The Herball Or Generall Historie of Plantes
Gathered by John Gerarde
of London Master in
PUBLISHED BY Adam Islip Joice Norton
PUBLISHED BY Richard Whitakers
TO THE RIGHT HONORABLE HIS SINGULAR GOOD LORD AND MASTER, SIR WILLIAM CECIL KNIGHT, BARON OF Burghley, Master of the Court of Wards and Liveries, Chancellor of the Universitie of Cambridge, Knight of the most noble Order of the Garter, one of the Lords of her Majesties most honorable Privy Councell, and Lord high Treasurer of England.
AMong the manifold creatures of God (right Honorable, and my singular good Lord) that have all in all ages diversly entertained many excellent wits, and drawne them to the contemplation of the divine wisdome, none have provoked mens studies more, or satisfied their desires so much as Plants have done, and that upon just and worthy causes; for if delight may provoke mens labor, what greater delight is there than to behold the earth apparelled with plants, as with a robe of embroidered worke, set with Orient pearles, and garnished with great [...] of rare and costly jewels? If this varietie and perfection of colours may affect the eye, it is such in herbs and floures, that no Apelles, no Zeuxis ever could by any art expresse the like: if odours or if taste may worke satisfaction, they are both so [...]in plants, and so comfortable, that no confection of the Apothecaries can equall their excellent vertue. But these delights are in the outward sences: the principall delight is in the minde, singularly enriched with the knowledge of these visible things, setting forth to us the invisible wisedome and admirable workmanship of almighty God. The delight is great, but the use greater, and joyned often with necessity. In the first ages of the world they were the ordinarie meate of men, and have continued ever since of necessaire use both for meates to maintaine life, and for medicine to recover health. The hidden vertue of them is such, that (as Pliny noteth) the[Page] very bruite beasts have found it out: and (which is another use that he observes) from thence the Dyars tooke the beginning of their Art.
Furthermore, the necessary use of these fruits of the earth doth plainly appeare by the great charge and care of almost all men in planting and maintaining of gardens, not as ornaments onely, but as a necessarie provision also to their houses. And here beside the [...],to speake againe in a word of delight, gardens, especially such as your Honor hath, furnished with many rare Simples, do singularly delight, when in them a man doth behold a flourishing shew of Sommer beauties in the midst of Winters force, and a goodly spring of floures, when abroad a leafe is not to be seene. Besides these and other causes, there are many examples of those that have honored this science: for to passe by a multitude of the Philosophers, it may please your Honor to call to remembrance that which you know of some noble Princes, that have joyned this study with their most important matters of state: Mithridates the great was famous for his knowledge herein, as Plutarch noteth. Euax also King of Arabia, the happy garden of the world for principall Simples, wrot of this argument, as Pliny sheweth. Diocletian likewise, might have had his praise, had he not drowned all his honour in the bloud of his persecution. To conclude this point, the example of Solomon is before the rest, and greater, whose wisedome and knowledge was such, that hee was able to set out the nature of all plants from the highest Cedar to the lowest Mosse. But my very good Lord, that which sometime was the study of great Philosophers and mightie Princes, is now neglected, except it be of some few, whose spirit and wisdome hath carried them among other parts of wisedome and counsell, to a care and studie of speciall herbes, both for the furnishing of their gardens, and furtherance of their knowledge: among whom I may justly affirme and publish your Honor to be one, being my selfe one of your servants, and a long time witnesse thereof: for under your Lordship I have served, and that way employed my principall study and almost all my time, now by the space of twenty yeares. To the large and singular furniture of this noble Island I have added from [...] places all the varietie of herbes and floures that I might any [...] obtaine, I have laboured with the soile to make it fit for plants, and with the plants, that they might delight in the soile, that so they might live and prosper under our clymat, as in their native and proper countrey: what my successe hath beene, and what my furniture is, I leave to the report of them that have seene your Lordships gardens, and the little plot of myne owne especiall care and husbandry. But because gardens are privat, and many times finding an ignorant or a negligent successor, come soone to ruine, there be that have sollicited me, first by my pen, and after by the Presse to make my Labors common, and to free them from the danger whereunto a garden is subject: wherein when I was overcome, and had brought this History or report of the nature of Plants to a just volume, and had made it (as the Reader may by comparison see) richer than former Herbals, I found it no question unto whom I might [...] my [...] ; for considering your good Lordship, I found none of whose favor and [...] I might sooner presume, seeing I have found you ever my very good Lord and Master. Again, considering my duty and your Honors merits, to whom may I better recommend my Labors, than to him unto whom I owe my selfe, and all that I am able in any[Page] service or [...] to performe? Therefore under hope of your Honorable and accustomed favor I present this Herball to your Lordships protection; and not as an exquisite Worke (for I know my meannesse) but as the greatest gift and chiefest argument of duty that my labour and service can affoord: where of if there be no other fruit, yet this is of some use, that I have ministred Matter for Men of riper wits and deeper judgements to polish, and to adde to my large additions where any thing is defective, that in time the Worke may be perfect. Thus I humbly take my leave, beseeching God to grant you yet many dayes to live to his glory, to the support of this State under her Majestie our dread [...], and that with great encrease of honor in this world, and all fulnesse of glory in the world to come.
Your Lordships most humble and obedient Servant,
To the well affected Reader and peruser of this Booke, St. Bredwell Physition, greeting.
Open is the campe of glorie and honour for all men, saith the younger Pliny: not onely men of great birth and dignitie, or men of office endued witb publique charge and titles, are seene therein, and have the garland of praise and preferment waiting to crowne their merits, but even the common souldier likewise: so as he, whose name and note was erst all obscure, may by egregious acts of valour obtaine a place among the noble. The schoole of science keepeth semblable proportion: whose amplitude, as not alwaies, nor onely, men of great titles and degrees, labour to illustrate; so whosoevcr doth, may confidently account of, at the least, his name to be immortall. What is he then that will denie his voice of gracious commendation to the Authors of this Booke: to every one, no doubt, there is due a condigne measure. The first gatherers out of the Antients, and augmentors by their owne paines, have already spread the odour of their good names, through all the Lands of learned habitations. Doctor Priest, for his translation of so much as Dodonaeus, hath thereby left a tombe for his honorable sepulture. M. Gerardcomming last, but not the least, hath many waies accommodated the whole worke unto our English Nation: for this Historic of Plants, as it is richly replenished by those five mens labours laied together, so yet could it full ill have wanted that new accession he hath made unto it. Many things hath he nourished in his garden, and observed in our English fields, that never came into their pennes to write of. Againe, the greatest number of these plants, having never been written of in the English tongue, would have wanted names for the vulgar sort to call them by: in which defect he hath bin curiously carefull, touching both old and new names to make supply.
And lest the Reader should too often languish with frustrate desire, to finde some plant he readeth, of rare vertue, he spareth not to tell (if himselfe have seene it in England) in what wood, pasture or ditch the same may be seene and gathered. Which when I thinke of, and therewithall remember, with what cheerefull alacritie, and resolute attendance he hath many-yeares tilled this ground, and now brought forth the fruit of it, whether I should more commend his great diligence to attaine this skill, or his large benevolence in bestowing it on his countrie, I cannot easily determine. This booke-birth thus brought forth by Gerard, as it is informe and disposition faire and comely, (every speciesbeing referred to his likeliest genus, of whose stocke it came) so is it accomplished with surpassing varietie, unto such spreading growth and strength of every lim, as that it may seeme some heroicall Impe of illustrious race, able to draw the eyes and expectation of every man unto it. Somewhat rare it will be here for a man to move a question of this nature, and depart againe without some good satisfaction. Manifold will be the use both to the Physition and others: for every man delighteth in knowledge naturally, which (as Aristotlesaid) is in prosperitie an ornament, in adversitie a refuge. But this booke above many others will sute with the most, because it both plenteously ministreth knowledge, which is the food of the minde, and doth it also with a familiar and pleasing taste to everycapacitie. Now as this commoditie is communicated to all, and many shall-receive much fruit thereof, so I wish some may have the minde to returne a benefit againe; that it might not be true in all that Juvenallsaith, Scirevolunt omnes, mercedem solvere nemo: (id eft) All desire to know, none to yeeld reward. Let men think, that the perfection of this knowledge is the high advancement of the health of man that perfection is not to be attained, but by strong endeavor: neither can strong indevor be accomplished without free maintenance. This hath not he, who is forced to labour for his daily bread: but if hee, who from the short houres of his daily and necessarie travell, stealing as it were some, for the publike behoofe, and setting at length those pecces together, can bring forth so comely a garment as this, meet to cover or put away the ignorance of many: what may be thought he would do, if publicke maintenance did free him from that private care, and unite his thoughts to be wholly intent to the generall good.
O Reader, if such men as this sticke not to rob themselves of such wealth as thou haste to inrich thee, with that substance thou wantest, detract not to share out of thine aboundance to merit and encourage their paines: that so fluxible riches, and permanent sciences, may the one become a prop unto the other. Although praise and reward joined as companions to fruitfull endevors, are in partdesired of all men, that undertake losses, labours, or dangers for the publique behoofe: because they adde sinewes (as it were) unto reason, and able her more and more to resine her selfe: yet do they not imbrace that honour in respect of it selfe, nor in respect of those[Page] that conferred it upon them, but as having thereby an argument in themselves, that there is something in them worthy estimation among men: which then doubleth their diligence to deserve it more abundantly. Admirable and for the imitation of Princes, was that act of Alexander, who setting Aristotleto compile commentaries of the bruit creatures, allowed him for the better performance thereof, certaine thousands of men, in all Asia and Greece, most skilfull observers of such things, to give him information touching all beasts, fishes, foules, serpents, and flies. What came of it? A booke written, wherein all learned men in all ages since do exercise themselves principally, for the knowledge of the creatures. Great is the number of those that of their owne private have laboured in the same matter, from his age downe to our present time, which all do not in comparison satisfie us. Whereas if in those ensuing ages there had risen still new Alexanders, there (certainely) would not have wanted Aristotles to have made the evidence of those things an hundred fold more cleered unto us, than now they be. Whereby you may perceive the unequall effects that follow those unsutable causes of publike and private maintenances unto labours and studies. Now that I might not dispaire in this my exhortation, I see examples of this munisicence in our age to give me comfort: Ferdinandthe Emperor and Cosmus MedicesPrince of Tuscane are herein registred for furthering this science of plants, in following of it themselves and becomming skilfull therein: which course of theirs could not be holden without the supporting and advancing of such as were studious to excell in this kinde. Belloniuslikewise (whom for honours cause I name) a man of high attempts in naturall science, greatly extolleth his Kings liberalitie, which endued him with free leisure to follow the studie of plants, seconded also herein by Montmorenciethe Constable, the Cardinals Castilionand Lorraine, with Oliverius the Chancellor; by whose meanes he was enabled to performe those his notable [...]in Italy, Africa and Asia: the sweet fruit whereof, as we have received some taste by his observations, so we should plenteously have been filled with them, if violent death by most accursed robbers had not cut him off.
And as I finde these examples of comfort in forreine nations, so we are (I confesse) much to be thankfull to God, for the experience we have of the like things at home. If (neverthelesse) unto that Physicke lecture lately so well erected, men who have this worlds goods shall have hearts also of that spirit, to adde some ingenious labourer in the skill of simples, they shall mightily augment and adorne the whole science of Physicke. But if to that likewise they joine a third, namely the art of Chimicall preparation; that out of those good creatures which God hath given man for his health, pure substances may be procured for those that be sicke, (I feare not to say it, though I see how Momusscorneth) this present generation would purchasemore to the perfection of Physicke, than all the generations past since Galenstime have done: that I say, nothing of this one fruit that would grow thereof, to wit, the discovering and abolishing of these pernitious impostures and sophistications which mount promising Paracelsians every where obtrude, through want of a true and constant light among us to discerne them by. In which behalfe, remembring the mournfull speech of grave Hippocrates; The art of Physicke truly excelleth all arts, how beit, through the ignorance partly of those that exercise it, and partly of those that judge rashly of Physitions, it is accounted of all arts the most inferiour: I say in like manner, the art of Chimistrie is in it selfe the most noble instrument of naturall knowledges; but through the ignorance & impiety, partly of those that most audaciously professe it without skill, and partly of them that impudently condemne that they know not, it is of all others most basely despised and scornfully rejected.
A principall remedy to remove such contumelious disgrace from these two pure virgins of one stocke and linage, is this that I have now insinuated, even by erecting the laboratory of an industrious Chimist, by the sweet garden of flourishing simples. The Physicke reader by their meanes shall not onely come furnished with authorities of the Ancients, and sensible probabilities for that he teacheth, but with reall demonstrations also in many things, which the reason of man without the light of the fornace would never have reached unto. I have uttered my hearts desire, for promoting first the perfection of my profession, and next by necessary consequence, the healthie lives of men. If God open mens hearts to provide for the former, it cannot be but that the happy fruits shall be seene in the later. Let the ingenious learned judge whether I have reason on my side: the partiall addicted sect I [...], as [...]that never meane good to posteritie.
THus farre have I discoursed upon Grasses, Rushes, Spartum, Flags, and Floure deluces: my next labour is to set downe for your better instruction, the historie of Corne, and the kindes thereof, under the name of Graine; which the Latines call Cerialia semina, or Bread-corne; the Grecians, [...] and [...]; of which wee purpose to discourse. There belong to the historie of Graine all such things as be made of Corne, as Far, Condrus, Alica, Tragus, Amylum, Ptisana, Polenta, Maza, [...] or Malt, Zythum, and whatsoever are of that sort. There be also joyned unto them many seeds, which Theophrastus in his eighth booke placeth among the graines; as Millet, Sorgum, Panicke, Indian wheat; and such like. Galen in his first booke of the Faculties of nourishments, reckoneth up the diseases of Graine, as well those that come of the graine it selfe degenerating, or that are changed into some other kinde, and made worse through the fault of the weather, or of the soile; as also such as be cumbersome by growing among them, doe likewise fitly succeed the graines. And beginning with corne, we will first speake of Wheat, and describe it in the first place, because it is preferred before all other corne.
- THis kinde of Wheate which Lobelius, distinguishing it by the care, callethSpica Mutica, is the most principal of all other, whose eares are altogether bare or naked, without awnes or chaffie beards. The stalke riseth from a threddy root, compact of many strings, joynted or kneed at sundry distances; from whence shoot forth grassie blades and leaves like unto Rie, but broader. The plant is so well knowne to many, and so profitable to all, that the meanest and most ignorant need no larger description to know the same by.
- The second kinde of Wheat, in root, stalkes, joints, and blades, is like the precedent, differing onely in care, and number of graines, whereof this kinde doth abound, having an eare consisting of many ranks, which seemeth to make the eare double or square. The root and graine is like the other, but not bare and naked, but bristled or bearded, with many small and sharpe eiles or awnes, not unlike to those of Barley.
- The third kind is like the last described,&thus differeth from it in that,that this kind hath many finall eares,coming forth of one great eare,and the beards heerof be shorter,then of the former kinde.
- Flat Wheat is like unto the other kindes of Wheat in leaves, stalkes, and roots, but is bearded and bordered with rough and sharpe ailes, wherein consists the difference. I know not what our Author means by this flat Wheat; but I conjecture it to be the long rough eared Wheat, which hath blewish eares when as it is ripe, in other things resembling the ordinary red wheat.
- The fourth kinde is like the last described, and thus differeth from it, in that, that this kind hath many smal ears comming forth of one great eare, & the beards hereof be shorter than of the former kind.
- Bright wheate is like the second before described, and differeth from it in that, that this kind is foure square, somewhat bright and shining, the other not.
Wheat groweth almost in all the countries of the world that are inhabited and mannured, and requireth a fruitfull and fat soile, and rather Sunny and dry, than watery grounds and shadowie: for in a dry ground (as Columella reporteth) it groweth harder and better compact: in a moist and darke soile it degenerateth sometime to be of another kinde.
They are most commonly sowen in the fall of the leafe, or Autumne: somtime in the Spring.
Wheat is called of the Grecians [...]: of the Latines, Triticum, and the white Wheate Siligo. Triticum doth generally signifie any kinde of Corne which is threshed out of the eares, and made clean by fanning or such ordinary meanes. The Germans call it [...]: in low Dutch, [...]: in Italian, Grano: the Spaniards, Trigo: the French men,Bled, au Fourment: in England we call the first, WhiteWheat, and Flaxen Wheat. Triticum Lucidum is called Bright Wheat: Red Wheat is called in Kent, Duck-bill Wheate, and Normandy Wheat.
The kind of Wheate according to their naturall qualities, are hot and moist in the first degree, and drie in the middle of the second.
Wheat (saith Galen) is very much used of men, and with greatest profit. Those Wheats do nourish most which be hard, and have their whole substance so closely compact as they can scarcely be bit asunder; for such doe nourish very much: and the contrary but little.
Wheat, as it is a medicine outwardly applied, is hot in the first degree, yet can it not manifestly either dry or moisten. It hath also a certaine clamminesse and stopping qualitie.
- Raw Wheate, saith Dioscorides, being eaten, breedeth wormes in the belly: being chewed and applied, it doth cure the biting of mad dogs.
- The flower of wheat being boyled with honey and water, or with oyle and water, taketh away all inflammations, or hot swellings.
- The bran of Wheate boyled in strong Vineger, clenseth away scurfe and dry scales, and dissolveth the beginning of all hot swellings, if it be laid unto them. And boyled with the decoction of Rue, it slaketh the swellings in womens brests.
- The graines of white Wheat, as Pliny writeth in his two and twentieth booke, and seventh chapter, being dried brown, but not burnt, and the pouder thereof mixed with white wine is good for watering eyes, if it be laid thereto.
- The dried pouder of red Wheat boyled with vineger, helpeth the shrinking of sinewes.
- The meale of Wheat mingled with the juice of Henbane, and plaisterwise applied, appeaseth inflammations, asIgnis sacer, or Saint Anthonies Fire, and such like, staying the flux of humors to the joynts, which the Grecians call Rheumatismata. Paste made of fine meale, such as Booke-binders use, helpeth such as doe spit bloud, taken warme one spoonfull at once. The bran of wheat boiled in sharpe vineger, and rubbed upon them that be scurvie and mangie, easeth the party very much.
- The leaven made of Wheat hath vertue to heate and draw outward, it resolveth, concocteth, and openeth all swellings, bunches, tumors, and felons, being mixed with salt.
- The fine floure mixed with the yolke of an egge, honey, and a little saffron, doth draw and heale byles and such like sores, in children and in old people, very well and quickely. Take crums of wheaten bread one pound and an halfe, barley meale [...] ij. Fennigreeke and Lineseed of each an ounce, the leaves of Mallowes, Violets, Dwale, Sengreene, and Cotyledon, ana one handfull: boyle them in water and oyle untill they be tender: then stampe them very small in a stone morter, and adde thereto the yolks of three egges, oyle of Roses, and oyle of Violets, ana [...]ij. Incorporate them altogether; but if the inflammation grow to an Erysipelas, then adde thereto the juice of Nightshade, Plantaine, and Henbane, ana [...]ij. it easeth an Erysipelas, or Saint Anthonies fire, and all inflammations very speedily.
- Slices of fine white bread laid to infuse or [ I] steepe in Rose water, and so applied unto sore eyes which have many hot humors falling into them, doth easily defend the humour, and cease the paine.
- The oyle of wheat pressed forth betweene two plates of hot iron, healeth the chaps and chinks of the hands, feet, and fundament, which come of cold, making smooth the hands, face, or any other part of the body. The same used as a Balsame doth excellently heale wounds, and being put among salves or unguents, it causeth them to worke more effectually, especially in old ulcers.
1.2.1. CHAP. 41. Of Rie.
THe leafe of Rie when it first commeth up, is somewhat reddish, afterward greene, as be the other graines. It groweth up with many stalks, slenderer than those of wheat, and longer, with knees or joynts by certaine distances like unto Wheat: the eares are orderly framed up in rankes, and compassed about with short beards, not sharpe but blunt, which when it floureth standeth upright, and when it is filled up with seed it leaneth and hangeth downward. The seed is long, blackish, slender, and naked, which easily falleth out of the huskes of it selfe. The roots be many, slender, and full of strings.
Rie groweth very plentifully in the most places of Germany and Polonia, as appeareth by the great quantitie brought into England in times of dearth, and scarcitie of corne, as hapned in the yeare 1596, and at other times, when there was a generall want of corne, by reason of the aboundance of raine that fell the yeare before; whereby great penurie ensued, as well of cattell and all other victuals, as of all manner of graine. It groweth likewise very wel in most places of England, especially towards the North. [Page 68]
It is for the most part sowen in Autumne, and sometimes in the Spring, which proveth to be a Graine more subject to putrifaction than that which was sowen in the fall of the leafe, by reason the Winter doth overtake it before it can attaine to his perfect maturitie and ripenesse.
Rie is called in high-Dutch, [...] : in Low-Dutch, [...] : in Spanish, Centeno: in Italian, Segala: in French, Seigle: which soundeth after the old Latine name Siligo.Pliny called it Secale and Roggein his 18.booke and 16.chapter.
Rie as a medicine is hotter than wheat, and more forcible in heating, wasting, and consuming away the body which is nourished by it.
Bread, or the leaven of Rie, as the Belgian Physitians affirme upon their practise, doth more forcibly digest, draw, ripen, and breake all apostumes, Botches, and Byles, than the leven of Wheat.
1.2.2. CHAP. 42. Of Spelt Corne.
SPelt is like to Wheat in stalkes and eare: it groweth up with a multitude of stalks which are kneed and joynted higher than those of Barley: it bringeth forth a disordered eare, for the most part without beards. The cornes be wrapped in certaine dry huskes, from which they cannot easily be purged, and are joyned together by couples in two chaffie huskes, out of which when they be taken they are like unto wheat cornes: it hath also many roots as wheat hath, whereof it is a kinde.
It groweth in fat and fertile moist ground.
It is altered and changed into Wheat it selfe, as degenerating from bad to better, contrary to all other that do alter or change; especially (as Theophrastus saith) if it be sowen in one soile three years together, then at the third yeare it is changed.
The Graecians have called it [...] and [...] the Latins Spelta:in the Germaine toong [...] and [...]:in low Dutch [...]: in French [...]:of most Italians Pirra Farra:of the Hetrucians Biada:of the Islanders, Alga:in English Spelt corne.Dioscorides maketh mention of two kindes of Spelt, one which he furnameth [...], or single:another [...],which bringeth foorth two cornes joined together in a couple of husks, as before in the description is mentioned. That Spelt which Dioscorides calleth Dioccoss, is the very same that Theophrasius and Galen do name Zea.The most ancient Latins have called Zea or Spelta by the name of Far,as Dionysus Halicarnassaus doth sufficiently testifie. The old Romans(saith he) did call sacred marriages by the word [...], bicause the bride and bridegroome did eate of that Far which the Grecians do call [...].The same thing Asclepiades affirmeth in Galen, in his ninth booke according to the placesa affected, writing thus, Farris quod Zea appeallnt, that is to say, Far which is called Zea, &c. And this Far is also named of the Latins Ador, Adoreum and Semen adoreum.
The temperature and vertues.
Spelt as Dioscoriades reporteth, nourisheth more than Barley. Galen writeth in his bookes of the Faculties of simple medicines, that Spelt in all his temperature in a meane betweene Wheate and Barly,and may in vertue be referred to the kindes of Barly or Wheate,being indifferent to them both.
A.The flower or meale of Spelt once, boiled in water with the powder of red saunders, a little oile of Roses and Lillies unto the forme of a pultus,and applied hot, taketh away the swelling of the legs gotten by cold and long standing.
1.2.3. CHAP. 43.Of Starch Corne.
THis other kind of Spelta or Zea is called of the Germane Herbarists ,Amyleum Frumentum, or Starch-corne; and is a kinde of grain sowen to that end, or a three moneths graine, and is very like unto wheat in stalke and seed; but the eare thereof is set round about, and made up with two ranks, with certaine beards, almost after the manner of Barley, and the seed is closed up in chaffie huskes, and is sowen in the Spring.
Amil corne, or Starch corne is sowen in Germanie, Polonia, Denmarke, and other those Easterne Regions, as well to feed their cattel and pullen with, as also to make starch; for the which purpose it doth very fitly serveth.
It is sowen in Autumne, or the fall of the leafe, and oftentimes in the Spring; and for that cause hath beene called Trimestre, or three months grain: it bringeth his seed to ripenesse in the beginning of August, and is sowen in the Low-Countries in the Spring of the yeare.
Because the Germanes have great use of it to make starch with, they do call it [...] : Wee [Page 70] thinke good to name it in Latine Amyleum frumentum: in English it may be called [...], after the Germane word; and may likewise be called Starch Corne. Tragus andFuchsius tooke it to be Triticum [...] , or three moneths wheat; but it may rather be referred to the Farra: [...]Columella speaketh of a graine called Far Halicastrum, which is sowen in the Spring; and for that cause it is named Trimestre, or three moneths Far. If any be desirous to learne the making of Starch, let them reade Dodoneus last edition, where they shall be fully taught; my selfe not willing to spend time about so vaine a thing, and not pertinent to the history.
The nature and vertues.
There hath not any pecuilar vertues attributed to this kinde of Amylcorne,more than hath been said, that is to seeds cattell,pullen, and to make starch, the nature is referred unto the base kinds of Wheate or Barly.
1.2.4. CHAP. 44. Of Barley.
BArley hath an helme or straw which is shorter and more brittle than that of Wheat, and hath more joints; the leaves are broader and rougher; the eare is armed with long, rough, and prickly beards or ailes, and set about with sundry ranks, sometimes two, otherwhiles three, foure, or sower at the most, The grain is included in a long chaffie huske: the roots be slender, and grow thicke together. Barley, as Pliny writeth, is of all graine the softest, and least subject to casualtie, yeelding fruit very quickely and profitably.
2 The second kind of Barley is like unto the former in stakes, roote, and blades: they differ in the care. For this hath many ranckes of cornes set very orderly, which make a square eare, the other not. The North parts of England hath in use two kindes of barly,the one is sowen in Autumne, the other in Aprile and May.
They are sowne, as Columella teacheth, in loose and dry ground, and are well knowne all Europe through.
1 The first is called of the Grecians [...]:in high Dutch [...]:in low Dutch [...]:in Italian an Orzo:in Spanish Ceuada:in French Orge:in English Barly.
2 The second is called of the Grecians [...], and also [...] Columella calleth it Galaticum, and Hippocrates [...] : of our English northerene people Big and Big Barly.Crimnon saith Galen in his commentaries of the second book of Hippocrates his Prognostikes, is the grosser part of Barly meal,being grosly ground. Mault is well knowne in England, insomuch that the word needeth no interpretation;notwithstanding because these works may chance into the hands of stangers that never hard of such a worde, or such a thing, by reason it is not everywhere made;I thought good to laie downe a word of the making thereof. First, it is steeped in water untill it do swell,then it is dried with the haete of fire, and so used. It is called in high dutch [...] :in Lowe Dutch [...]: in Latin of latter time Maltum:which name is borrowed of the Germaines.Aetius a Greeke Phisition,nameth Barly thus prepared [...],or Bine: the which author affirmeth that a plaister of the meale of Mault is profitable laide upon the swellings of the dropsie. Zythum, as Diodorus Siculus affirmeth, is not only made in Egypt, but also in Galatia. The aire is so cold saith he writing of Galatia, that the countrey bringeth foorth neither wine nor oile, and therefore men are compelled to make a compounde drinke of Barly, which they call Zythum;Dioscorides nameth one kinde of Barly drinke Zythum, another Curmi. Simeon Zethij a later Grecian, calleth this kind of drinke by an Arabicke name [...] in English it is called Beere and Ale made of Barly Mault.
Barley, as Galen writeth in his booke of the Faculties of nourishments, is not of the same temperature that Wheat is; for wheat doth manifestly heate, but contrariwise what medicine or bread soever [Page 65]is made of Barly, is found to have a certaine force to coole and drye in the first degree, according to Galen in his booke of the faculties of Simples. It hath also a little abstersive or cleansing qualitie, and doth dry somewhat more than Beane meale.
- Barley, saith Dioscorides, doth cleanse, provoke urine, breedeth windinesse, and is an enemie to the stomacke.
- Barly meale boiled in an honied water with figges, taketh away inflammations: with Pitch, Rosin, and Pigeons dung, it softneth and ripeneth hard swellings.
- With Melilot and Poppy seeds it taketh away the paine in the sides: it is a remedy against windinesse in the guts, being applied with Lineseed, Foenugreek, and Rue: with tarre, wax, oyle, and the urine of a yong boy, it doth digest, soften, and ripe hard swellings in the throat, called the Kings Evill.
- Boiled with wine, Myrtles, the barke of the pomegranate, wilde peares, and the leaves of brambles, it stoppeth the laske.
- Further, it serveth for Ptisana, Polenta, Maza, Malt, Ale, and Beere: the making whereof if any be desirous to learne, let them reade Lobels Adversaria, in the chapter of Barly. But I thinke our London Beere Brewers would scorne to learne to make beere of either French or Dutch, much lesse of me that can say nothing therein of mine owne experience more than by the Writings of others. But I may deliver unto you a Confection made thereof (as Columella did concerning sweet wine sodden to the halfe) which is this; Boyle strong Ale till it come to the thickenesse of hony, or the forme of an unguent or salve, which applied to the paines of the sinewes and joints (as having the propertie to abate aches and paines) may for want of better remedies be used for old and new sores, if it be made after this manner.
- Take strong ale two pound, one Oxe gall, and boyle them to one pound with a soft fire, continually stirring it; adding thereto of Vineger one pound, of Olibanum one ounce, floures of Camomil and melilot of each One undefined symbol i. Rue in fine pouder One undefined symbol s. a little hony, and a small quantitie of the pouder of Comin seed; boyle them all together to the forme of an unguent, and so apply it. There be sundry sorts of Confections made of Barley, as Polenta, Ptisana, made of water and husked or hulled barley, and such like. Polenta is the meate made of parched Barley, which the Grecians doe properly [Page 72] call Alphiton. Maza is made of parched Barley tempered with water, after Hippocrates and Xenophon: Cyrus having called his souldiers together, exhorteth them to drinke water wherein parched Barley hath beene steeped, calling it by the same name, Maza. Hesychius doth interpret Maza to be Barley meale mixed with water and oile.
- Barley meale boiled in water with garden Nightshade, the leaves of garden Poppy, the pouder of Foenigreeke and Lineseed, and a little Hogs grease, is good against all hot and burning swellings, and prevaileth against the Dropsie, being applied upon the belly.
1.2.5. CHAP. 45 Of Naked Barley.
HOrdeum nudum is called Zeopyrum, and Tritico Speltum, because it is like to Zea, otherwise called Spelta, and is like to that which is called French Barley, whereof is made that noble drinke for sicke Folkes, calledPtisana. The plant is altogether like unto Spelt, saving that the eares are rounder, the eiles or beards rougher and longer, and the seed or graine naked without huskes.
- This Barley boiled in water cooleth unnaturall and hot burning choler. In vehement fevers you may adde thereto the seeds of white Poppie and Lettuse, not onely to coole, but also to provoke sleepe.
- Against the shortnesse of the breath, and paines of the brest, may be added to all the foresaid, figs, raisins of the Sunne, liquorice, and Annise seed.
- Being boyled in the Whay of Milke, with the leaves of Sorrell, Marigolds, and Scabious, it quencheth thirst, and cooleth the heate of the inflamed liver, being drunke first in the morning, and last to bedward.
1.2.6. CHAP. 46. Of Burnt -Barley.
1Hordeum Distichonis that burnt or blasted Pliny,which is altogether unprofitable and good for nothing, an enimie unto corne; for that instead of an eare with corne,there is nothing else but blacke dust, which spoileth bread,or whatever is made thereof.
2. This kinde of wilde Barly, called of the Latins Hordeum Spurium, is called ofPlinie Holchus: in English, Wall Barley, Way Barley, or after old English Writers, Way Bennet. It groweth upon mud walls and stony places by the wayes sides; very well resembling Selfe-sowed Barley, yet the blades are rather like grasse than Barley.
This Bastard wilde Barley stamped and applied unto places wanting haire, doth cause it to grow and come forth, whereupon in old time it was called Riftida.
1.2.7. CHAP. 47. Of S.Peters Corne.
1 BRiza is somewhat like Wall Barly, whereof it is a kinde,but much lesser, of a browne reddish colour:a graine unpleasant to eate,and not used in phisicke.
2 This degenerate kinde of Barly called Festuca of Narbon, hath stalks beset with leaves,growing in spaces one distant from another even to the top;whereupon do grove ceratine round bottles, after the fashion of a peare:on the crowne whereof sprouteth soorth many long haires tust or tassell fashion, as is to be seene in Centaurea major,but much longer.
[...]saith, That he by his owne triall hath found this to be true, That as Lolium, which is our common Darnel, is certainly knowne to be a seed degenerate from wheat, being found for the most part among wheat, or where wheat hath been: so is Festuca a seed or grain degenerating from Barley, and is found among Barley, or where barley hath beene.
2 This Aegilops growes commonly amongst their Barley in Italy and other hot countries.
1 Briza Monococcos, afterLobelius, is called by Tabernamontanus, Zea Monococcos: in English, Saint Peters Corne, or Brant Barley.
2 Festuca of Narbone in France is called [undefined span non-Latin alphabet]: in Latine, Aegilops Narbonensis, according to the Greeke: in English, Haver-grasse.
They are of qualitie somewhat sharpe, having facultie to digest.
The juice of Festuca mixed with Barley meale dried, and at times of need moistned with Rose [ A] water, applied plaisterwise, healeth the disease called Aegilops, or fistula in the corner of the eye: it mollifieth and disperseth hard lumps, and asswageth the swellings in the joynts.
1.2.8. CHAP. 48. Of Otes.
1AVena Vesca, Common Otes, is called Vesca, à Vescendo, because it is used in many countries to make sundry sorts of bread; as in Lancashire, where it is their chiefest bread corne for Jannocks, Haver cakes, Tharffe cakes, and those which are called generally Oten cakes; and for the most part they call the graine Haver, whereof they do likewise make drink for want of Barley.
2 Avena Nuda is like unto the common Otes; differing in that, that these naked Otes immediately as they be threshed, without helpe of a Mill become Otemeale fit for our use. In consideration whereof in Northfolke and Southfolke they are called unhulled and naked Otes. Some of those good house-wives that delight not to have any thing but from hand to mouth, according to our English proverbe, may (whiles their pot doth seeth) go to the barne, and rub forth with their hands sufficient for that present time, not willing to provide for to morrow, according as the Scripture speaketh, but let the next day bring with it.
Otes are dry and somewhat cold of temperature, as Galen saith.
- Common Otes put into a linnen bag, with a little bay salt quilted handsomely for the same purpose, and made hot in a frying pan, and applied very hot, easeth the paine in the side called the stitch, or collicke in the belly.
- If Otes be boyled in water, and the hands or feet of such as have the Serpigo or Impetigo, that is; certaine chaps, chinks, or rifts in the palmes of the hands or feet (a disease of great affinitie with the pocks) be holden over the fume or smoke thereof in some bowle or other vessell wherein the Otes are put, and the Patient covered with blankets to sweat, being first annointed with that ointment or unction usually applied contra [...]Gallicum: it doth perfectly cure the same in sixe [...]so annointing and sweating.
- Otemeale is good for to make a faire and welcoloured maid to looke like a cake of tallow, especially if she take next her [...]a good draught of strong vineger after it.
1.3. CHAP. 49. Of Wilde Otes.
1BRomos sterilis, called likewise Avena fatva, which the Italians do call by a very apt name Venavana, and Avena Cassa, (in English, Barren Otes, or wilde Otes) hath like leaves and stalkes as our Common Otes; but the heads are rougher, sharpe, many little sharpe huskes making each eare.
2 There is also another kinde of Bromos or wilde Otes, which Dodoneus calleth Festuca altera, not differing from the former wilde Otes in stalkes and leaves, but that his eares are neither so great, nor so long as the first.It may be called in English Small wilde Otes, agreeing with Brunselsius, that is a kinde of Otes.
There is nothing extant woorthie the noting, either of their temperature or vertues, but reckoned as hurtfull to corne, and unprofitable.
1.4. CHAP. 50. Of Bearded Otes.
A EGylops Bromoides Belgarum is a Plant indifferently partaking of the nature of Aegilops and Bromos. It is in shew like to the naked Otes. The seed is sharpe, hairy, and somewhat long, and of a reddish colour, inclosed in yellowish chaffie huskes like as Otes, and may be Englished, Crested or bearded Otes. I have found it often among Barley and Rie in sundry grounds. This is likewise unprofitable and hurtfull to Corne ; whereof is no mention made by the Antients worthy the noting.
2 Burnt Rie hath no one good property in phisicke, appropriate either to man, birds, or beast, and is a hurtfull maladie to all corne where it groweth, having an eare in shape like to corne, but in stead of graine it doth yeeld a blacke powder or dust, which causeth bread to looke blacke, and to have an evill taste: and that corne where it is, is called smootie corne, and the thing it selfe Burnt Corn, or blasted corn.
3 Burnt Otes, or Ustilago Avenae, or Avenacea, is likewise an unprofitable Plant, degenerating from Otes, as the other from barley, Rie, and Wheat.It
were in vaine to make a long harvest of such evill corne, considering it is not possessed with one good qualitie. And therefore thus much shall suffice for the description.
1.5. CHAP. 51. Of Darnell.
1AMong the hurtfull weeds Darnell is the first. It bringeth forth leaves or stalkes like those of wheat or barley, yet rougher, with a long eare made up of many little ones, every particular one whereof containeth two or three graines lesser than those of Wheat, scarcely any chassie huske to cover them with; by reason whereof they are easily shaken out and scattered abroad.
2 Red Darnell is likewise an unprofitable corne or grasse, having leaves like barly. The joints of the straw or stalke are sometimes of a reddish colour, bearing at the top a small and tender eare , spike fashion.
They grow in fields among wheat and barley, of the corrupt and bad seed, as Galen saith, especially in a moist and dankish soile.
They spring and flourish with the corne, and in August the seed is ripe.
1 Darnell is called in Greeke : in the Arabian toong Zizania and Sceylen:in French Yuray: in Italian Loglio: in low DutchDolick: in English Darnell, of some Juray and Raye, and of some of the Latines Triticum Temulentum.
2 Red Darnell is called in Greeke : or Phaenix, of red crimson colour: in Latin Lolium rubrum: and Lolium Murinum: in English Wall Barly, and Waie Bennet: of some Hordeum murinum,and Triticum murinum: in Dutch
Darnell is hot in the third degree, and dry in the second. Red Darnell drieth without sharpenesse, as Galen saith.
- The seed of Darnell, Pigeons dung, oile Olive, and pouder of Lineseed, boiled to the sorme of a plaister, consume wennes, hard lumpes, and such like excrescenses in any part of the body.
- The new bread wherein Darnel is, eaten hot, causeth drunkennesse: in like manner doth beere or ale wherein the seed is fallen, or put into the malt.
- Darnell taken with red wine stayeth the flux of the belly, and the overmuch flowing of womens termes.
- Dioscorides saith, That Darnel meale doth stay and keepe backe eating sores, Gangrenes, and putrified ulcers; and being boiled with Radish roots, salt, brimstone, and vineger, it cureth spreading scabs, and dangerous tetters, called in Greeke,, and leprous or naughty scurfe.
- The seed of Darnell ginen in white or Rhenish wine, provoketh the flowers or menses.
- A fume made thereofwith parched barly meale, myrrh, saffron, and frankinsence, made in form of a pultesse, and applied upon the belly, helps conception, and causeth easie deliverance of childbearing.
- Red Darnell (asDioscorides writeth) being drunke in sowre or harsh red Wine, stoppeth the laske, and the overmuch flowing of the flowers or menses, and is a remedie for those that pisse in bed.
Darnell hurteth the eyes, and maketh them dim, if it happen in corne either for bread or drinke: which thing Ovid lib.1. Fastorum hath mentioned.
Et careant lolijs oculos vitiantibus agri.
And hereupon it seemeth that the old proverbe came, That such as are dimme sighted should be said, to eate of Darnell.
1.6. CHAP. 52. Of Rice.
RIce is like unto Darnell in shew, as Theophrastus saith: it bringeth not forth an eare, like corn, but a certaine mane or plume, as Mill, or Miller, or rather like Panick. The leaves, as Pliny writeth, are fat and full of substance, like to the blades of leeks, but broader: but (if neither the soile nor climate did alter the same) the plants of Rice that did grow in my garden had leaves soft and grassie like barley. the floure did not shew it selfe with me, by reason of the injurie of our unseasonable yere 1596. But Theophrastus concludeth, that it hath a floure of a purple colour but, saith my Author, Rice hath leaves like unto Dogs grasse or Barley, a small straw or stem full of joynts like corne: at the top whereof groweth a bush or tuft farre unlike to barley or Darnel, garnished with round knobs like small goose-berries, wherein the seed or graine is contained: every such round knob hath one small rough aile, taile, or beard like unto Barly hanging thereat. Aristobulus, as Strabo reporteth, sheweth, That Rice growes in water in Bactria, and neere Babylon, and is two yards high, and hath many eares, and bringeth forth plenty of seed. It is reaped at the setting of the seven starres, and purged as Spelt and Otemeale, or hulled as French Barley.
It groweth in the territories of the Bactrians, in Babylon, in Susium, and in the lower part of Syria. It groweth in those dayes not onely in those countries before named, but also in the fortunate Islands, and in Spaine, from whence it is brought unto us, purged and prepared as we see, after the manner of French Barly. It prospereth best in fenny and waterish places. [Page 80]
It is sowen in the Spring in India, as Eratosthenes witnesseth, when it is moistned with Sommer showers
The Grecians call it or as the Latines keepe the Greeke worde Oryza: in French it is called Riz: in the Germaine toong, and Rys: in English Rise.
The Temperature and Vertues.
Galen saith, That all men use to stay the belly with this graine, being boiled after the same manner that Chondrus is. In England we use to make with milke and Rice a certaine food or pottage, which doth both meanly binde the belly, and also nourish. Many other good kindes of food is made with this graine, as those that are skilfull in cookerie can tell.
1.7. CHAP. 53. Of Millet.
MIlium riseth up with many hairy stalkes knotted or jointed like wheat. The leaves are long, and like the leaves of the Common Reed. It bringeth forth on the top of the stalke a spoky bush or mane, called in Greeke [...], like the plume or feather of the Pole reed, hanging downewards, of colour for the most part yellow or white; in which groweth the seed, small, hard, and glistering, covered with a few thinne huskes, out of which it easily falleth. The roots be many, and grow deep in the ground.
2 Milium nigrum is like unto the former, saving that the eare or plume of this plant is more loose and large, and the seed somewhat bigger, of a shining blacke colour.
It loveth light and loose mould, and prospereth best in a moist and rainy time. And after Columella, it groweth in greatest aboundance in Campania.
It is to be sowen in Aprill and May, and not before, for it joyeth in warme weather.
It is named of the Grecians :of some& of Hippocrates Paspale, as Hermolaus saith:in Spanish : in Italian : in high Dutch : in French Millet; in low Dutch : in English Mill and Millet.
It is cold in the first degree, as Galen writeth, and dry in the third, or in the later end of the second, and is of a thinne substance.
A The meale of Mill mixed with tarre is laid to the bitings of serpents, and all venomous beasts.
B There is a drinke made hereof bearing the name of Sirupus Ambrosij, or Ambrose his syrup, which procureth sweat, and quencheth thirst, used in the city of Milan in Tertian agues. The receipt whereof Henricus Rantszonius in his booke of the government of health setteth downe in this manner: Take (saith he) of unhusked Mill a sufficient quantitie, boile it till it be broken; then take five ounces of the hot decoction, and adde thereto two ounces of the best white wine, and so give it hot unto the patient, being well covered with clothes, and then he will sweat throughly. This is likewise commended by Johannes Heurneus, in his booke of Practise.
1.8. CHAP. 54. Of Turkie Corne.
OF Turkie cornes there be divers sorts, notwithstanding of one stocke or kindred, consisting of sundry coloured graines, wherein the difference is easie to be discerned, and for the better explanation of the same, I have set forth to your view certaine eares of different colours, in their full and perfect ripenesse, and such as they shew themselves to be when their skinne or filme doth open it selfe in the time of gathering.
1 COrne of Asia beareth a long great stem or stalke, covered with great leaves like the great Cane reed, but much broader, and of a darke brownish colour towards the bottome: at the top of the stalkes grow idle or barren tufts like the common Reed, somtimes of one colour, and sometimes of another. Those eares which are fruitfull do grow upon the sides of the stalkes, among the leaves, which are thicke and great, so covered with skins or filmes, that a man cannot see them untill ripenesse have discovered them. The graine is of sundrie colours, sometimes red, and sometimes white, and yellow, as my selfe have seene in myne owne garden, where it hath come to ripenesse.
2 The stalke of Turky Wheat is like that of the Reed, full of spongie pith, set with many joynts, five or six foot high, bigge beneath, and now and then of a purple colour, and by little and little small above: the leaves are broad, long, setwith vaines like those of the Reed. The eares on the top of the stalke be a spanne long, like unto the feather top of the common Reed, divided into many plumes hanging downward, empty and barren without seed, yet blooming as Rie doth. The floure is either white, yellow, or purple, that is to say, even as the fruit will be. The fruit is contained in very bigge eares, which grow out of the joints of the stalke, three or foure from one stalke, orderly placed one above another, covered with cotes or filmes like huskes and leaves, as if it were a certaine sheath; out of which do stand long and slender beards, soft and tender, like those laces that grow upon Savorie, but greater and longer, every one fastned upon his owne seed. The seeds are great, of the bignesse of common peason, cornered in that part whereby they are fastned to the eare, and in the outward part round: being of colour sometimes white, now and then yellow, purple, or red; of taste sweet-and pleasant, very closely joyned together in eight or tenne orders or ranks. This graine hath many roots, strong, and full of strings.
These kindes of graine were first brought into Spaine, and then into other provinces of Europe: not (as some suppose) out of Asia minor, which is the Turks Dominions; but out of America and the Islands adjoyning, as out of Florida and Virginia, or Norembega, where they use to sow or set it, and to make bread of it, where it groweth much higher than in other countries. It is planted in the gardens of these Northerne regions, where it commeth to ripenesse when the sommer falleth out to be faire and hot, as my selfe have seene by proofe in myne owne garden. [Page 83]
It is sowen in these countries in March and Aprill, and the fruit is ripe in September.
Turky wheat is called of someFrumentum Turcicum,andMilium Indicum. Strabo, Eratostenes,Oneficritus,Plinie and others, have contented about the name heereof, which I minde not to reharse, considering how vaine and frivolous it is: but leaving it untill such time as some one Oedipus or other shall bewraie any other name therof that hath been described,or known of the old writers.In English it is called Turky corne and Turky wheate:the inhabitants of America and the Islandes adioning, as also the east and west Indies, do call it Maizium andMaizum and Mais.
The Temperature and Vertues.
Turky wheat doth nourish far lesse than either wheat, rie, barley, or otes. The bread which is made thereof is meanly white, without bran: it is hard and dry as Bisket is, and hath in it no clamminesse at all; for which cause it is of hard digestion, and yeeldeth to the body little or no nourishment; it slowly descendeth, and bindeth the belly, as that doth which is made of Mill or Panick. We have as yet no certaine proofe or experience concerning the vertues of this kinde of Corne; although the barbarous Indians, which know no better, are constrained to make a vertue of necessitie, and thinke it a good food: whereas we may easily judge, that it nourisheth but little, and is of hard and evill digestion, a more convenient food for swine than for men.
1.9. CHAP. 55. Of Turkie Millet.
TUrky Millet is a stranger in England. It hath many high stalkes, thicke, and jointed commonly with some nine joynts, beset with many long and broad leaves like Turky Wheat: at the top whereof groweth a great and large tuft or eare like the great Reed. The seed is round and sharpe pointed, of the bignesse of a Lentill, sometimes red, and now and then of a fuller blacke colour. It is fastned with a multitude of strong slender roots like unto threds: the whole plant hath the forme of a Reed: the stalkes and eares when the seed is ripe are red.
It joyeth in a fat and moist ground: it groweth in Italy, Spaine, and other hot regions.
This is one of the Sommer graines, and is ripe in Autumne.
It is called of the Insubers, Melegua, and Melega: in Latine Melica: in Hetruria Saggina:in other places of Italy Sorgho:in Portingale Milium faburrum: in English Turkie Mill or Turkie Hirsse.
The Temperature and Vertues.
The seed of Turky Mill is like unto Panicke in taste and temperature. The country People sometimes make bread hereof, but it is brittle, and of little nourishment, and for the most part it serveth to fatten hens and pigeons with.
1.10. CHAP. 56. Of Panicke.
THere be sundry sorts of Panicke, although of the Antients there have beene set downe but two, that is to say, the wilde or field Panick, and the garden or manured Panicke.:the which kinds have degenerate into other sorts differing in stature,as also in colour, according to the solie,climate,or countrey,as shall be declared.
1T He Panick of India groweth up like Millet, whose straw is knotty, or full of joynts; the ears be round, and hanging downward, in which is contained a white or yellowish seed, like Canarie seed, or Alpisti.
2 Blew Panick hath a reddish stalke like to Sugar cane, as tall as a man, thicker than a finger, full of a fungous pith, of a pale colour: the stalkes be upright and knotty; these that grow neere the root are of a purple colour: on the top of the stalk commeth forth a spike or eare like the water Cats -taile, but of a blew or purple colour. The Seed is like to naked Otes: The Roots are very small, in respect of the other parts of the plant.
3 Germane Panicke hath many hairy roots growing thicke together like unto wheat, as is all the rest of the plant, as well leaves or blades, as straw or stalke. The eare groweth at the top single, not unlike to Indian Panicke, but much lesser. The graines are contained in chaffie scales, red declining to tawny.
4 The wilde Panicke groweth up with long reeden stalkes, full of joynts, set with long leaves like those of Sorghum, or Indian Panicke: the tuft or feather-like top is like unto the common reed, or the eare of the grasse called Ischaemon, or Manna grasse. The root is small and threddy.
The place and time.
The kindes of Panick are sowen in the Spring, and are ripe in the beginning of August. They prosper best in hot and dry Regions, and wither for the most part with much watering, as doth MilL and Turky wheat: they quickly come to ripenesse, and may be kept good a long time.
Panick is called in Greeke;Diocles the phisition nameth it Mel Frugum: the Spaniards Panizo: the Latines Panicum of Pannicula: in English, Indian Otemeale.
Panicks nourish little, and are driers, as Galen saith.
A.Panicke stoppeth the laske, as Millet doth, being boyled (as Pliny reporteth) in Goats milke, and drunke twice in a day.
B.Bread made of Panick nourisheth little, and is cold and dry, very brittle, having in it neither clamminesse nor fatnesse; and therefore it drieth a moist belly.
1.11. CHAP. 57. Of Canary seed, or Pety Panick.
1 CAnarie seed, or Canarie grasse after some, hath many small hairy roots, from which arise small strawie stalkes joynted like corne, whereupon do grow leaves like those of Barley, which the whole plant doth very well resemble. The small chassie eare groweth at the top of the stalke, wherein is contained small seeds like those of Panick, of a yellowish colour, and shining.
2 Shakers, or Quaking Grasse groweth to the height of halfe a foot, and sometimes higher, when it groweth in fertile medowes. The stalke is very small and benty, set with many grassie leaves like the common medow grasse, bearing at the top a bush or tuft of flat scaly pouches, like those of Shepheards purse, but thicker, of a browne colour, set upon the most small and weake hairy foot stalkes that may be found, whereupon those small pouches do hang: by meanes of which small hairy strings, the knaps which are the floures do continually tremble and shake, in such sort that it is not possible with the most stedfast hand to hold it from shaking, whereof it tooke his name Phalaris of that cruell trembling tyrant of the same name.
1 Canarie seed groweth naturally in Spaine, and also in the Fortunate or Canary Islands, and doth grow in England or any other of these cold Regions, if it be sowen therein
Quaking Phalaris groweth in fertill pastures and in drie medowes.
1 3 These Canarie seeds are sowen in May, and are ripe in August.
Canarie seede,or Canarie corne is called of the Grecians:the Latines retaining the same
name Phalaris:in the Ilands of Canarie Alpisti:in English Canarie feed, Canarie corne, and Canarie gasse.
Phalaris pratensis is called in Cheshire about Namptwich, Quakers and Shakers, taking his namePhalaris of the tyrant Phalaris as aforesaid.
The Nature and Vertues.
I finde not any thing set downe as touching the temperature of Phalaris, notwithstanding it is thought to be of the nature of Millet.
The juyce and seed, (as Galen saith), are thought to be profitably drunke against the paines of the bladder. Apothecaries, for want of Millet, doe use the same with good successe in fomentations; for in dry fomentations ;it serveth in stead thereof, and is his succedaneum, or quid pro quo. We use it in England also to feed the Canary Birds.
1.12. CHAP. 58. Of Fox-Taile.
FOx-taile hath many grassie leaves or blades, rough and hairy, like unto those of Barley, but lesse and shorter. The stalke is likewise soft and hairy; whereupon doth grow a small spike or eare, soft, and very downy, bristled with very small haires in shape, like unto a Fox-taile, whereof it tooke his name, which dieth at the approch of Winter, and recovereth it selfe the next yeare by falling of his seed.
1 This kinde of Fox-taile Grasse groweth in my garden,but not wilde in England, and is maintained in gardens,for it is a prettie toye for wantons.
It springeth up in May, of the seed that was scattered the yere before, and beareth his taile with his seed in June.
There hath not beene more said of the ancients or late writers, as touching the name, than is set downe,Alopecuros: in English Foxetaile.
The nature and Vertues.
I finde not any thing extant worthy the memorie, either of his nature or vertues.
1.13. CHAP. 59. Of Jobs Teares.
JObs Teares hath many knotty stalks, proceeding from a tuft of threddy roots, two foot high, set with great broad leaves like unto those of reed; amongst which leaves come forth many small branches like straw of corne: on the end whereof doth grow a gray shining seed or grain hard to breake, and like in shape to the seeds of Gromel, but greater, and of the same colour, whereof I hold it a kinde: every of which grains are bored through the middest like a bead, and out of the hole commeth a small idle or barren chaffie eare like unto that of Darnell.
It is brought from Italy and the countries adjoyning, into these countries, where it doth grow very well, but seldome commeth to ripenesse; yet my selfe had ripe seed thereof in my garden, the Sommer being very hot.
It is sowen early in the Spring, or else the winter will overtake it before it come to ripenesse.
Divers have thought it to be Lithospermi species, or a kind of Gromell, which the seede doth very notably resemble, and doth not much differ from Dioscorides his Gromell, and therefore it might verie aptly be called in LatineArundo Lithospermos, that is in English, Gromell seede, as Gesnerus saith: it is generally called Lachrima Job, and Lachrima Jobi:of some it is called Diosprios:in English it is called Jobs Teares or Jobs drops,for that every graine resembleth the Drop or Teare that falleth from the eie.
The nature and vertues.
There is no mention made of this herbe for the use of Physicke: onely in France and those places (where it is plentifully growing) they do make beads, bracelets, and chaines thereof, as we do with Pomander and such like.
1.14. CHAP. 60. Of Buck-wheat.
B Uck-wheat may very well be placed among the kinds of graine or corne, for that oftentimes in time of necessitie bread is made thereof, mixed among other graine. It hath round fat stalkes somewhat crested, smooth and reddish, which is divided in many armes or branches, whereupon do grow smooth and soft leaves in shape like those of Juie or one of the Bindeweeds, not much unlike Basil, whereof Tabernamontanus called it Ocymum Cereale: The floures be small, white, and clustred together in one or moe tufts or umbels, slightly dasht over here & there with a flourish of light Carnation colour. The seeds are of a darke blackish colour, triangle, or three square like the seed of blacke Binde-weed, The root is small and threddy.
It prospereth very wel in any ground, be it never so dry or barren, where it is commonly sowen to serve as it were instead of a dunging. It quickly commeth up, and is very soone ripe:[Page 83] it is verie common in and about the Namptwich in Cheshire, where they sow it as well for food for their cattell, pullen, and such like, as to the use aforesaid. It groweth likewise in Lancashire, and in some parts of our South country, about London in Middlesex, as also in Kent and Essex.
This base kinde of graine is sowen in Aprill and the beginning of May, and is ripe in the beginning of August.
Buckwheat is called of the high Almaines:of the base Almaines,that is to say,Hirci Triticum, or Goates wheate. Of some Fagi Triticum, Beech wheate. In Greeke :in Latine Fago-Triticum: taken from the fashion of the seede or fruit of the Beech tree. It is called also Fegopyrum and Tragopyron: in English French wheate,Bullimong,and Bucke wheate: in FrenchDragee aux cheueaux.
Buck-wheat nourisheth lesse than Wheat, Rie , Barley, or Otes; yet more than either Mill or Panicke.
Bread made of the meale of Buck-wheat is of easie digestion, and speedily passeth through the bel-Aly little nourishment.
1.15. CHAP. 61. Of Cow Wheat.
1 MElampyrum growes upright, with a straight stalke, having other small stalkes comming from the same, of a foot long. The leaves are long and narrow, and of a darke colour. On the top of the branches grow bushy or spikie eares full of floures and small leaves mixed together, and much jagged, the whole eare resembling a Foxe-taile. This [Page 91] eare beginneth to floure below, and so upward by little and little unto the top: the small leaves before the opening of the floures, and likewise the buds of the floures, are white of colour. Then come up broad husks, wherein are enclosed two seeds somewhat like wheat, but smaller and browner. The root is of a woody substance.
Of this kinde there is another called Melampyrum luteum, which groweth neere unto the ground, with leaves not much unlike Harts horne, among which riseth up a small straw with an eare at the top like Alopecuros, the common Fox-taile, but of a yellow colour.
1 The first groweth among corne, and in pasture grounds that be fruitfull: it groweth plentifully in the pastures about London. The second is a stranger in England.
They floure in June and July.
Melampyrum is called of some Triticum vaccinium: in English Cow wheate, and Horse flower:in Greeke . the second is called Melampyrum luteum: in English yellow Cow wheate.
The seed of Cow Wheat raiseth up fumes, and is hot and dry of nature, which being taken in meats and drinks in the manner of Darnell, troubleth the braine, causing drunkennesse and headache.
1.16. CHAP. 62. Of Wilde Cow-Wheat.
1T He first kind of wilde Cow-Wheat Clusius in his Pannonick history callsParietaria sylvestris, or wilde Pellitorie: which name, according to his owne words, if it do not fitly answer the Plant, hee knoweth not what to cal it, for that the Latines have not given any name thereunto: yet because some have so called it, he retaineth the same name. Notwithstanding he referreth it unto the kindes of Melampyrum, or Cow-wheat, or unto Crataeogonon, the wilde Cow-wheat, which it doth very well answer in divers points. It hath an hairy foure square stalke, very tender, weake, and easie to breake, not able to stand upright without the helpe of his neighbours that dwell about him, a foot high or more; whereupon do grow long thin leaves, sharp pointed, and oftentimes lightly snipt about the edges, of a darke purplish colour, sometimes greenish, set by couples one opposite against the other; among the which come forth two floures at one joynt, long and hollow, somewhat gaping like the floures of a dead nettle, at the first of a pale yellow, and after of a bright golden colour; which do floure by degrees, first a few, and then more, by meanes whereof it is long in flouring. Which being past, there succeed small cups or seed vessels, wherein is contained browne seed not unlike to wheat. The whole point is hairie, not differing from the plant Stichwoort.
2 Red leafed wilde Cow-wheat is like unto the former, saving that the leaves be narrower; and the tuft of leaves more jagged. The stalkes and leaves are of a reddish horse-flesh colour. The floures in forme are like the other, but in colour differing; for that the hollow part of the floure with the heele or spurre is of a purple colour, the rest of the floure yellow. The seed and vessels are like the precedent.
1.17. Eyebright Cow-wheat.
3 This kinde of wilde Cow-wheat Tabernamontanus hath set forth under the title of Odontites: others have taken it to be a kinde of Euphrasia or Eyebright, because it doth in some sort resemble it, especially in his floures. The stalks of this plant are small, woody, rough, and square. The leaves are indented about the edges, sharpe pointed, and in most points resembling the former Cow-wheat; so that of necessitie it must be of the same kinde, and not a kinde of Eyebright, as hath beene set downe by some.
These wilde kindes of Cow-wheat doe grow commonly in fertile pastures, and bushy Copses, or low woods, and among bushes upon barren heaths and such like places.
The two first doe grow upon Hampsted heath neere London, among the Juniper bushes and bilberry bushes in all the parts of the said heath, and in every part of England where I have travelled.
They floure from the beginning of May, to the end of August.
- The first is called of L'Obelius Crateogonon: of Taber Monatnus Milum Sylvaticum,or Wood Miller, and Alsine sylvaticum, or Wood Chickweed.
- The second hath the same titles:in English Wilde Cow wheate.
- The last is called by Taber Montanus, Odontites: of Dodoneus, Euphrasa altera and Euphrosine:wherein I thinke he mistooke it. Hippocrates called the wilde cow wheate Polycarpum andPolycritum.
1.18. CHAP. 65. Of Onion Asphodill.
THe bulbed Asphodill hath a round bulbus or Onion root, with some fibres hanging thereat; from the which come up many grassie leaves, very well resembling the Leeke; among the which leaves there riseth up a naked or smooth stem, garnished toward the top with many star like floures, of a whitish greene on the inside, and wholly greene without, consisting of six little leaves sharpe pointed, with certaine chives or threads in the middle. After the floure is past there succeedeth a small knop or head three square, wherein lieth the seed.
It groweth in the gardens of Herbarists in London, and not elsewhere that I know of, for it is not very common.
It floureth in June and July, and somewhat after.
The stalke and flowers being like to those of the Asphodill before mentioned, doe showe it to beAsphodeli species, or a kinde of Asphodill: for which cause also it seemeth to be that Asphodill, of whichGalen hath made mention in his seconde booke of the Faculties of nourishments in these words. the roote of Asphodill is in a manner like to the roote of Squill or sea onion,as well
in shape as in bitternesse.Notwithstanding saith Galen,my selfe have known certaine countrie men,who in time of famine could not with many boilings and steepings make it fit to be eaten. it is called of Dodaneus Asphodelus faemina, and Asphodelus bulbosus: of Galen Hyacintho Asphodelus, and Asphodelus Hyacinthinus, and that rightly:for that the roote is like the Hyacinth and the flowers like Asphodelus: and therefore as it doth participate of both kindes, so likewise doth the name:in English, we may call it, Bulbed Asphodill.
The round rooted Asphodil, according to Galen, hath the same temperature and vertue that Aron, Arisarum, and Dracontium have, namely an abstersive and cleansing quality.
- The yong sprouts or springs thereof is a singular medicine against the yellow Jaundise, for that the root is of power to make thin and open.
- The rootes heerof,asGalen writeth in his booke of the Faculties of simple medicines, are like in vertues to wake Robin or Aron, and Plinies cowkowpintle,and likewise to Dragons as aforesaid.
- Galen saith that the ashes of this Bulbe mixed with oile or hens grease cureth the falling of the haire in spots,asAlopeciadoth.
1.19. CHAP. 492. Of Peason.
THere be divers sorts of Peason, differing very notably in many respects; some of the garden, and others of the field, and yet both counted tame: some with tough skinnes or membranes in the cods, and others have none at all, whose cods are to be eaten with the Pease when they be young as those of the young Kidney Beane: others carrying their fruit in the tops of the branches, are esteemed and taken for Scottish Peason, which is not very common.,There be divers sorts growing wild, as shall be declared.
1 THe great Pease hath long stalks, hollow, brickle, of a whitish green colour, branched, and spread upon the ground, unlesse they be held up with proppes set neere unto them: the leafe thereof is wide and long, made up of many little leaves which be smooth, white, growing upon one little stalke or stem, and set one right against another: it hath also in the upper part long clasping tendrels, wherewith it foldeth it selfe upon props and staies standing next unto it: the floure is white and hath about the middle of it a purple spot: the cods be long, round [...]: in which are contained seeds greater than Ochri, or little Peason; which being drie are cornered, and that unequall, of colour sometimes white and sometimes gray: the roots are small.
2 The field Pease is so very well knowne to all, that it were a needlesse labour to spend time about the description.
3 Tufted Pease are like unto those of the field, or of the garden in each respect; the difference consisteth onely in that, that this plant carrieth his floures and fruit in the tops of the branches in a round [...] or umbel, contrary to all other of his kinde, which bring forth their fruit in the midst, and alongst the stalks: the root is thicke and fibrous.
4 Pease without skins, in the cods differ not from the precedent, saving that the cods hereof want that tough skinny membrane in the same, which the hogs cannot eat by reason of the toughnesse; whereas the other may be eaten cods and all the rest, even as Kidney beanes are: which being so dressed are exceeding delicate meat.
5 The wilde Pease differeth not from the common field Pease in stalke and leaves, saving that this wilde kinde is somewhat lesser: the flowers are of a yellow colour, and the fruit is much lesser.
6 The Pease whose root never dies, differeth not from the wilde Pease, onely his continuing without sowing, being once sowne or planted, setteth forth the difference.
Pease are set and sown in gardens, as also in the [...]in all [...]of England. The tufted Pease are in reasonable plenty in the West part of Kent, about Sennocke or Sevenock; in other places not so common.
The wilde Pease do grow in pastures and [...] fields in divers places, specially about the field belonging unto Bishops Hatfield in Hartfordshire.
They be sowne in the Spring time, like as be also other pulses, which are ripe in Summer: they prosper best in warme weather, and easily take harme by cold, especially when they floure.
The great Pease is called in Latine or Pisum maius:in English Romane Pease,or the greater Pease, also garden Pease;of some Branch Pease,french pease, and Rounfivals.Theophrastus and other old writers do call it in greeke : in Latine also Pisum: in lowe Dutch:in French.the little Pease is called of the Apothecaries everywhere Pisum,and Pisum :it is called in English little Pease, or the common Pease.
The Temperature and Vertues.
The Pease, as Hippocrates saith, is lesse windie than Beans, but it passeth sooner through the belly. Galen writeth, that Peason are in their whole substance like unto Beanes, and be eaten after the same manner that Beans are, notwithstanding they differ from them in these two things, both because they are not so windie as be the beanes, and also for that they have not a clensing faculty, and therefore they do more slowly descend through the belly. They have no effectuall qualitie manifest, and are in a meane between those things which are of good and bad juice, that nourish much and little, that be windie and without winde, as Galen in his booke of the Faculties of Nourishments hath written of these and of Beans.
1.20. CHAP. 493. Of the tame or Garden Ciche.
GArden Ciche bringeth forth round stalks, branched and somewhat hairy, leaning on the one side: the leaves are made of many little ones growing upon one stem or rib, and set one right against another: of which every one is small, broad, and nicked on the edges, lesser than the leaves of wilde Germander: the floures be smal, of colour either white, or of a reddish purple: after which come up little short cods, puffed up as it were with winde like little bladders, in which doe lie two or at the most three seeds cornered, small towards the end, with one sharp corner, not much unlike to a Rams head, of colour either white, or of a reddish blacke purple; in which is plainly seen the place where they begin first to sprout. The root is slender, white and long: For as Theophrastus saith, the Ciche taketh deepest root of all the Pulses.
It is sowen in Italy, Spaine and France, every where in the fields. It is sowen in our London gardens,but not common.
It is called in Greek :in Latin Cicer arietinum, or Rams Ciches, and of the blackish parole colour,Cicer nigrum,or blacke Ciche: and the other is named Candrdum vel album Cicer,or white ciche: in english common ciche or ciches,red ciche,of some sheepes ciche pease,or sheepes Ciche Peason.
The Temperature and Vertues.
- The Ciche, as Galen writeth in his booke of the Faculties of nourishments, is no lesse windie than the true Bean, but it yeeldeth a stronger nourishment than that doth: it provoketh lust, and it is thought to ingender seed.
- [Page 1048]Some give the same to stalion borses. Moreover, Ciches do scoure more than do the true Beanes: insomuch as certaine of them do manifestly diminish or waste away the stones in the Kidneyes: those be the blacke and little Ciches called Arutina, or Rams Ciches, but it is better to drinke the broth of them sodden in water.
- Both the Rams Ciches, as Dioscorides saith, the white and the blacke provoke urine , if the decoction therof be made with Rosemary and given unto those that have either the Dropsie or yellow jaundice; but they are hurtfull unto the bladder and Kidneies that have ulcers in them.
1.21. CHAP. 494. Of wilde Ciches.
THe wilde Ciche is like to the tame (saith Dioscorides [...]) but it differeth in seed: the later writers have set downe two kindes hereof, as shall be declared.
1 THe first wilde Cich bringeth forth a great number of stalks branched, lying flat on the ground: about which be the leaves, consisting of many upon one rib as do those of the garden Ciche, but not nicked in the edges, more like to the leaves of [...]: the floures come forth fastned on small stems, which grow close to the stalks, of a pale yellow colour, and like unto eares: in their places come up little cods, in forme and bignesse of the fruit of garden Ciches, black and something hairie, in which lieth the seed, that is smal, hard, flat, and glittering, in taste like that of Kidney Beane: the root groweth deepe, fastened with many strings.
2 There is another kinde of wilde Cich that hath also a great number of stalks lying upon the ground, about which stand soft leaves, something hairy and white, consisting of three broad leaves standing upon a middle rib, the least of which stand neerest to the stem, and the greatest at the very too: the floures come forth at the bottome of the leaves many together, of colour yellow ; after which grow small long huskes, soft and hairy, in every one whereof is a little cod, in which lie two seeds like little Cichlings.
These plants are sowne in the parts beyond the seas for to feed their cattell with in winter, as we do tares, vetches, and such other base pulse.
The time answereth the Vetch or tare.
The wild Cich hath no other name in Latine but Cicer sylvestre: the later writers have not found any name at all.
The Temperature and Vertues.
Their temperature and vertues are referred to the garden Cich, as Theophrastus [...] ; and Galen saith that the wilde Cich is in all things like unto that of the garden, but in Physicks use more effectuall, by reason it is more hotter and drier, and also more biting and bitter.
1.22. CHAP. 495. Of Lentils.
1 THe first Lentil growes up with slender stalks, and leaves which be somwhat hard, growing aslope from both sides of the rib or middle stalke, narrow and many in number like those of Tares, but narrower and lesser: the floures be small, tending somewhat towards a [Page 1050]purple: the cods are little and broad: the seeds in these are in number three or foure, little, round, plaine, and flat: the roots are small and threddy.
2 The second kinde of Lentill hath small tender and pliant branches a cubit high, wheron do grow leaves divided or consisting of sundry other small leaves, like the wilde Vetch, ending at the middle rib with some clasping tendrels, wherewith it taketh [...]of such things as are neere [...] it: among these come sorth little brownish floures mixed with white, which turne into small flat cods,containing little browne slat seed, and sometimes white.
These Pulses do grow in my garden; and it is reported unto me by those of good credit, that about Watford in Middlesex and other places of England the husbandmen do sow them for their cattell, even as others do Tares.
They both floure and wax ripe in July and August.
They are called in Greeke,or :in Latine Lens and Lenticula:in high Dutch :in French Lentille:in Italian Lentichta: in Spanish Lenteia:in English Lentils.
The Temperature and Vertues.
- Lentils, asGalen saith, are in a meane betweene hot and cold, yet are they dry in the second degree: their skin is astringent or binding, and the meate or substance within is of a thicke and earthy juyce, having a qualitie that is a little austere or something harsh, much more the skin thereof; but the juyce of them is quite contrarie to the binding qualitie; wherefore if a man shal boile them in faire water, and afterwards season the water with salt and pickle, aut cum ipsis oleo condiens, and then take it, the same drinke doth loose the belly.
- The first decoction of Lentils doth loose the belly; but if they be boyled againe, and the first decoction cast away, then doe they binde, and are good against the bloudy flixe or dangerous laskes.
- They do their operation more effectually in stopping or binding, if all or any of these following be bovled therewith, that is to say, red Beets, Myrtles, pils of Pomegranats, dried Roses, Medlars, Service berries, unripe Peares, Quinces, Paintaine leaves, Galls, or the berries of Sumach.
- The meale of Lentils mixed with honey doth mundifie and clense corrupt ulcers and rotten fores ,filling them with flesh againe; and is most singular to be put into the common digestives used among our London Surgeons for greene wounds.
- The Lentil having the skin or coat taken off, as it loseth that strong binding qualitie, and those accidents that depend on the same, so doth it more nourish than if it had the skin on.
- It ingendreth thicke and naughty juyce, and slowly passeth thorow the belly, yet doth it not stay the loosnesse as that doth which hath his coat on; and therefore they that use to eat too much [Page 1225] thereof do necessarily become Lepers, and are much subject to cankers, for thicke and dry nourishments are apt to breed melancholy.
- Therefore the Lentill is good food for them that through waterish humours be apt to fall into the dropsie, and it is a most dangerous food for dry and withered bodies; for which cause it bringeth dimnesse of sight, though the sight be perfect, through his excessive drinesse, whereby the spirits of the sight be wasted; but it is good for them that are of a quite contrary constitution.
- It is good for those that want their termes; for it breedeth thicke bloud, and such as slowly [ H] passeth through the veines.
- But it is singular good to stay the menses, as Galen in his booke of the faculties of nourishments [...]
- It causeth [...] dreames (as Dioscorides doth moreover write) it hurteth the head, sinewes, and lungs.
- It is good to swallow downe thirty graines of Lentils shelled or taken from their husks, against the [...] of the stomacke.
- Being boyled with parched barly meale and laid to, it asswageth the paine and ach of the gout.
- With hony it filleth up hollow sores, it breaketh aschares, clenseth ulcers: being boyled in wine it wasteth away wens and hard swellings of the throat.
- With a quince and Melilot, and oyle of Roses it helpeth the inflammation of the eyes and fundament; but in greater inflammations of the fundament, and great deep ulcers it is boyled with the rinde of a pomegranat, dry Rose leaves, and hony.
- [Page 1051]And after the same maner against eating sores that are mortified, if sea water be added; it is also a remedy against pushes, the shingles, and the hot inflammation called S. Anthonies fire, and for kibes, in such manner as we have written: being boyled in sea water and applied, it helps womens brests in which the milke is cluttered, and cannot suffer too great aboundance of milke.
1.23. CHAP. 496. Of Cich or true Orobus.
THis Pulse, which of most Herbarists is taken for the true Orobus, and called of some, bitter Fitch, is one of the Pulses whose tender branches traile upon the ground, as [...]saith, and whose long tender branches spred far abroad, whereon doe grow leaves like those of the field Vetch: among which grow white floures: after which come long cods, that appeare bunched on the outside against the place where the seeds do lie, which are small, round, russet of colour, and of a bitter taste: the root is small and single.
It prospereth best in a leane soile , according to Columella: it groweth in woods and copses in sundry places of Spaine and Italy, but here only in gardens.
This is sowne early and late, but if it be sowne in the spring it easily commeth up, and is pleasant, and unpleasant if it be sowne in the fall of the leafe [...]
This is called in Greeke:the shops of Germanie have kept the nameOrobus, and not knowing the thing,they have mistaken it in steed ofVicia,or the common Vetch:in English it is called bitter Vetch,or bitter Fitch,and Orobus,after the Latine;of someErs after the French name.
The Temperature and Vertues.
- Men,asGalen in his first booke of the Faculties of nourishments saith, That men do altogether abstaine from the bitter Vetch, for it hath a very unpleasant taste, and naughty juyce; but Kine in Asia and in most other countries do eate thereof, being made sweet by steeping in water; notwithstanding men being compelled through necessitie of great famine, as Hippocrates also hath written, do oftentimes feed thereof; and we also dressing them after the manner of Lupines, use the bitter Vetches with hony, as a medicine that purgeth thicke and grosse humors out of the chest and lungs.
- Moreover, among the bitter Vetches the white are not so medicinable, but those which are neere to a yellow, or to the colour of Okar; and those that have beene twice boyled, or sundrie times soked in water, lose their bitter and unpleasant taste, and withall their clensing and cutting qualitie, so that there is onely left in them an earthy substance, which serves for nourishment, that dryeth without any manifest bitternesse.
- And in his booke of the Faculties of simple medicines he saith, That bitter Vetch is dry in the later end of the second degree, and hot in the first: moreover, by how much it is bitter, by so much it clenseth, cutteth, and removeth stoppings: but if it be overmuch used it bringeth forth bloud by urine.
- [Page 1052]Dioscorides writeth, that bitter Vetch causeth head-ache and heavy dulnesse, that it troubles the belly, and driveth forth bloud by urine; notwithstanding being boyled it serveth to fatten Kine.
- There is made of the seed a meale fit to be used in medicine, after this maner: the full and white graines are chosen out, and being mixed together they are steeped in water, and suffered to lie till they be plumpe, and afterwards are parched till the skinne be broken; then are they ground, and searsed or shaken thorow a meale sieve, and the meale reserved.
- This looseth the belly, provoketh urine, maketh one well coloured: being overmuch eaten or drunke it draweth bloud by the stoole, with gripings, and also by urine.
- With hony it clenseth ulcers, taketh away freckles, sun-burnes, blacke spots in the skinne, and maketh the whole body faire and cleane.
- It stayeth running ulcers or hard swellings, and gangrens or mortified sores; it sosteneth the hardnesse of womens breasts, it taketh away and breaketh eating ulcers, carbuncles, and sores of the head: being tempered with wine and applied it healeth the bitings of dogs, and also of venomous beasts.
- With vineger it is good against the strangurie, and mitigateth paine that commeth thereof.
- It is good for them that are not nourished after their meat, being parched and taken with honey in the quantitie of a nut.
- The decoction of the same helpeth the itch in the whole body, and taketh away kibes, if they be washed or bathed therewith.
- Cicer boyled in fountaine water with some [...]doth asswage the swelling of the yard and privie parts of man or woman, if they be washed or bathed in the decoction thereof; and the substance hereof may also be applied plaisterwise.
- It is also used for bathing and washing of ulcers and running sores, and is applied unto the [...] of the head with great profit.
1.24. CHAP. 497. Of the Vetch or Fetch.
1 THe Vetch hath slender and foure squared stalkes almost three foot long: the leaves be long, with clasping tendrels at the end made up of many little leaves growing upon one rib or middle stem; every one whereof is greater, broader, and thicker than that of the Lentil: the floures are like to the floures of the garden beane, but of a blacke purple colour: the cods be broad, small, and in every one are contained five or six graines, not round, but flat like those of the Lentil, of colour blacke, and of an unpleasant taste.
2 Strangle Tare, called in some countries Tine, and of others wilde Vetch, is a ramping herbe like unto the common Tare, ramping and clymbing among corne where it chanceth, that it plucketh it downe to the ground, and overgroweth the same in such sort, that it spoileth and killeth not only wheat, but all other graine whatsoever: the herbe is better known than desired, therefore these few lines shall suffice for the description.
The Tare is sowne in any ground or soile whatsoever.
It floureth in May, and perfecteth his seed toward September.
it is called in Latin Vicia,a Vinciendo,of binding or wrapping,as Varro noteth,bicause(saith he)it haith likewise clasping tendrels,such as the Vine hath,by which it crawleth upward upon the stalkes of the weedes that are next unto it;of some Cracca,and Arachus,and also Aphaca:it is called in high Dutch:in low Dutch :in French Vesce:in most shops it is falsely termedand Eruum,for Eruum doth much differ from Vicia:it is called in English Vetch or Fetch.The countrey men lay up this Vetch with the seedes and whole plant,that it may be a fodder for their cattle.
The Temperature and Vertues.
Notwithstanding I have knowne, saith Galen, some, who in time of famin have fed hereof, especially [ A] in the spring, it being but greene; yet is it hard of digestion, and bindeth the belly.
[Page 1229] Therefore seeing it is of this kinde of nature, it is manifest that the nourishment which comes thereof hath in it no good juyce at all, but ingendreth a thicke bloud, and apt to become melancholy.