebellion. A number of evil-minded men and homeless wanderers gathered round him; and turned the face of revolt and hostility towards Gujrat. At this time, Rājā Todar Mal was at Pattan, engaged in settling and testing the land revenue of the country. Owing to this disturbance and revolt, men, who were always ready to create disaffection, raised their heads in every corner; and a wonderful state of disturbance and rebellion was produced. Vazir Khān, who was the governor of Gujrat had three thousand horsemen round him; but still as he had among his retainers, many men who were seeking for adventures, he decided on shutting himself up, and writing an account of the incidents,sent it to Rājā Todar Mal. Before the Rājā could come to reinforce and help him, Bāz Bahādur, son of Sharif Khān,fought with Muzaffar Husain Mirza in pargana Nadarbar, and was defeated. Muzaffar [Page 502] Husain Mirza went to Kambāyet. He remained there for two or three days; and then turned to Ahmadābād. At this time Rājā Todar Mal came from Pattan to Ahmadabad. The rebels, when they heard the news of the coming of the Rājā, left the neighbour-hood of Ahmadābād; and marched away towards Dulqa. The Rājā and Vazir Khān pursued them, and overtook them in the neighbourhood of that place; and a sharp fight took place. The servants of the daily-increasing grandeur were distinguished by victory and triumph; and the rebels were routed and withdrew them-selves towards Junagadh.

After the victory, Rājā Todar Mal proceeded to the threshold which was the asylum of the world. When the news of his depart-ure reached Mirza Muzaffar Husain, he again came to Ahmadābād and besieged Vazir Khān. Although the latter had a large force, he was compelled to shut himself up in the fort, on account of his having no trust in his men. Mihr ‘Ali, the vakil (representative or agent) of Mirza Muhammad Husain, who was the source of the disturbance, placed ladders against the walls of the fort with the intention of entering it, when he was suddenly hit by a shot from a gun fired from the fort, and was sent to hell. As he was removed from the scene, Muzaffar Husain Mirza took the way of flight; and went away towards Sultānpur and Nadarbār; and that distur-bance and rebellion subsided. And we now return to our subject.


[Page 507]

From this place (His Majesty) turned to the capital city of Dehli, and the pavilions of firmament-like foundation were pitched at the hauz-i-khās. His Majesty went to the tomb, marked with bene-ficence, of His late Majesty Jinnat Ashiani, his great father, and carried out the duties of pilgrimage. From that place he went on pilgrimage to the great Shaikhs, who live in peace and comfort in Dehli, and performed the duties of humble salutation; and cheered the hearts of the faqirs and other deserving persons, who were settled in those places, by lavish gifts of dirams and dinars. From that place he went to, and halted at Sarāi Bāuli; and at that place Hāji Habib-ul-lah, coming from the country of Firang, produced beautiful articles [Page 508] of food and fabrics and furniture of that country, before the noble eyes. Early the next morning(the emperor)started from that place, and marched to pargana Palam. At that place he enjoyed the pleasures of the chase; and at night, rested in the house of the head man of the village. In the morning, he said- “whenever I shall by accident halt in the house of a cultivator, I shall grant him help towards his livelihood. The revenue officers, in charge of the culti-vated lands, should confirm the lands to him by way of help to his maintenance (Madad-i-ma’ash),and should excuse him from all demands on account of rent or revenue.”

At this place, he incidentally remarked to Mirza Yusuf Khān, “When I shall take possession of Kashmir I shall confer it on you, and when I come to see the country. I shall stay in your palace.” From that day after ten years the country of Kashmir having come into his possession, it was granted as a jāgir to Mirza Yusuf Khān; and His Majesty(then once) took up his quarters in his palace.

[Page 510]


The beginning of this year was on Thursday the 13th Muharram 987 A.H. (12th March,1579). In the beginning of this year the [Page 511] emperor travelled towards the capital by successive marches, hunting along the way. It so happened that, at this time, people suffered great privation from excessive rain. His Majesty called for a mirror, and breathed three times on it with his auspicious breath, and then placed the mirror on fire. The rain immediately stopped, and the people escaped from the distress caused by it. At the same time the sound of a kettle drum was heard. The emperor said “It is Yar Muhammad Naqqārchi(drummer), who is beating the drum”. When an enquiry was made, it was found that it was as he had said.

At this time, in the neighbourhood of Nandna Rhotās, (the emperor) thought of a qamargha hunt, and ordered the amirs and soldiers, that they should drive game from different directions, and bring them together in a spacious plain. In the space of four days, they surrounded countless game, and brought them before (the emperor); and things were coming to this, that the qamargha should meet from the two sides. Suddenly, a certain condition, at once, came upon the emperor, and a great ecstasy took possession of him.

[Page 512]

There came upon him, in whom was revealed personal and attribu-tive rays of brightness and were combined all perfections, partial as well as total, such a condition as words cannot describe. In this matter people expressed different opinions. A number of people thought that, that chosen one of God had communion with super- natural beings; and others imagined that the tongueless ones that roam in the plains, and the silent-lipped ones that wander in the forests, had told him, what there was to say, with the tongue of silence.


Oh joyful is the ecstasy that suddenly comes!
And joyful, when to a feeling heart, it comes!

Immediately a high order was issued that the qamargha hunt should be stopped; and the game that had been collected should be allowed to escape. At the foot of the tree, where the Divine grace had descended on him, he gave much gold to the faqirs and the poor; and an auspicious order was issued that a building should be erected and a garden planted at the spot. The emperor shaved off the hair of his auspicious head, and most of his immediate attendants agreed with and followed his example.

[Page 527]


Muzaffar Khān had gone to Bengal and had commenced to [Page 528] decide affairs and cases; but as his destiny had become adverse, and his turn had come to an end, he began to act harshly in various matters, and to vex people with harsh words. He changed the jāgirs of most of the amirs of the country; demanded (the examination) of the branding of horses; and commenced to enquire afresh into old accounts.


In the affairs of the world do not be harsh,
For those who are harsh, die a death as harsh.
While living in peace, leave others in peace,
For living in peace, thou’lt die a peaceful death.

Baba Khān acted with gentleness, and prayed that his jagir might be left to him; and no demand might be made from him on account of dāgh,but it was of no avail. Pargana Jālesar was taken away from Khāldi Khān from the beginning of the Kharif [Page 529] (autumn or rainy) season, by the dargā or darksāna (i.e. apparently by order of Muzaffar Khān), and added as tankswa to the jāgir of Shāh Jamāl-ud-din Husain Anju. Khāldi Khān had taken (i.e.realised from the raiyyats) a sum from the Kharif demand. Muzaffar Khān, in order to recover that amount from him, ordered him to be im-prisoned and to be flagellated and bastinadoed. It so happened however that at this time, an order came to Muzaffar Khān from the sublime threshold , that a servant of Mirza Muhammad Hakim of the name of Raushan Beg, who had come to from Kābul to Bengal, should be seized and put to death; and his head should be sent to the threshold. Raushan Beg was among the Qāqshāls; and Muzaffar Khān having produced the farmān ordered him to be beheaded. He also uttered harsh words to Bābā Khān. The soldiers who were present in the assembly, and specially Bābā Khān and the other Qaqshals trembled and decided to act falsely to their salt. Things [Page 530] came to such a pass, that they all united together and shaved off their heads and putting on their turbans proclaimed their rebellion. They crossed the river,and took up their quarters in the city of Gaur, which in ancient time was celebrated as Lakhnauti, and commenced to collect their forces. They plundered the property belonging to Muzaffar Khān, which they could lay their hands upon in various places.

[Page 554]


The beginning of this year was on Tuesday the 27th of the month of Safar 991 A.H. (11th March 1583 A.D.) On the day of the Nauruz , the walls and pillars of the public [Page 555] and private palaces were distributed among the amirs , and being draped in rich fabric, and painted curtains, were beautifully adorned; and were decorated in such a way that the spectators on seeing them were filled with wonder and admiration. The courtyards of the palaces were adorned with pavilions, and awnings of fabrics of gold embroidery and gold tissue; and a golden throne inlaid with emeralds and rubies was placed under them; and they became the object of the envy of the higher paradise.


They decorated a plain of stages nine,
The curtains of gold tissue became the sky;
They placed the throne, and the curtains hung;
They made another heaven on the earth.

These beautiful mansions remained decorated for a period of eighteen days; and they were adorned during the nights by many coloured shades. His Majesty went there once or twice every day and night, and enjoyed social pleasures; and musicians of Persia and India were in attendance. Every one of the amirs and the imperial servants was the recipient of royal favours. The markets of the city of Fathpur and Agra were also decorated, and the people of the surrounding places came to amuse themselves by the sight of this great festival, the like of which they had never seen or heard of before.


[Page 592]

After four months, all the zamindārs of Kach, about seven thousand cavalry and ten thousand infantry collected together under the leadership of Jaisa and Bajāin who were nephews (brother’s sons) of the Khangar, and attacked the town of Rādhanpur, one of the dependencies of Pattan. They besieged the fort, and remaining there for ten days levelled the outer town to the dust, and they devastated and totally destroyed all the villages in the neighbourhood to a distance of twenty karohs. When this news came to Ahamadābād, the faqir, in concert with Saiyyad Qāsim, Daulat Khān Ludi, Mir Ma’sum, Husain Khān, and other men went to relieve the place. The enemy on hearing of our approach fled, and crossing the water of the Ran, went back to their own country. As it was necessary to redress these injuries, and prevent their recurrence, we crossed the Ran at a place where the width of the water was not more than three karohs ,and invaded the country of Kach, and devastated and plundered it. We burnt and sacked the towns of Kari and Katāria, which are well known places in Kach, and much booty came into the possession of the troops. About three hundred villages in the country of Kach were ravaged and totally destroyed in the course of three days. We [Page 593] crossed the Ran again opposite to Malea and Morvi. At this place the width of the water was twelve karohs. We commenced the cross-ing in the morning ; and finished by sunset. The depth of the water was up to a man’s navel. After crossing the Ran we ravaged and plundered and destroyed the parganas of Mālea and Morvi, which were the most populous parts of the territory of the Khāngar. We halted for three days at Morvi, and letters were written to the Khāngar, that we had heard that Jaisa and Bajāin had acted without his concurrence, and we had, in a way, inflicted punishment for it; otherwise we could have raided Bhujnagar which was his place of residence, and he did not remain steadfast in his duty of loyalty, he would see what he would see. He sent his vakils, and made apologies, and after this a barrier was raised (against fur-ther aggression).


[Page 601]

In the month of Rājāb of the same year, a representation came from some of the well-wishers at Kabul, and was submitted to the emperor, to the effect , that Mirza Sulaimān had a second time acquired power over Badakhshan , and had obtained possession of it. The truth of this matter was like this, that at the time when ‘Abd-ul-lah Khān Uzbek came and attacked Badakhshan. Mirzas Sulaimān and Shāhrukh were unable to withstand him, and abandoned Badakhshān. Mirza Hakim had granted Mauza Istalif, in [Page 602] the way of a subsistence allowance to Mirza (Sulaimān), and the latter had passed his time there. Abd-ul-lah Khān had after his victory left his amirs in Badakhshān, and had returned to Bukhāra. At this time, Mirza Sulaimān, knowing it to be a favourable oppor-tunity, had in concert with the Aimaqs of Badakhshān collected an army and having entered that country fought with ‘Abd-ul-lah Khān’s amirs, and had been distinguished with victory and triumph; and had put many of the Uzbeks to the sword; and had permitted some, who had been taken prisoners, to go, after putting robes on them.

And it was at this time that the Khān Khānan came from Gujrat and passed much tribute of all kinds before the august eyes, as has been mentioned already.

It was in this month also that a report came from Kunar Mān Singh and Khwaja Shams-ul-din Muhammad, from Atak Banāras, to the effect that, Mirza Muhammad Hakim was lying on the bed of illness, and infirmity; and that Faridun, who had started from Peshāwar for Kabul, in the company of a caravan, had had a fight with the Afghāns in the Khaibar Pass, and being defeated by them had turned back, and had returned to Peshāwar. Accidentally a fire broke out in the fort of Peshāwar, and a thousand camel loads (of merchandise) belonging to the merchants were burnt. On account of this occurrence. Faridun obtained his release, and started by a different route towards Kabul. In the course of the journey, seventy men died from thirst and want of water.

In the midst of these occurrences, when (the news of) the [Page 603] attack and victory of Mirza Sulaimān reached ‘Abd-ul-lah Khān Uzbek, he sent a large army to attack the Mirza; and the latter, being unable to meet them, retired towards Kabul; and the whole of the country of Badakhshān again came into the possession of the Uzbeks.

At this time the news of the death of Mirza Muhammad Hakim was received. Although Mirza Muhammad Hakim was not the own brother of the emperor, yet the latter’s affection for, and kindness to him was greater than is usually felt for and shown to such a brother. In spite of the fact, that on the many occasions, he had overstepped the line or measure(of duty), His Majesty had considered his insub-ordination and rudeness as if they did not exist, and had always treated him with kindness and had showered royal favours on him. He had also several times sent great amirs with large armies to help and reinforce him; and had conferred the kingdom of Kabul on him, as has been already narrated.

As Mirza Muhammad Hakim had been addicted to the drink-ing of intoxicating beverages, he became subject to various conflicting maladies : and falling on the bed of weakness, he passed away on Friday, the 12th Sha’bān 993, corresponding with the 31st year of the Ilāhi era, in Kabul, from this house of fear and pride to the realm of happiness and joy.


Behold! that while the skies revolve and turn,
A nursling plant doth sprout from out of earth.
When that cypress body is with gems adorned,
A danger-blast doth cast it on the dust.
[Page 608]


In former times a man from Hindustan came among a tribe of the Afghāns, and promulgated an heretical and heterodox religion; and made many of the fools of the country his disciples; and gave himself the name of Pir Raushnāi. He wrote a book, which he called the Khair-ul-bayan, and described his false tenets. When he went to hell, his son Jalāla, who was fourteen years of age, came in the year 989 A.H. to wait on the emperor, when the sublime standards were returning from Kabul. He received royal favours, but owing to his inherent wickedness, he fled after remaining a few days in attendance on the emperor; and going among the Afghāns became a source of disturbance and revolt. He united a large horde with himself, and closed the roads between Hindustan and Kabul.


A tree, that by its nature bitter is,
If in a garden in paradise, thou dost it plant.
And if from the rivulet there, for watering it.
Thou pourest on its root honey pure and sweet;
In the end, its nature doth prevail.
For bitter fruit it ever would bear.


[Page 638]

On the 24th Shawwal of the aforementioned year, which corres-ponded with the 12th of the month of Amardad of the 37th year of the Ilāhi era, the saintly mind of His Majesty, the Khalifa-i-llāhi was turned to the idea of hunting in the neighbourhood of the river Chināb, which would terminate in a visit to Kashmir; and he accordingly crossed the Ravi, and spent five days in the garden of Ram Das in pleasure and enjoyment. He then started from that place, and halted at a distance of three karohs. From that station, he appointed Qulij Khān and Mota Rājā to manage the affairs at Lahore. As the rainy season had now commenced, and there was much rain and inundation, he left the eldest Shah-zada, Sultan Salim in the great camp; so that it might advance slowly, and with the huntsmen and a small retinue, he advanced to the Chināb river. When he arrived at the bank of that river, news came that Yādgār, the nephew (brother's son) of Mirza Yusuf Khān Rizavi, whom the latter had appointed to be his naib, and had left in Kashmir, had in concert with some Kashmiris raised the banner of revolt; and had assumed the name of Sultan; and Qāzi 'Ali, who had the post of the diwān of Kashmir, and [Page 639] Husain Beg Shaikh 'Umri, who was the Tahsildār(collector) of the tribute or revenue of Kashmir, had with the forces at their disposal fought with him; and, as it was destined, Qāzl 'Ali had been slain, and Husain Beg knowing that flight was the best course, carried away half his life through the passes of Kashmir, and arrived at 2 Rajauri. His Majesty the Khalifa-i-Ilāhi sent Shaikh Farid Bakhshi, with a number of amirs, such as Shaikh 'Abd-ur-Rahim Lakhnaui, and Mir Murād and Khwajgi Fath-ul-lah Bakhshi of the Ahadis with seven hundred Ahadis, and Shaikh Kabir and the sons of Shaikh Ibrahim, and Nasib Khān Turkman and Rahmat Khān and the sons of Abu Zaid, and other amirs, and a body of Aimaqs of Badakhshan, who numbered a thousand horsemen. He himself crossed the Chināb, and occupied himself with hun-ting, when the Shāhzāda arrived with the great camp, and rendered homage.

At this time, news came that the 'Khān Khānan had besieged Jani Beg for a period of two months and there was battle and strife every day; and men were killed on both sides. The Sindis blocked the ways of the importation of grain to the Khān Khānan's army. Grain became so scarce, that a piece of bread was of the value of a man's life.


The world, from that dearth, heart broken became;
The hungry were crying, the well-fed were hard of heart.
Everyone had a longing for a sight of bread,
That saw the sun's orb in the sky, and nought else.

The Khān Khānan, seeing no other remedy, started from that place and went towards pargana Jun, which is near Thatha; and [Page 640] be sent Saiyyad Bahā-ud-din Bukhāri, and Bakhtiyār Beg and Qara Beg Turkman, and Mlr Muhammad Ma'sum Bukhari and Hasan 'Ali' Arab, and a number of other retainers of his, to besiege Sihwan. Jāni Beg, considering the men sent to Sehwān not to be sufficiently strong, went to attack them. When the Khān Khānan got this news he sent Daulat Khān Ludi, as the leader of the detachment, and Khwaja Muhammad Muqim Bakhshi, and Dharui, son of Rājā Todar Mal and 'Dalpat, son of Rāi Rai Singh, and Bahadur Khān Tarin, and Muhammad Khān Niyazi to reinforce them. They travelled eighty karohs in the course of two days and arrived at Sehwān. The next day Jani Beg arrived after arranging his troops, and the imperialists also arrayed them-selves. Inspite of the fact that they did not number two thousand horsemen, and Jani Beg had more than five thousand, there was a severe fight. Dhārui, the son of Rājā Todar Mal, was slain, after be had fought bravely and made manly efforts. The breeze of victory then blew over the plumes of the standards of the servants of the eternal state, and they were signalised with triumph and victory.

Jani Beg was defeated, and went further down the river; and for a second time, he made an entrenchment round his forces, in the village of Amirpur, and took up his station on the bank of the [Page 641] river. The Khān Khānan from that side and this army (i.e., the one that had just fought with Jani Beg) from this side besieged him from all sides; and there was fighting and battle every day.

Jāni Beg was at last reduced to such straits, that his men killed their horses and camels every day and ate their flesh; and every day large numbers of them were slain by cannon balls and musket shots. In the end Jani Beg in great humility and distress knocked on the door of peace; and agreed that he would, like a slave, go and render homage to His Majesty.


When the haughty-headed one homage made.
His head was safe from the sword, that strikes off the head.


[Page 643]

After another three days, on the 28th Zi-hijja, in the year 1000 A.H. as Shāhzāda Khusro was somewhat indisposed and weak, he (the emperor) left Shāhzāda Dāniāl with all the inmates of the harem behind, and himself marched rapidly towards Kashmir. This slave of the threshold, the writer of this history, Nizām-ud-din Ahmad, was taken to attend at his auspicious stirrups. The prince was ordered that he should wait with all the inmates of the harem in the fort of Rohtas. On the 8th of Muharram in the year 1001 A.H. Kashmir was made the object of the envy of the [Page 644] higher paradise, by the grandeur of the auspicious advent of His Majesty. He stayed in Kashmir for twenty-eight days; and every day the saintly mind was made happy by going about in boats and shooting water fowls. He conferred the government of Kashmir again on Mirza Yusuf Khān Rizavi; and left a number of others, such as Khwāja Ashraf, son of Mir Murād Dakhini, and the son of Fath-ul-lah Khān, and the son of Shaikh Ibrāhim in the country ; and on the 8th Safar of the aforementioned year, having determined to return, he embarked in a boat, and started for Baramula, which was on the boundary of Kashmir, and on the Pakhli route. On the road he was through a reservoir or lake which is called the Zain-lanka. This is the reservoir which is [Page 645] bounded on the west and south and north by hills and its cir-cumference is thirty karohs. The river Behat (Jhilam) passes through it. Its water is very pure; and in the middle of this reservoir Sultan Zain-ul-'Abidin, threw down stones to the length of one jarib(chain), and raised it (i.e, a platform) above the level of the water, and built a high building on it. And in truth no reservoir, and no building equal to these have been seen in the country of Hindustan.

This text is an English-language translation of the original version:

This is a selection from the original text


animals, entertainment, famine, feast, grain, health, pestilence, travel

Source text

Title: Tabaqat-I-Akbari-Vol.2, Tabaqat-I-Akbari

Author: Khwajah Nizamuddin Ahmed

Editor(s): B. De, Baini Prashad

Publisher: Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal

Publication date: 1936

Original compiled c.1595

Original date(s) covered: c.1556-1593

Place of publication: Calcutta

Provenance/location: This text was transcribed from images available at the Digital Library of India: Original compiled c.1595 Original date(s) covered: c.1556-1593

Digital edition

Original author(s): Khwajah Nizamuddin Ahmed

Original editor(s): B. De

Language: English

Selection used:

  • 1 ) 207 to 209
  • 2 ) 210
  • 3 ) 282 to 283
  • 4 ) 287
  • 5 ) 312 to 313
  • 6 ) 360 to 361
  • 7 ) 361 to 365
  • 8 ) 401 to 402
  • 9 ) 425 to 428
  • 10 ) 428 to 429
  • 11 ) 453 to 454
  • 12 ) 456 to 457
  • 13 ) 474
  • 14 ) 478 to 480
  • 15 ) 489 to 493
  • 16 ) 498 to 502
  • 17 ) 507 to 508
  • 18 ) 510 to 512
  • 19 ) 527 to 530
  • 20 ) 554 to 555
  • 21 ) 592 to 593
  • 22 ) 601 to 603
  • 23 ) 608
  • 24 ) 638 to 641
  • 25 ) 645


Texts collected by: Ayesha Mukherjee, Amlan Das Gupta, Azarmi Dukht Safavi

Texts transcribed by: Muhammad Irshad Alam, Bonisha Bhattacharya, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Muhammad Ehteshamuddin, Kahkashan Khalil, Sarbajit Mitra

Texts encoded by: Bonisha Bhattacharya, Shreya Bose, Lucy Corley, Kinshuk Das, Bedbyas Datta, Arshdeep Singh Brar, Sarbajit Mitra, Josh Monk, Reesoom Pal

Encoding checking by: Hannah Petrie, Gary Stringer, Charlotte Tupman

Genre: India > chronicle histories

For more information about the project, contact Dr Ayesha Mukherjee at the University of Exeter.